Medical Terminology by 1lBVcR

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									       Medical Terminology



               Chapter 7

        Body Fluids and Immunity


NWTC          Medical Terminology 10-501-101   1
        Cellular Needs and
            Body Fluids

Water is most important body fluid
Cells require water, oxygen, and
 nutrients to survive.
Hydr(o) means water
-ous means pertaining to
hydrous means pertaining to water

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          Cellular Needs and
              Body Fluids

-hidr(o), sweat or perspiration
Sweat excreted through pores in the
 skin
mucus is the slimy material
 produced by mucous membranes
mucoid means resembling mucus
pus is the result of tissue breakdown
 because of infection
   NWTC        Medical Terminology 10-501-101   3
        Cellular Needs and
            Body Fluids
A localized collection of pus in a
 cavity formed by the disintegration of
 the tissue is called an abscess
hematoma is a localized collection of
 blood, usually clotted, in an organ,
 space tissue, resulting from a break in
 the wall of a blood vessel.
Hematomas can occur anywhere in
 the body, but are most dangerous
 when in the head
  NWTC         Medical Terminology 10-501-101 4
        Cellular Needs and
            Body Fluids

Body Fluids are found:
 – within the cells - intra/cellular
 – outside the cells - extra/cellular
intra- within
cellul(o) little cell or compartment
-ar, pertaining to
extra- outside
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        Cellular Needs and
            Body Fluids

1/4th of extracellular fluid is plasma
 (the liquid portion of the blood)
Blood remains inside blood vessels.
Blood is intravascular
intra- within
vascul(o) vessel
-ar pertaining to
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       Cellular Needs and
           Body Fluids



  Remaining extracellular fluid is
   between cells and tissue space
  Interstitial fluid
  inter- means between



NWTC        Medical Terminology 10-501-101   7
        Cellular Needs and
            Body Fluids
More than half of all body fluid is
 contained within cells and is called
 intracellular fluid.
Body fluid is classified as either
 intracellular or extracellular fluid.
Majority of extracellular fluid is
 found between cells and tissue
 spaces and is called interstitial fluid.
Plasma is an extravascular fluid.
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        Cellular Needs and
            Body Fluids


Regulation of the amount of water in
 the body is called fluid balance.
The intake and output must be
 balanced.
Intake too low - dehydration
Output too low - edema

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            Fluid Balance


 Total Intake – 2500              Total Output – 2500
  ml                                ml
 Water (beverages) –              Urine – 1500 ml
  1600 ml                          Skin – 550 ml
 Water (moist foods)              Lungs – 300 ml
  – 700 ml                         Feces – 150 ml
 Metabolism – 200 ml


   NWTC         Medical Terminology 10-501-101        10
          Cellular Needs and
              Body Fluids
hydrocephaly is more commonly
 called hydrocephalus
hydrocephalus means a condition
 characterized by abnormal
 accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid
 within the skull, enlargement of the
 head, mental retardation, and
 convulsions.
A shunt is placed to redirect the fluid
   NWTC        Medical Terminology 10-501-101   11
         Cellular Needs and
             Body Fluids


Calculus or stone
Formed in body tissues by an
 accumulation of mineral salts in the
 body tissues.
Nephro/lith/iasis – kidney stones
Litho/tripsy – crushing of a stone

  NWTC        Medical Terminology 10-501-101   12
    Composition of Blood

Study of Blood is Hematology
Hemat(o) means blood and blood
 forming tissues
Hemato/logic means pertaining to
 hematology
Hematologist is one who studies blood
-poiesis means production
hematopoiesis - formation and
                      blood cells
 development ofTerminology 10-501-101
  NWTC        Medical                 13
     Composition of Blood

Coagul(o) refers to coagulation
Coagulation is the formation of a clot
A coagulant promotes or accelerates
 clotting
-ant means that which causes
An Anticoagulant is used to prevent
 blood from clotting
-ate means to cause an action or the
              action
 result of an Medical Terminology 10-501-101
 NWTC                                        14
      Composition of Blood

Nucle(o) and kary(o) mean nucleus
nucleoprotein is a protein found in the
 nucleus
karyomegaly indicates a large nucleus
 or an abnormal enlargement of a cell
 nucleus
A normal red cell in the circulating
 blood has matured and lost its
 nucleus
   NWTC       Medical Terminology 10-501-101   15
     Composition of Blood

A normal white cell in the circulating
 blood has lost its nucleus
-oid means like or resembling
nucle/oid means resembling a nucleus
morph(o) means form or shape
poly- means many
poly/morpho/nuclear is the most
 abundant type of leukocyte
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      Composition of Blood

Polymorphonuclear is a leukocyte
 with a nucleus that is divided in such
 a way that it appears as multiple. (PMN)
polymorph
cytoplasm of a polymorph typically
 contains small granular structures
these cells may be referred to as
 granulocytes
   NWTC       Medical Terminology 10-501-101   17
         Composition of Blood

Coagulopathy means any disease of
 coagulation
Blood coagulation is a series of
 chemical reactions in which special
 fibers(fibrin) entrap blood cells
 resulting in a blood clot.
Clots formed within blood vessels is a
 serious condition that can result in
 death
  NWTC         Medical Terminology 10-501-101   18
         Composition of Blood


A naturally occurring anticoagulant
 keeps blood from clotting within the
 body.
in vitro means occurring in a
 laboratory test tube or occurring in an
 artificial environment
in vivo means within the living body

  NWTC         Medical Terminology 10-501-101   19
         Composition of Blood


Laboratory blood tests often requires
 treating blood with an anticoagulant
Hematocrit measures the percentage
 of red blood cells in a volume of blood
hem(a) and hem (o) mean blood
A hemo/cyte is a blood cell
-cyte means cell
  NWTC         Medical Terminology 10-501-101   20
    Composition of Blood
Erythro/cytes are red blood cells (red
 corpuscles) (RBC)
Erythro/cyt/ic means pertaining to
 erythrocytes
Erythro/poiesis is the production of
 erythrocytes
erythro/poietin stimulates the
 production of erythrocytes
-poietin means a substance that
 causes production 10-501-101
  NWTC        Medical Terminology   21
         Composition of Blood

Leuk(o) means white
Leukocyte is a white blood cell (WBC)
Leukocytes protect the body against
 pathogenic (disease causing)
 organisms
Healthy people have normal numbers
 of RBC and WBC in their blood
leukocyte count/ erythrocyte count
  NWTC         Medical Terminology 10-501-101   22
    Composition of Blood

thromb(o) means thrombus
A blood clot that obstructs a blood
 vessel or cavity of the heart (clot
 that occurs internally)
Thrombo/cyte is a blood platelet
Thrombo/lysis is a dissolution or
 destruction of a clot formed inside
 a vessel
 NWTC       Medical Terminology 10-501-101   23
     Composition of Blood

lys(o) means destruction or dissolving
-lysis describes the act of dissolving
 or destruction
-lytic is a suffix to form adjectives
 describing dissolution or destruction
thrombolytic
-lysin means a substance that
 dissolves or destroys
thrombolysinMedical Terminology 10-501-101
   NWTC                                     24
     Composition of Blood

Thrombosis is the presence of a
 thrombus
Dissolving of a thrombus is
 thrombolysis
-ectomy means surgical removal or
 excision
to surgically remove a clot is called a
 thromboectomy
  NWTC        Medical Terminology 10-501-101   25
    Composition of Blood


thrombolysis is destruction of a clot
hemolysis is destruction of blood
A hemolysin is a substance that
 causes the destruction of red blood
 cells
-emia is a suffix that means blood

 NWTC        Medical Terminology 10-501-101   26
     Composition of Blood


leuk/emia is white blood
Leukemia is a progressive, malignant
 disease of the hematopoietic (blood
 forming) organs, characterized by a
 sharp increase in the number of
 leukocytes, as well as the presence of
 immature forms of leukocytes in the
 blood and bone marrow
  NWTC        Medical Terminology 10-501-101   27
    Composition of Blood

An/emia means without blood
-penia means decreased or deficient
leukocytopenia - decrease or
 deficiency in the number of
 leukocytes (leukopenia)
erythro/cyto/penia is a decrease or
 deficiency in the number of
 erythrocytes (erythropenia)
 NWTC        Medical Terminology 10-501-101   28
     Composition of Blood


Anemia is a deficiency in the number
 of red blood cells or a deficiency in
 hemoglobin
hemoglobin is the red pigment of
 blood
Anemia is not a disease but a sign of
 various diseases

  NWTC       Medical Terminology 10-501-101   29
   Composition of Blood

Signs and Symptoms of Anemia
 – tachycardia
 – dyspnea
 – syncope (fainting)
 – tinnitus
 – headache
 – fatigue
 – dizziness
 – congestive heart failure
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     Composition of Blood
Iron deficiency anemia results when a
 greater demand for iron than the body
 can supply.
It can be caused by blood loss or
 insufficient intake intake or
 absorption of iron from the intestinal
 tract
Iron deficiency anemia is usually
 successfully treated with iron tablets
 and a well balanced10-501-101
   NWTC        Medical Terminology
                                   diet 31
     Composition of Blood
Thrombocytopenia is a decrease in
 the number of platelets
 (thrombopenia)
Thrombocytes (platelets) are a key
 component in the process of blood
 clotting
Severe thrombocytopenia results in a
 bleeding disorder
thrombocytosis is an increase in
 platelets in circulating blood
  NWTC         Medical Terminology 10-501-101 32
     Composition of Blood

Hemo/philia is a hereditary bleeding
 disorder in which there is a deficiency
 of one coagulation factor called
 antihemophilic factor VIII.
Minor injuries can result in prolonged
 bleeding which leads to anemia
-osis can mean more than a condition
erythrocytosis is increase in number
 of red blood cells (erythrocytes)
  NWTC        Medical Terminology 10-501-101   33
     Composition of Blood

Leukocytosis is an increase in number
 of leukocytes (white blood cells)
Increase in leukocytes as in leukemia
 is not normal. Many of the leukocytes
 in leukemia are abnormal or immature
 white blood cells.
Increase in leukocytes in response to
 an (infection) infecting organism is
 normal.
  NWTC       Medical Terminology 10-501-101   34
      Composition of Blood

Infection vs. inflammation
  – infection is the presence of living
    microorganisms within the tissue
  – inflammation is the body’s response to
    injury.
  – Inflammation is part of the body’s natural
    defense
  – Signs of inflammation are redness,
    swelling and pain
   NWTC         Medical Terminology 10-501-101   35
   Composition of Blood


   Poly- means many
   cyto means cell
   hem(o) means blood
   -ia means condition
   Polycythemia is a disorder in
       which there is an increase in
       erythrocytes
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     Composition of Blood

primary - bone marrow over produces
 many types of cells and is associated
 with a chromosomal defect
secondary - as a physiologic response
 to prolonged exposure to high
 altitude, or heart or lung disease
leads to increased viscosity
 (stickiness) of blood
  NWTC       Medical Terminology 10-501-101   37
     Composition of Blood


A coagulopathy is any defect in
 coagulation
Disseminated intravascular
 coagulation is a grave coagulopathy in
 which there is generalized
 intravascular clotting.

  NWTC        Medical Terminology 10-501-101   38
       Anemias and
   Abnormal Hemoglobins

Micr(o) means small
microcyte is a small cell
microcytosis is an increase in the
 number of under sized red blood cells
Macr(o) means large
macrocyte is a large cell
macrocytosis is an increase in larger
 than normal erythrocytes
 NWTC        Medical Terminology 10-501-101   39
      Anemias and
  Abnormal Hemoglobins

Scop(o) means to view or examine
-scopy means the act of viewing
microscopy is examining something
 small
macroscopy is examining something
 large
megal(o) means large or enlarged
megalocytes are large cells
 NWTC       Medical Terminology 10-501-101   40
      Anemias and
  Abnormal Hemoglobins

Norm(o) means normal
normocytes are normal cells
is(o) means equal
iso/cyt/osis means cells that are of
 equal size
anisocytosis are cells that are not of
 equal size
 NWTC        Medical Terminology 10-501-101   41
       Anemias and
   Abnormal Hemoglobins
isotonic means equal tension
an isotonic solution is a solution in
 which body cells can be bathed
 without damage to the cell through
 diffusion of water in or out of cells
spher(o) means round
spherocyte is a round cell
spherocytosis means the presence of
 spherocytes in the blood
  NWTC        Medical Terminology 10-501-101   42
       Anemias and
   Abnormal Hemoglobins

Poikil(o) means irregular
poikilocyte is a blood cell with
 abnormal shape
poikilocytosis is the presence of
 poikilocytes in the blood
poikilocytes are present in sickle cell
 anemia
  NWTC       Medical Terminology 10-501-101   43
       Anemias and
   Abnormal Hemoglobins

Sickle cell anemia is a hereditary
 anemia with an inherited abnormal
 type of hemoglobin.
Blood cells are elongated and sickled
 and are highly fragile
in vivo hemolysis occurs resulting in
 hemolytic anemia
  NWTC       Medical Terminology 10-501-101   44
      Anemias and
  Abnormal Hemoglobins
hyper- means excessive or more than
 normal
hypo- means beneath or below
 normal
chrom(o) means color
hypochromia in which blood cells
 have below normal amount of color
hyperchromia in which blood cells
 have above normal amount of color
 NWTC       Medical Terminology 10-501-101   45
      Anemias and
  Abnormal Hemoglobins
Hemoglobin is the red pigment inside
 erythrocytes
globin is a type of protein
hemoglobin is a type of protein found
 in blood
hemoglobinopathy is any disease
 associated with hemoglobin
hemolyze means that the
 erythrocytes dissolve
 NWTC        Medical Terminology 10-501-101   46
        Anemias and
    Abnormal Hemoglobins
Hemolytic anemia is characterized by
 the premature destruction of
 erythrocytes
plast(o) means repair
aplastic means having no tendency to
 develop new tissue
In aplastic anemia the bone marrow is
 diseased and produces few cells
dyscrasia is any disorder associated
 with the blood or bone marrow
   NWTC       Medical Terminology 10-501-101 47
        Blood Coagulation

Fibrin is formed when blood clots
word part for fibrin is fibrin(o)
fibrin/oid means resembling fibrin
fibrinogen is a precursor of fibrin
fibrogen is a protein that is changed
 to fibrin in the process of
 coagulation
fibrinolysis is the destruction of
 fibrin
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         Blood Coagulation

A fibrinolysis can dissolve a thrombus
-stasis means stopping or controlling
hemostasis means stoppage of blood
 flow
trans- means through or across
the introduction of whole blood or
 blood components into the blood
 stream is transfusion
  NWTC        Medical Terminology 10-501-101   49
        Blood Coagulation
Typing the blood is necessary for
 transfusion
the typing process looks for
 agglutination to specialized sera
agglutination is blood clumping
a transfusion reaction is an adverse
 reaction the the received blood.
Blood group incompatibilities causes
 hemolysis which is the destruction of
 erythrocytes Medical Terminology 10-501-101
   NWTC                                      50
         Blood Coagulation


Transfusion reaction results in
 hemo/lysis of the erythrocytes.
Certain diseases can be transmitted
 through a transfusion.
Donate your own blood would be an
 autologous transfusion.

  NWTC       Medical Terminology 10-501-101   51
Classification of Disease



Organic diseases are associated
 with a demonstrable physical
 change in an organ or tissue.
Functional disorders are marked by
 S & S’s, but no physical changes.


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Classification of Disease

        Infectious
        Hereditary
        Degenerative
        Traumatic
        Autoimmune
        Nutritional deficiencies
        Idiopathic
        Iatrogenic
        Nosocomial
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Classification of Disease


       Infectious Diseases
       Pathogenic organisms
       Communicable = contagious
        – Directly by contact
        – Indirectly via substances
        – Via vectors

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Classification of Disease



   Microorganisms
    – Spheric (cocci)
    – Rod-shaped (bacilli)
    – Spiral (spirochetes and spirilla)
    – Comma-shaped (vibrios)


NWTC          Medical Terminology 10-501-101   55
Classification of Disease



  Gram Stain
   – Pink or red = gram negative
   – Violet or purple = gram positive
  Also classified by arrangement



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Classification of Disease


 Strepto/cocci appear to grow in
  chains
 Staphylo/cocci grow in grape
  like clusters
 Diplococci grow in pairs
 Bacter/emia – presence of
  bacteria in the blood
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Classification of Disease



  Aerobic – requires oxygen to
   maintain life
  Anaerobic – grows in complete
   or almost complete lack of
   oxygen


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Classification of Disease


Antiseptic inhibits growth of
 microorganisms
Bacteriostatic inhibits growth of
 bacteria
Bactericidal kills bacteria
Botulism - Bacterial food
 poisoning
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Classification of Disease



  Fungi are microorganisms that
   feed by absorbing organic
   molecules from their
   surroundings.
  They may be parasitic.


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        Immune System


Pathogens are microorganisms that
 are capable of causing disease
resistance is the body’s ability to
 counteract the effects of foreign
 invaders
susceptibility is lack of resistance
specific and non-specific resistance

 NWTC        Medical Terminology 10-501-101   61
           Immune System

Nonspecific defense mechanisms
 are directed against all pathogens
  –    unbroken skin
  –    phagocytes
  –    inflammation
  –    complement
  –    interferon
  –    see table 7-13 p 133
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        Immune System

Interferon is formed when cells are
 exposed to a virus
phagocytosis is the ingestion and
 destruction of microorganisms and
 cellular debris by certain cells.
Phag(o) means to eat
macrophages and leukocytes are
 the primary phagocytic cells
 NWTC       Medical Terminology 10-501-101   63
          Immune System
Specific defense mechanisms are
 selective for particular pathogens
This specific resistance is called
 immunity and protects from a specific
 disease or condition
white blood cell and t-cells are
 responsible for cell mediated
 immunity
b-lymphocytes are responsible for
 antibody mediated immunity
  NWTC         Medical Terminology 10-501-101 64
           Immune System
Antibodies are formed against foreign
 substances
antibodies are formed to act against
 other cells or substances that our
 bodies recognize as being foreign
Immunoglobulins or antibodies are
 found in the liquid part of the blood,
 plasma
Immun(o) means immune
                plasma proteins
globulins are Medical Terminology 10-501-101
   NWTC                                       65
         Immune System

Specific antibodies provide us with
 immunity against disease causing
 organisms
we generally acquire antibodies either
 by having a disease or by receiving a
 vaccination.
A vaccination causes our bodies to
 produce antibodies
  NWTC        Medical Terminology 10-501-101   66
         Immune System

a foreign substance that induces the
 production of antibodies is called an
 antigen
polio vaccine contains polio antigen
after receiving polio vaccine, one is
 immunized against polio
an excessive reaction to an antigen is
 considered a hypersensitivity
  NWTC        Medical Terminology 10-501-101   67
         Immune System

-phylaxis means protection
anaphylaxis or anaphylactic reactions
 are exaggerated, life threatening
 hypersensitivity reactions to a
 previously encountered antigen
anaphylactic reactions are severe and
 can be fatal
insect stings and penicillin are
 common causes of anaphylaxis
  NWTC       Medical Terminology 10-501-101   68
          Immune System

Allergies are conditions in which the
 body reacts with an exaggerated
 immune response to common,
 harmless substances.
A substance that can produce an
 allergic reaction but is not necessarily
 harmful is called an allergen
in an allergic reaction, injured cells
 release a substance called histamine
   NWTC       Medical Terminology 10-501-101   69
         Immune System

Histamine causes dilation of the
 capillaries, an increase in gastric
 secretions, and contraction of smooth
 muscle of several internal organs
histamine is responsible the
 symptoms of hay fever: teary eyes,
 sneezing, and swollen membranes of
 the upper respiratory tract.
Antihistamines act against histamine
  NWTC        Medical Terminology 10-501-101   70
         Immune System

Immunization is the process by which
 resistance to an infectious disease is
 induced or augmented
immunity that an individual develops
 in response to a harmful antigen is
 active immunity
borrowed immunity that is effective
 for only a short time is passive
 immunity
  NWTC        Medical Terminology 10-501-101   71
        Immune System

vaccination is a form of prophylaxis,
 protection of or protection against
 disease
toxoids contain toxins which are
 antigens
toxoids cause our bodies to produce
 antibodies, thus providing us with
 immunity
 NWTC        Medical Terminology 10-501-101   72
          Immune System
a toxoid is a toxin that has been
 treated to eliminate its harmful
 properties without destroying its
 ability to stimulate antibody
 production
a toxoid is a helpful form of toxin
tox(o) which means poison is usually
 harmful
a cytotoxin has harmful effects on
 cells
  NWTC         Medical Terminology 10-501-101 73
         Immune System

Cytotoxicity means having a harmful
 effect on cells
toxicity is the virulence of a toxin or
 poison
toxic/osis is any disease condition
 caused by poisons.
Virulence means the degree of
 disease causing capability of
 microorganisms
  NWTC        Medical Terminology 10-501-101   74
        Immune System

Immuno/compromised pertains to
 immune response that has been
 weakened by a disease or an
 immuno/suppressive agent
radiation and certain drugs are
 immunosupressants - meaning they
 suppress the immune response
transplant rejection is an immune
 reaction to the donors tissue cells
 NWTC       Medical Terminology 10-501-101   75
       Immune System



To transplant is to transfer tissue
Immunosupressants are given to
 transplant recipients to prevent or
 lessen the possibility of rejection



NWTC        Medical Terminology 10-501-101   76
         Chapter 4




       Class review exercises




NWTC        Medical Terminology 10-501-101   77
   What is the meaning?

          Hemato
          blood
          -cyte
          cell
          is(o)
          equal
          leuk(o)
          white
NWTC     Medical Terminology 10-501-101   78
   What is the meaning?

       Kary(o)
       nucleus
       melan(o)
       black
       micr(o)
       small
       megal(o)
       large or enlarged
NWTC      Medical Terminology 10-501-101   79
   What is the meaning?

       Phag(o)
       to eat
       a-
       no, not, without
       poly
       many
       phil(o)
       attraction
NWTC      Medical Terminology 10-501-101   80
   What is the meaning?

       -lysis
       destruction or dissolving
       -penia
       decreased or deficient
       -poiesis
       production
       xanth(o)
       yellow
NWTC             Medical Terminology 10-501-101   81
   What is the meaning?

       -erythr(o)
       red
       macr(o)
       large or enlarged
       cellul(o)
       little cell or compartment
       morph(o)
       scope or form
NWTC           Medical Terminology 10-501-101   82
What is the Combining Form?

         Hemoglobin
         hemoglobin(o)
         fibrin
         fibrin(o)
         water
         hydr(o)
         coagulation
         coagul(o)
  NWTC     Medical Terminology 10-501-101   83
What is the Combining Form?

         Air
         aer(o)
         color
         chrom(o)
         green
         chlor(o)
         clot
         thromb(o)
  NWTC   Medical Terminology 10-501-101   84
What is the Combining Form?



          Round
          spher(o)
          irregular
          Poikil(o)



  NWTC   Medical Terminology 10-501-101   85
             Suffixes

An instrument used to view
-scope
blood
-emia
capable of destroying
-lytic
substance that dissolves or destroys
 something
-lysin
  NWTC       Medical Terminology 10-501-101   86
       Prefixes


       Across
       trans-
       within
       intra-
       between
       inter

NWTC   Medical Terminology 10-501-101   87
        A or An


       Traumatic
       atraumatic
       hydrous
       anhydrous
       uria
       anuria

NWTC   Medical Terminology 10-501-101   88
        A or An



        toxic
        atoxic
        plastic
        aplastic



NWTC   Medical Terminology 10-501-101   89
       What is the Color?


           Chloropia
           green
           melanocyte
           black
           cyanoderma
           blue

NWTC        Medical Terminology 10-501-101   90
       What is the Color?



          xanthoderma
          yellow
          leukopenia
          white



NWTC        Medical Terminology 10-501-101   91
          Case Study
         Word Meaning

A 23 year old female came to the
 emergency room, complaining of
 dizziness and headache. Examination
 revealed pallor and tachycardia. The
 patient had a history of dyspnea on
 exertion, tinnitus, and syncope. Blood
 tests and ECG were ordered.
 Tachycardia was the only abnormality
 demonstrated on the ECG. All blood
  NWTC       Medical Terminology 10-501-101   92
          Case Study
         Word Meaning


Tests were normal except CBC, which
 indicated a microcytic hypochromic
 anemia. Additional tests were ordered
 to determine the etiology of the
 anemia.


  NWTC       Medical Terminology 10-501-101   93
         Case Study
        Word Meaning

       Pallor
       paleness
       tachycardia
       increased pulse rate
       dyspnea
       difficult breathing

NWTC        Medical Terminology 10-501-101   94
        Case Study
       Word Meaning


Tinnitus
noise in the ears, such as ringing
syncope
fainting



NWTC        Medical Terminology 10-501-101   95
   What is the Meaning?

         Hemat(o)
         blood
         hem(a)
         blood
         hem(o)
         blood
         spher(o)
         round
NWTC     Medical Terminology 10-501-101   96
   What is the Meaning?

         Poikil(o)
         irregular
         erythro(o)
         red
         poly-
         many
         cyan(o)
         blue
NWTC     Medical Terminology 10-501-101   97
   What is the Meaning?

         Leuk(o)
         white
         melan(o)
         black
         chlor(o)
         green
         xanth(o)
         yellow
NWTC     Medical Terminology 10-501-101   98
   What is the Meaning?


       -ectomy
       removal of, incision
       -cyte
       cell
       -ate
       to cause an action or the
        results of an action
NWTC            Medical Terminology 10-501-101   99
   What is the Meaning?

       -ar
       pertaining to
       -ant
       that which causes
       -emia
       blood
       is(o)
       equal
NWTC          Medical Terminology 10-501-101   100
   What is the Meaning?

       Kary(o)
       nucleus
       morph(o)
       shape or form
       phag(o)
       to eat
       phil(o)
       attraction
NWTC     Medical Terminology 10-501-101   101
   What is the Meaning?

micr(o)
small
coagulation
blood clotting
poikilocyte
an erythrocyte of irregular shape
hematoma
a localized collection of blood
NWTC        Medical Terminology 10-501-101   102
    What is the Meaning?


Thrombus
formation of a clot within a blood
 vessel
cytologist
one who studies cells
leukocyte count
an evaluation of white cells
 NWTC       Medical Terminology 10-501-101   103
   What is the Meaning?

Thrombolytic
capable of dissolving a thrombus
thrombectomy
surgical removal of a blood clot
thromb(o)
clot
leukopenia
a decreased white cell count
NWTC         Medical Terminology 10-501-101   104
   What is the Meaning?


Leukocyte
white blood cell that functions in
 the body’s defense system
syncope
fainting
hematology
the study of blood
NWTC         Medical Terminology 10-501-101   105
   What is the Meaning?

In vivo
in the body
antibiotic
substance commonly prescribed
 in the treatment of bacterial
 infections
erythropoiesis
production of red cells
NWTC          Medical Terminology 10-501-101   106
   What is the Meaning?

   Macropodia
   increased size of the foot
   macrodontia
   increased size of the teeth
   microcyte
   a small cell
   macrocyte
   a large cell
NWTC        Medical Terminology 10-501-101   107
   What is the Meaning?


Chromocyte
any colored cell
histocyte
a tissue cell
poikilocytosis
the presence of irregular shaped
 erythrocytes in the blood
NWTC         Medical Terminology 10-501-101   108
   What is the Meaning?


Spherocytosis
the presence of spherocytes in
 the blood
thrombolysin
substance capable of dissolving
 a thrombus

NWTC       Medical Terminology 10-501-101   109
     What is the Meaning?

Macroscopy
examination with the naked eye
microscopy
examination of something small
transplant
a surgical procedure whereby living
 organs are transplanted from one part
 of the body to another or from one
               another
 individual to Medical Terminology 10-501-101
   NWTC                                       110
                 Matching


       1.   Hydr(o)                          a. Air
       2.   hem(a)                           b. Green
       3.   aer(o)                           c. Color
       4.   clor(o)                          d. Cell
       5.   chrom(o)                         e. Water
       6.   cyt(o)                           f. blood


NWTC              Medical Terminology 10-501-101         111
              Matching


  1.   Erythr(o)              a. red
  2.   Is(o)                  b. hemoglobin
  3.   kary(o)                c. nucleus
  4.   leuko(o)               d. equal
  5.   macro(o)               e. large or enlarged
  6.   hem(o)                 f. white


NWTC           Medical Terminology 10-501-101   112
   What is the Meaning?

       Poly-
       many
       phil(o)
       attraction
       -lysis
       destruction
       -penia
       decreased deficiency
NWTC         Medical Terminology 10-501-101   113
   What is the Meaning?

       -poiesis
       production
       xanth(o)
       yellow
       erythr(o)
       red
       macr(o)
       large or enlarged
NWTC      Medical Terminology 10-501-101   114
   What is the Meaning?

       Anti-
       against
       morph(o)
       shape or form
       coagulopathy
       any disease of coagulation
       thrombolysis
       dissolving of a thrombus
NWTC            Medical Terminology 10-501-101   115
   What is the Meaning?

Leukocytosis
an increase in the number of
 white blood cells
microencephaly
abnormal smallness of the head
ophthalmoscope
an instrument for examining the
 eye
NWTC      Medical Terminology 10-501-101   116
   What is the Meaning?

Toxicosis
any disease or condition caused
 by poison
otoscopy
examination of the ear
cytoscopy
microscopic examination of
 cells
NWTC         Medical Terminology 10-501-101   117
    What is the Meaning?

Hypochromic
a condition in which erythrocytes
 have a reduced hemoglobin
 content (pigment)
poikilocyte
a cell having an abnormal shape
anemia
a decreased red blood cell count
 NWTC       Medical Terminology 10-501-101   118
    What is the Meaning?

Septicemia
a systemic infectious condition
 caused by pathogenic
 microorganisms, their enzymes, or
 their toxins
pigment color of melanin
dark brown to black
cyanoderma
 blue skin Medical Terminology 10-501-101
NWTC                                     119
                   Matching



1.     Morph(o)             a.     Many
2.     -penia               b.     Shape or form
3.     Macr(o)              c.     Decreased
4.     Poly-                d.     Red
5.     Erythr(o)            e.     Large or enlarged


NWTC               Medical Terminology 10-501-101   120
                Matching


                           a. attraction
1.   xanth(o)
                           b. destruction or
2.   -poiesis
                              dissolving
3.   -lysis
                           c. production
4.   Phil(o)
                           d. yellow
5.   Anti-
                           e. against


 NWTC           Medical Terminology 10-501-101   121
             What is It?

The destruction of red blood cells
 with the liberation of hemoglobin
hemolysis
the reduction in the number of red
 blood cells, hemoglobin, r both red
 cells and hemoglobin
anemia
a substance that causes hemolysis
 hemolysin Medical Terminology 10-501-101
NWTC                                     122
           What is It?

A disorder in which there is an
 increase in the number of red blood
 cells
polycythemia
excessive urination
polyuria
a small cell
microcyte
 NWTC        Medical Terminology 10-501-101   123
             What is It?


A cell that engulfs other matter
phagocyte
a condition in which erythrocytes are
 not of equal size
anisocytosis
any disease of coagulation
coagulopathy
  NWTC        Medical Terminology 10-501-101   124
            What is It?


The study of cells
cytology
dissolving of a thrombus
thrombolysis
an increase in the number of white
 blood cells
leukocytosis
 NWTC        Medical Terminology 10-501-101   125
                    What is It?

Abnormal smallness of the head
microcephaly
an instrument for examining the eye
ophthalmoscope
any disease condition caused by
 poisons
toxicosis
examination of the ear
otoscopy
 NWTC       Medical Terminology 10-501-101   126
         What is It?


A decreased white cell count
leukopenia
cells that function in the body’s
 defense system
leukocyte
fainting
syncope
NWTC       Medical Terminology 10-501-101   127
           What is It?

The study of blood
hematology
in the body
in vivo
a substance commonly prescribed in
 the treatment of bacterial infections
production of red cells
erythropoiesis
  NWTC         Medical Terminology 10-501-101   128
       Also Known As


       Red blood cells
       erythrocytes
       white blood cells
       leukocytes
       thrombocytes
       platelets

NWTC      Medical Terminology 10-501-101   129
           Also Known As



       bluish discoloration of skin
       cyanoderma
       difficult time breathing
       dyspnea



NWTC            Medical Terminology 10-501-101   130
       Questions?



NWTC    Medical Terminology 10-501-101   131
        Chapter 4




       Book CD review




NWTC     Medical Terminology 10-501-101   132

								
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