Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
____ 1. The three-domain system recognizes fundamental differences between two groups of
d. multicellular organisms.
____ 2. Which two kingdoms did Linnaeus recognize?
a. bacteria and animals
b. plants and fungi
c. plants and animals
d. protists and animals
____ 3. Which of the following diseases is NOT caused by a bacterium?
a. tooth decay
d. Salmonella food poisoning
____ 4. The procedure of grouping organisms based on their evolutionary history is called
a. traditional classification.
b. binomial nomenclature.
c. derived characters.
d. evolutionary classification.
____ 5. Unlike photoautotrophs, chemoautotrophs obtain energy
a. directly from the sun.
b. directly from inorganic molecules.
c. indirectly from organic molecules.
d. indirectly from other organisms.
____ 6. Animals that are warm-blooded, have body hair, and produce milk for their young are grouped in the
____ 7. Unlike eubacteria, archaebacteria
a. have cell walls.
b. are prokaryotes.
c. have two cell membranes.
d. are thought to be the ancestors of eukaryotes.
____ 8. Based on their names, you know that the baboons Papio annubis and Papio cynocephalus do NOT belong
to the same
____ 9. Which cell shape in Figure 19-2 is a bacillus?
d. none of the above.
____ 10. Which of the following is a proper use of disinfectants?
a. as an antibiotic
b. to start conjugation
c. to sterilize a hospital
d. to preserve foods
____ 11. Several different classes make up a
____ 12. The second part of a scientific name is unique to each
a. order in its class.
b. family in its order.
c. genus in its family.
d. species in its genus.
____ 13. What does the presence of similar genes in very dissimilar organisms imply?
a. The genes were produced by different selection pressures.
b. The organisms share a common ancestor.
c. The organisms do not share a common ancestor.
d. The genes became identical through mutation.
____ 14. Which of the following are members of the kingdom Archaebacteria?
____ 15. Which of the following describes a role of bacteria in the environment?
a. carrying out photosynthesis
b. recycling nutrients
c. fixing nitrogen
d. all of the above
____ 16. Bacteria living in hot springs may be a good source of
b. heat-stable enzymes.
c. nitrogen-fixing bacteria.
d. Gram stains.
____ 17. Scientists have found that humans and yeasts
a. have similar genes for the assembly of certain proteins.
b. share all aspects of cellular structure.
c. have nothing in common.
d. cannot be evaluated for degree of relatedness.
____ 18. Which cell shape in Figure 19-2 is called a coccus?
d. none of the above
____ 19. Figure 19-2 shows how prokaryotes can be identified by
a. the composition of their cell walls.
b. their reaction to the Gram stain.
c. their cell shapes.
d. their methods for obtaining energy.
____ 20. Which of the kingdoms in the six-kingdom system of classification was once grouped with plants?
____ 21. In taxonomy, a group at any level of organization is referred to as a
____ 22. The domain that contains unicellular organisms that live in extreme environments is
____ 23. Bacteria that break down the nutrients in dead matter into simpler substances that are taken up by plant
roots are called
____ 24. Which of the following foods are made using bacteria?
d. all of the above
____ 25. Bacteria are sometimes called nature’s recyclers because they
a. undergo conjugation.
b. break down nutrients in dead matter.
c. can switch between respiration and fermentation.
d. carry out photosynthesis.
____ 26. Where are you likely to find a photoautotroph?
a. in your refrigerator
b. in the darkness of the ocean
c. in your digestive system
d. near the surfaces of lakes, streams, and oceans
____ 27. A genus is composed of a number of related
____ 28. Traditional classifications tended to take into account primarily
a. extinct organisms.
b. RNA similarities.
c. DNA similarities.
d. general similarities in appearance.
____ 29. A method called Gram staining is used to tell
a. what shape a prokaryote has.
b. how a prokaryote obtains energy.
c. what kind of cell wall a prokaryote has.
d. whether a prokaryote has flagella.
____ 30. What is true about dissimilar organisms such as a cow and a yeast?
a. They are not related at all.
b. Their degree of relatedness cannot be evaluated.
c. Their degree of relatedness can be determined from their genes.
d. They can interbreed and thus are the same species.
____ 31. An analysis of derived characters is used to generate a
a. family tree based on external appearance.
b. family tree based on DNA structure.
d. traditional classification system.
____ 32. What is thought to be true about the three domains of living things?
a. They evolved from a common ancestor fairly recently.
b. They evolved from a common ancestor a very long time ago.
c. They did not have a common ancestor.
d. Domains Bacteria and Archaea evolved after the main groups of eukaryotes.
____ 33. Many cases of food poisoning are caused by bacterial
c. resistance to antibiotics.
____ 34. What do scientists consider when they perform a cladistic analysis?
a. only the DNA of organisms
b. all traits of organisms
c. derived characters
d. only physical similarities
____ 35. Similar genes are evidence of
a. binomial nomenclature.
c. common ancestry.
d. different anatomy.
____ 36. In Linnaeus’s system of classification, how many taxonomic categories were there?
____ 37. What does a cladistic analysis show about organisms?
a. the relative importance of each derived character
b. the order in which derived characters evolved
c. the general fitness of the organisms analyzed
d. all traits of each organism analyzed
____ 38. What do all organisms have in common?
a. They use DNA and RNA to pass on information.
b. They are all prokaryotes.
c. They are all eukaryotes.
d. They are genetically identical.
____ 39. Bacteria that cause disease are called
____ 40. Scientists assign each kind of organism a universally accepted name in the system known as
a. traditional classification.
b. the three domains.
c. binomial nomenclature.
____ 41. Organisms in the kingdoms Eubacteria and Archaebacteria were previously grouped in a kingdom called
____ 42. Bacteria make nitrogen available to plants through a process called
b. nitrogen fixation
____ 43. The two domains composed of only unicellular organisms are
a. Eubacteria and Archaea.
b. Eukarya and Bacteria.
c. Archaea and Bacteria.
d. Archaea and Eukarya.
____ 44. Biologists use a classification system to group organisms in part because organisms
a. are going extinct.
b. are very numerous and diverse.
c. are too much alike.
d. share too many derived characters.
____ 45. Sometimes, organisms that are not closely related look similar because of
a. convergent evolution.
b. molecular clocks.
____ 46. In biology, an evolutionary innovation is also referred to as a
a. derived character.
b. taxonomic group.
c. molecular clock.
d. physical similarity.
____ 47. For many species, there are often regional differences in their
a. common names.
b. scientific names.
d. binomial nomenclature.
____ 48. Most prokaryotes are
____ 49. Which of the following are used to identify prokaryotes?
a. cell shape
b. the way prokaryotes move
c. the way prokaryotes obtain energy
d. all of the above
____ 50. The domain that corresponds to the kingdom Eubacteria is
____ 51. In the scientific version of a species name, which of the terms is capitalized?
a. the first term only
b. the second term only
c. both the first and second terms
d. neither the first nor the second term
____ 52. Food stored in a refrigerator will keep longer because the bacteria that spoil food
a. die at low temperatures.
b. grow more slowly at low temperatures.
c. require light to live.
d. grow more slowly in the dark.
____ 53. All organisms in the kingdoms Protista, Plantae, Fungi, and Animalia are
a. multicellular organisms.
b. photosynthetic organisms.
____ 54. The most general and largest category in Linnaeus’s system is
a. the phylum.
b. the kingdom.
c. the genus.
d. the class.
____ 55. What is the main idea behind the model of a molecular clock?
a. that neutral mutations accumulate at a steady rate
b. that certain traits are under the pressure of natural selection
c. that segments of DNA can be compared with segments of RNA
d. that phenotypes, not genotypes, are affected by natural selection
____ 56. Eubacteria and archaebacteria differ in
a. the presence of a nucleus.
b. the makeup of their cell walls.
d. the presence of a cell wall.
____ 57. Scientists have identified and named
a. all living species.
b. all living and extinct species.
c. all extinct species.
d. a fraction of all species.
58.How do you know that the groups Ursus maritimus and Ursus arctos are closely related?
59. According to the cladogram in Figure 18-1, what two characteristics do crabs and barnacles share that
limpets do not?
60. Which system of grouping in Figure 18-1, A or B, provides information about the evolution of the three
animals? What is the name of the diagram used to show that information?
61. If you know nothing else about an organism except its scientific name, can you immediately determine
what genus and family it is in? Explain.
62. What characteristic is used to place an organism in the domain Eukarya?
63. How can such different animals as fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals be grouped into a
64. How does analysis of DNA help scientists establish an evolutionary classification scheme?
65. What would happen to other organisms if bacteria did not recycle nutrients?
66. Why might a particular kind of organism have more than one common name?
67. How many terms make up the scientific name of a species? How is that name distinguished in print from
the common name of a species?
68. What is evolutionary classification? How does it differ from traditional biological classification?
69. Name the two kingdoms of bacteria. List one way that these two groups differ from each other.
70. Describe two roles that bacteria have in the environment.