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									Name: __________________________ Date: _____________


    1. Which of the following is an unconditioned response?
       A) playing jump rope
       B) running through a maze to get a food reward
       C) sweating in hot weather
       D) clapping after a thrilling concert performance


    2. In Pavlov's experiments, the dog's salivation triggered by the taste of food was a(n):
       A) conditioned response.
       B) unconditioned response.
       C) unconditioned stimulus.
       D) conditioned stimulus.


    3. Who highlighted the importance of observational learning?
       A) Watson
       B) Bandura
       C) Skinner
       D) Pavlov


    4. Every Saturday morning Arnold quickly washes the family's breakfast dishes so that his
       father will allow him to wash his car. In this instance, washing the car is a(n):
       A) positive reinforcer.
       B) unconditioned response.
       C) conditioned response.
       D) negative reinforcer.


    5. Last year, Dr. Moritano cleaned Natacha's skin with rubbing alcohol prior to
       administering each of a series of painful rabies vaccination shots. Which of the
       following processes accounts for the fact that Natacha currently becomes fearful every
       time she smells rubbing alcohol?
       A) observational learning
       B) classical conditioning
       C) the overjustification effect
       D) operant conditioning
       E) latent learning




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 6. Asking women for dates is most likely to be reinforced on a ________ schedule.
    A) fixed-interval
    B) fixed-ratio
    C) variable-interval
    D) variable-ratio


 7. An event that increases the frequency of the behavior that it follows is a(n):
    A) conditioned stimulus.
    B) respondent.
    C) unconditioned stimulus.
    D) reinforcer.
    E) operant.


 8. Five-year-old Trevor is emotionally disturbed and refuses to communicate with anyone.
    To get him to speak, his teacher initially gives him candy for any utterance, then only
    for a clearly spoken word, and finally only for a complete sentence. The teacher is using
    the method of:
    A) latent learning.
    B) modeling.
    C) delayed reinforcement.
    D) spontaneous recovery.
    E) shaping.


 9. The taste of food and the termination of painful electric shock are both ________
    reinforcers.
    A) positive
    B) negative
    C) primary
    D) conditioned


10. In a well-known experiment, preschool children pounded and kicked a large inflated
    Bobo doll that an adult had just beaten on. This experiment served to illustrate the
    importance of:
    A) negative reinforcement.
    B) operant conditioning.
    C) respondent behavior.
    D) observational learning.
    E) spontaneous recovery.




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11. Laurie's thumbsucking has become habitual because she begins to feel less anxious
    whenever she sucks her thumb. This best illustrates the process of:
    A) generalization.
    B) extinction.
    C) classical conditioning.
    D) latent learning.
    E) operant conditioning.


12. Pavlov attached miniature vibrators to various parts of a dog's body in order to
    demonstrate the process of:
    A) spontaneous recovery.
    B) continuous reinforcement.
    C) latent learning.
    D) generalization.
    E) habituation.


13. Two years ago, the de Castellane Manufacturing Company included its employees in a
    profitsharing plan in which workers receive semi-annual pay bonuses based on the
    company's profits. Since this plan was initiated, worker productivity at de Castellane has
    nearly doubled. This productivity increase is best explained in terms of:
    A) observational learning.
    B) latent learning.
    C) operant conditioning.
    D) classical conditioning.
    E) spontaneous recovery.


14. Positive reinforcers ________ the rate of operant responding and negative reinforcers
    ________ the rate of operant responding.
    A) decrease; increase
    B) increase; decrease
    C) increase; increase
    D) have no effect on; decrease
    E) increase; have no effect on


15. Mirror neurons provide a biological basis for:
    A) the overjustification effect.
    B) spontaneous recovery.
    C) observational learning.
    D) extrinsic motivation.




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16. We find it harder to frown when viewing a smile than when viewing a frown. This can
    most clearly be attributed to:
    A) the overjustification effect.
    B) spontaneous recovery.
    C) mirror neurons.
    D) extrinsic motivation.


17. For several years Ruth played softball for the sheer enjoyment of the game. Her loss of
    intrinsic interest in playing after being recruited by a professional team for $100 a game
    best illustrates:
    A) the overjustification effect.
    B) spontaneous recovery.
    C) intermittent reinforcement.
    D) latent learning.
    E) respondent behavior.


18. The study of respondent behavior is to ________ as the study of operant behavior is to
    ________.
    A) Pavlov; Skinner
    B) Bandura; Skinner
    C) Skinner; Bandura
    D) Bandura; Pavlov


19. The use of physical punishment may:
    A) lead to the suppression but not the forgetting of undesirable behavior.
    B) demonstrate that aggression is a way of coping with problems.
    C) lead people to fear and avoid the punishing agent.
    D) do all of the above.


20. Male Japanese quail became sexually aroused by a red light that was repeatedly
    associated with the presentation of a female quail. The sexual arousal elicited by the red
    light was a:
    A) UCR.
    B) UCS.
    C) CR.
    D) CS.




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21. A real estate agent showed Gavin several pictures of lakeshore property while they were
    eating a delicious, mouth-watering meal. Later, when Gavin was given a tour of the
    property, he drooled with delight. For Gavin, the lakeshore property was a:
    A) UCS.
    B) CS.
    C) UCR.
    D) CR.


22. Because Mr. Baron demonstrates appreciation only for classroom performance that is
    flawless, his students have become poor and unmotivated learners. Mr. Baron most
    clearly needs to be informed of the value of:
    A) generalization.
    B) modeling.
    C) shaping.
    D) latent learning.
    E) spontaneous recovery.


23. By pushing vending machine buttons, children often learn that this action is associated
    with the delivery of a candy bar. This best illustrates the process underlying:
    A) latent learning.
    B) respondent behavior.
    C) spontaneous recovery.
    D) operant conditioning.
    E) habituation.


24. The first experimental studies of associative learning were conducted by:
    A) Watson.
    B) Skinner.
    C) Bandura.
    D) Pavlov.
    E) Wundt.


25. Jacqueline is sexually aroused by the sight of her handsome boyfriend but not by the
    sight of her equally handsome brother. This best illustrates the value of:
    A) latent learning.
    B) shaping.
    C) intermittent reinforcement.
    D) discrimination.
    E) extinction.




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26. Receiving delicious food is to escaping electric shock as ________ is to ________.
    A) positive reinforcer; negative reinforcer
    B) primary reinforcer; secondary reinforcer
    C) immediate reinforcer; delayed reinforcer
    D) reinforcement; punishment
    E) partial reinforcement; continuous reinforcement


27. Jeremy wears his baseball cap backward because he noticed his older brother does so.
    This illustrates the importance of:
    A) respondent behavior.
    B) immediate reinforcement.
    C) spontaneous recovery.
    D) modeling.
    E) shaping.


28. Blake is a carpet installer who wants to be paid for each square foot of carpet he lays
    rather than with an hourly wage. Blake prefers working on a ________ schedule of
    reinforcement.
    A) fixed-ratio
    B) fixed-interval
    C) variable-interval
    D) variable-ratio


29. If rats are allowed to wander through a complicated maze, they will subsequently run
    the maze with few errors when a food reward is placed at the end. Their good
    performance demonstrates:
    A) shaping.
    B) latent learning.
    C) delayed reinforcement.
    D) spontaneous recovery.
    E) modeling.


30. In explaining juvenile delinquency, B. F. Skinner would most likely have emphasized:
    A) inherited predispositions.
    B) fear and greed.
    C) faulty child-rearing practices.
    D) a lack of moral values in contemporary society.




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31. Children are especially likely to behave aggressively after viewing TV violence in
    which an attractive person commits ________ violence that causes ________ visible
    pain or harm.
    A) justified; no
    B) unjustified; no
    C) justified; a lot of
    D) unjustified; a lot of


32. Humans most easily develop a conditioned aversion to alcohol if its taste is associated
    with a(n):
    A) anger-producing punishment.
    B) nausea-producing food.
    C) pain-producing accident.
    D) fear-producing threat.


33. Garcia and Koelling's studies of taste aversion in rats demonstrated that classical
    conditioning is constrained by:
    A) cognitive processes.
    B) biological predispositions.
    C) environmental factors.
    D) continuous reinforcement.
    E) latent learning.


34. In order to assess whether Mrs. Webster had Alzheimer's disease, researchers
    conditioned her to blink in response to a sound that signaled the delivery of a puff of air
    directed toward her face. In this application of classical conditioning, the sound was a:
    A) UCS.
    B) UCR.
    C) CS.
    D) CR.


35. Four-year-old Della asks her mother for a special treat every time they go to the grocery
    store. Although at one time her mother granted every request, she now does so less
    consistently. Research suggests that Della will:
    A) soon give up asking for a treat entirely.
    B) come to ask for a treat only occasionally.
    C) continue to ask for a treat nearly every time she goes to the store.
    D) ask for a treat every time her mother takes her out, even if they don't go to the
         grocery store.




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36. Studies of latent learning highlight the importance of:
    A) primary reinforcers.
    B) respondent behavior.
    C) spontaneous recovery.
    D) cognitive processes.
    E) conditioned reinforcers.


37. Mr. Schneider frequently tells his children that it is important to wash their hands before
    meals, but he rarely does so himself. Experiments suggest that his children will learn to:
    A) practice and preach the virtues of cleanliness.
    B) practice cleanliness but not preach its virtues.
    C) neither practice nor preach the virtues of cleanliness.
    D) preach the virtues of cleanliness but not practice cleanliness.


38. After pigs learned to pick up and deposit wooden coins in a piggy bank, the pigs
    subsequently dropped the coins repeatedly and pushed them with their snouts. This best
    illustrates the importance of ________ in operant conditioning.
    A) primary reinforcement
    B) spontaneous recovery
    C) latent learning
    D) generalization
    E) biological predispositions


39. In order to quickly teach a dog to roll over on command, you would be best advised to
    use ________ rather than ________.
    A) classical conditioning; operant conditioning
    B) partial reinforcement; continuous reinforcement
    C) latent learning; shaping
    D) immediate reinforcers; delayed reinforcers
    E) negative reinforcers; positive reinforcers


40. A Skinner box is a(n):
    A) soundproofed cubicle in which organisms are classically conditioned in the absence
        of distracting noise.
    B) aversive or punishing event that decreases the occurrence of certain undesirable
        behaviors.
    C) special “slot machine” that is used to study the effects of partial reinforcement on
        gambling behavior.
    D) chamber containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a reward.
    E) television projection device designed for use in laboratory studies of observational
        learning.




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41. A fixed-interval schedule of reinforcement is one in which a response is reinforced only
    after a(n):
    A) unpredictable time period has elapsed.
    B) specified time period has elapsed.
    C) specified number of responses has been made.
    D) unpredictable number of responses has been made.


42. Using rewards to bribe people to engage in an activity they already enjoy is most likely
    to inhibit:
    A) respondent behavior.
    B) continuous reinforcement.
    C) latent learning.
    D) spontaneous recovery.
    E) intrinsic motivation.


43. Mason, a stockbroker, runs two miles every day after work because it reduces his level
    of stress. Mason's running habit is maintained by a ________ reinforcer.
    A) positive
    B) negative
    C) conditioned
    D) partial


44. An animal trainer is teaching a miniature poodle to balance on a ball. Initially, he gives
    the poodle a treat for approaching the ball, then only for placing its front paws on the
    ball, and finally only for climbing on the ball. The trainer is using the method of:
    A) successive approximations.
    B) delayed reinforcement.
    C) latent learning.
    D) classical conditioning.
    E) secondary reinforcement.


45. Pavlov's research on classical conditioning was important because:
    A) it highlighted the role of cognitive processes in learning.
    B) so many different species of animals, including humans, can be classically
        conditioned.
    C) it demonstrated an essential difference between animal and human learning.
    D) of all the above reasons.




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46. Skinner is to shaping as Bandura is to:
    A) punishing.
    B) extinguishing.
    C) discriminating.
    D) modeling.
    E) generalizing.


47. Paul and Michael sell magazine subscriptions by telephone. Paul is paid $1.00 for every
    five calls he makes, while Michael is paid $1.00 for every subscription he sells,
    regardless of the number of calls he makes. Paul's telephoning is reinforced on a
    ________ schedule, whereas Michael's is reinforced on a ________ schedule.
    A) variable-ratio; fixed-ratio
    B) fixed-ratio; variable-ratio
    C) fixed-ratio; variable-interval
    D) fixed-interval; variable-ratio


48. The fact that learning can occur without reinforcement is most clearly demonstrated by
    studies of:
    A) shaping.
    B) latent learning.
    C) spontaneous recovery.
    D) computer-assisted instruction.


49. After learning to fear a white rat, Little Albert responded with fear to the sight of a
    rabbit. This best illustrates the process of:
    A) secondary reinforcement.
    B) generalization.
    C) shaping.
    D) latent learning.
    E) spontaneous recovery.


50. Nikki has learned to expect the sound of thunder whenever she sees a flash of lightning.
    This suggests that associative learning involves:
    A) the overjustification effect.
    B) cognitive processes.
    C) spontaneous recovery.
    D) continuous reinforcement.
    E) shaping.




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