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									                  Arizona’s Common Core Standards • 11th-12th Grades English Language Arts • MPS Instructional Support Document




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                                        Preparing Arizona’s Students for College- and Career-Success




                                                     Instructional Support Document
                                                      Reading, Writing, Speaking & Listening, Language




NOTE: The bolded part of the standard is new to this grade level
                                                                            Spring 2012
                                                                             0 (Spring 2012)
                  Arizona’s Common Core Standards • 11th-12th Grades English Language Arts • MPS Instructional Support Document
                 Arizona’s Common Core Standards • English Language Arts • MPS Instructional Support Document

  Introduction
                 For a full version of this Introduction, please refer to pages 3-8 of the Introduction to the Common Core Standards for English Language Arts and
                 Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects

  The Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in                       educators from kindergarten through college, and parents, students, and other
  History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects (“the Standards”) are the             members of the public. In their design and content, refined through successive
  culmination of an extended, broad-based effort to fulfill the charge issued by the            drafts and numerous rounds of feedback, the Standards represent a synthesis of
  states to create the next generation of K–12 standards in order to help ensure that           the best elements of standards-related work to date and an important advance
  all students are college and career ready in literacy no later than the end of high           over that previous work.
  school.
                                                                                                As specified by CCSSO and NGA, the Standards are (1) research and evidence
  The present work, led by the Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO) and               based, (2) aligned with college and work expectations, (3) rigorous, and (4)
  the National Governors Association (NGA), builds on the foundation laid by states             internationally benchmarked. A particular standard was included in the document
  in their decades-long work on crafting high-quality education standards.                      only when the best available evidence indicated that its mastery was essential for
  The Standards also draw on the most important international models as well as                 college and career readiness in a twenty-first-century, globally competitive society.
  research and input from numerous sources, including state departments of                      The Standards are intended to be a living work: as new and better evidence
  education, scholars, assessment developers, professional organizations,                       emerges, the Standards will be revised accordingly.

  Key Design Considerations
  CCR and grade-specific standards                                                              Research and media skills blended into the Standards as a whole
      The CCR standards anchor the document and define general, cross-                              The need to conduct research and to produce and consume media is
  disciplinary literacy expectations that must be met for students to be prepared               embedded into every aspect of today’s curriculum. In like fashion, research and
  to enter college and workforce training programs ready to succeed. The K–12                   media skills and understandings are embedded throughout the Standards rather
  grade-specific standards define end-of-year expectations and a cumulative                     than treated in a separate section.
  progression.
                                                                                                Shared responsibility for students’ literacy development
  Grade levels for K–8; grade bands for 9–10 and 11–12                                               The Standards insist that instruction in reading, writing, speaking, listening,
      The Standards use individual grade levels K-8 to provide useful specificity;              and language be a shared responsibility within the school. The grades 6–12
  the Standards use two-year bands in grades 9–12 to allow schools, districts,                  standards are divided into two sections, one for ELA and the other for
  and states flexibility in high school course design.                                          history/social studies, science, and technical subjects. This division reflects the
                                                                                                unique, time-honored place of ELA teachers in developing students’ literacy skills
  A focus on results rather than means                                                          while at the same time recognizing that teachers in other areas must have a role in
      By emphasizing required achievements, the Standards leave room for                        this development as well.
  teachers, curriculum developers, and states to determine how those goals
  should be reached and what additional topics should be addressed.                             Focus and coherence in instruction and assessment
                                                                                                     While the Standards delineate specific expectations in reading, writing,
  An integrated model of literacy                                                               speaking, listening, and language, each standard need not be a separate focus for
  Although the Standards are divided into Reading, Writing, Speaking and                        instruction and assessment. Often, several standards can be addressed by a
  Listening, and Language strands for conceptual clarity, the processes of                      single rich task.
  communication are closely connected.

NOTE: The bolded part of the standard is new to this grade level
                                                                                      1   (Spring 2012)
                   Arizona’s Common Core Standards • 11th-12th Grades English Language Arts • MPS Instructional Support Document

     Distribution of Literary and Informational Passages by Grade                                         Distribution of Communicative Purposes by Grade
     in the 2009 NAEP Reading Framework                                                                   in the 2011 NAEP Writing Framework
           Grade                      Literary                         Informational                          Grade        To Persuade              To Explain           To Convey Experience
               4                        50%                                 50%                                   4             30%                     35%                          35%
               8                        45%                                 55%                                   8             35%                     35%                          30%
              12                        30%                                 70%                                   12            40%                     40%                          20%
     Source: National Assessment Governing Board. (2008). Reading framework for the 2009 National         Source: National Assessment Governing Board. (2007). Writing framework for the 2011 National
     Assessment of Educational Progress. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.                 Assessment of Educational Progress, pre-publication edition. Iowa City, IA: ACT, Inc.


          The Standards aim to align instruction with this framework so that many                             NAEP likewise outlines a distribution across the grades of the core
     more students than at present can meet the requirements of college and                              purposes and types of student writing. Evidence concerning the demands of
     career readiness. In accord with NAEP’s growing emphasis on informational                           college and career readiness gathered during development of the Standards
     texts in the higher grades, the Standards demand that a significant amount of                       concurs with NAEP’s shifting emphases: standards for grades 9–12 describe
     reading of informational texts take place in and outside the ELA classroom.                         writing in all three forms, but, consistent with NAEP, the overwhelming focus
     Fulfilling the Standards for 6–12 ELA requires much greater attention to a                          of writing throughout high school should be on arguments and
     specific category of informational text—literary nonfiction—than has been                           informative/explanatory texts.2
     traditional. Because the ELA classroom must focus on literature (stories,
     drama, and poetry) as well as literary nonfiction, a great deal of informational
     reading in grades 6–12 must take place in other classes if the NAEP
     assessment framework is to be matched instructionally.1
     ______________________
     1
      The percentages on the table reflect the sum of student reading, not just reading in ELA settings. Teachers of senior English classes, for example, are not required to devote 70 percent of
     reading to informational texts. Rather, 70 percent of student reading across the grade should be informational.
     2
      As with reading, the percentages in the table reflect the sum of student writing, not just writing in ELA settings.


    What Is Not Covered by the Standards
    The Standards should be recognized for what they are not as well as what they are. The most important intentional design limitations are as follows:

    1. The Standards define what all students are expected to know and be able                           5.    It is also beyond the scope of the Standards to define the full range of
       to do, not how teachers should teach.                                                                   supports appropriate for English language learners and for students with
    2. While the Standards focus on what is most essential, they do not                                        special needs. At the same time, all students must have the opportunity to
       describe all that can or should be taught. The aim of the Standards is to                               learn and meet the same high standards if they are to access the
       articulate the fundamentals, not to set out an exhaustive list or a set of                              knowledge and skills necessary in their post–high school lives.
       restrictions that limits what can be taught beyond what is specified herein.                      6.    While the ELA and content area literacy components described herein are
    3. The Standards do not define the nature of advanced work for students                                    critical to college and career readiness, they do not define the whole of
       who meet the Standards prior to the end of high school.                                                 such readiness.
    4. The Standards set grade-specific standards but do not define the
       intervention methods or materials necessary to support students who are
       well below or well above grade-level expectations.

NOTE: The bolded part of the standard is new to this grade level
                                                                                              2   (Spring 2012)
                  Arizona’s Common Core Standards • 11th-12th Grades English Language Arts • MPS Instructional Support Document

                   Arizona’s Common Core Standards • English Language Arts • MPS Instructional Support Document


             Overview
          Four STRANDS of Literacy

          1. Reading                                                                   2. Writing
                                                                                             Text Types and Purposes
                 Literature (RL)                                                             Production and Distribution of Writing
                      Key Ideas and Details
                                                                                             Research to Build and Present Knowledge
                      Craft and Structure
                                                                                             Range of Writing
                      Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
                      Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity
                                                                                       3. Speaking and Listening (SL)
                 Informational Text (RI                                                      Comprehension and Collaboration
                      Key Ideas and Details                                                  Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas
                      Craft and Structure
                      Integration of Knowledge and Ideas                               4. Language (L)
                      Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity                          Conventions of Standard English
                                                                                             Knowledge of Language
                                                                                             Vocabulary Acquisition and Use




NOTE: The bolded part of the standard is new to this grade level
                                                                   3   (Spring 2012)
                  Arizona’s Common Core Standards • 11th-12th Grades English Language Arts • MPS Instructional Support Document


                   Arizona’s Common Core Standards • English Language Arts • MPS Instructional Support Document


             Coding


                                                                                                     Standard 1
                                 Grades 11-12



                                                                   11-12.RL.1

                                           Strand:
                                      Reading Literature                         Coding for Standards added by Arizona:
                                                                                              AZ11-12.W.4a




NOTE: The bolded part of the standard is new to this grade level
                                                                      4   (Spring 2012)
                  Arizona’s Common Core Standards • 11th-12th Grades English Language Arts • MPS Instructional Support Document




                                        READING
                                       STANDARDS


NOTE: The bolded part of the standard is new to this grade level
                                                                   5   (Spring 2012)
                  Arizona’s Common Core Standards • 11th-12th Grades English Language Arts • MPS Instructional Support Document

                                                                                                                                        MPS Examples/Ideas
                                                                                                                             (Includes examples and suggestions, but is NOT
      Common Core Standard                                         MPS Explanations for Support/Clarification                    required curriculum and may not fulfill the
                                                                                                                                          standard in its entirety)

  Reading Standards for Literature
  The Common Core Standards define Literature as:
  Stories – Includes the subgenres of adventure stories, historical fiction, mysteries, myths, science fiction, realistic fiction, allegories, parodies, satire, and
     graphic novels
  Drama – Includes one-act and multi-act plays, both in written form and on film
  Poetry – Includes the subgenres of narrative poems, lyrical poems, free verse poems, sonnets, odes, ballads, and epics
                                                                                                    Source: The Common Core State Standards for ELA page 57

  Key Ideas and Details
  11-12.RL.1 Cite strong and                  The basis of this standard is the author’s use of literary elements.           Emerging Characterization (The Great
  thorough textual evidence to                Teachers may include multi-culturally diverse texts including non-print or     Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald, “A Rose for
  support analysis of what the                visual texts. Students will describe and analyze literary elements raised in   Emily” by William Faulkner)
  text says explicitly as well as             RL Standard 1. 11-12 level band in order to move on to more complexity in:
  inferences drawn from the text,              Theme – multiple levels of theme in one text or across texts                 Poem analysis- compare /contrast poems
  including determining where                  Point of View – multiple characters acting as narrators each with a          with similar themes or subjects
  the text leaves matters                        limited and possibly unreliable narrative perspective
  uncertain.                                   Characterization – more complex, multi-layered characters with varying       TPCASTT (Title, Paraphrase, Connotation,
                                                 beliefs, values, social class, and gender roles                             Attitude, Shift, Tone, Title) Poetry
                                               Setting – considers the social, historical, and cultural significance of
                                                 setting to deepen comprehension, discusses how changes in setting           Write a pretend police report for a character
                                                 reinforce development of character, plot, mood, and theme, and              or author using character or author bio
                                                 analyzes how settings function as metaphor to reinforce themes
                                               Plots – How flashbacks, foreshadowing and subplots function to advance       Keep a character journal
                                                 the main plot; plot developments could reflect social, cultural and
                                                 historical conflicts                                                        Word web for setting
                                               Tone – the author’s attitude toward the subject
                                               Author background- biography of the author                                   Plot chunking – summarize or create a
                                                                                                                             plotline for setting
                                              Students should be able to explain with textual evidence the writer’s
                                              use of irony, contradictions, paradoxes, incongruities, and                    Tone – find a photo that matches the tone
                                              ambiguities in a literary selection.                                           or create a picture
                                              Support ideas with direct quotes from the text, summary, or paraphrasing to
                                                                                                                             Create a fakebook using Classtools.net
                                              prove the point.



NOTE: The bolded part of the standard is new to this grade level
                                                                                        6   (Spring 2012)
                  Arizona’s Common Core Standards • 11th-12th Grades English Language Arts • MPS Instructional Support Document


                                                      Source: Adapted from ADE Grades 11-12 ELA Alignment Document




                                                                                                                                        MPS Examples/Ideas
           Common Core Standard                                    MPS Explanations for Support/Clarification          (Includes examples and suggestions, but is NOT required
                                                                                                                        curriculum and may not fulfill the standard in its entirety)

  Reading Standards for Literature
  11-12.RL.2 Determine two or more                        Students will develop structured mental, oral, or written   Map/Web two to three themes until an overlap
  themes or central ideas of a text and                    summaries of text in order to delineate complex             provides a complex account of the text. (The Scarlet
  analyze their development over the                       relationships among supporting ideas, key ideas, and        Letter by Nathaniel Hawthorne, Dr. Jeckyll and Mr.
  course of the text, including how they                   themes.                                                     Hyde by Robert Louis Stevenson)
  interact and build on one another to                    Drawing from relevant prior knowledge and
  produce a complex account; provide                       literary/cross-curricular experiences, students will        30 second expert (Critical Reading Strategy)
  an objective summary of the text.                        extend, elaborate, and evaluate themes and complex
                                                           texts (drawing conclusions, identifying implications,       Interview each other about the topic
                                                           critiquing underlying assumptions of research and/or
                                                           author, formulating higher-level organizing categories,     Socratic seminars
                                                           and evaluating personal significance).
                                                                                                                       Provide an objective summary of the text. (Hamlet)
                                                             Source: ADE Grades 11-12 ELA Alignment Document




  11-12.RL.3 Analyze the impact of the                    Students will deconstruct and analyze the components        Character or setting collage
  author’s choices regarding how to                        of literature to discover how they create the whole.
  develop and relate elements of a story                  Analyze how and why individuals, events and ideas           Reading log
  or drama (e.g. where a story is set, how                 develop/interact over the course of the text.
  the action is ordered, how the characters                                                                            Alter one element of the story and explain how it
  are introduced and developed).                         (See RL.1 for list of elements of a story)                    changes the story


NOTE: The bolded part of the standard is new to this grade level
                                                                                       7   (Spring 2012)
                  Arizona’s Common Core Standards • 11th-12th Grades English Language Arts • MPS Instructional Support Document


                                                                           Source: Adapted from ADE Grades 11-12
                                                                                         ELA Alignment Document




                                                                                                                                    MPS Examples/Ideas
             Common Core Standard                                  MPS Explanations for Support/Clarification      (Includes examples and suggestions, but is NOT required
                                                                                                                    curriculum and may not fulfill the standard in its entirety)

  Reading Standards for Literature
  Craft and Structure




NOTE: The bolded part of the standard is new to this grade level
                                                                                      8   (Spring 2012)
                  Arizona’s Common Core Standards • 11th-12th Grades English Language Arts • MPS Instructional Support Document


  11-12.RL.4 Determine the meaning of                        Students will define, evaluate, interpret, and critique   Compare American sonnets to Shakespearean
  words and phrases as they are used in the                   how an author’s diction impacts the text (e.g., formal    sonnets
  text, including figurative and connotative                  and informal tone, voice) to support the author’s
  meanings; analyze the impact of specific                    purpose                                                   Translate period literature into modern language
  word choices on meaning and tone,
  including words with multiple meanings                    This includes:                                              Connotation/Denotation exercises
  or language that is particularly fresh,                    literary devices (understatement, sensory details)           1. write the connotative definition
  engaging, or beautiful. (Include                           figurative language (personification, simile,                2. write a personal definition
  Shakespeare as well as other authors.)                      symbolism, foreshadowing, metaphor, hyperbole,               3. act it out
                                                              mood, allusion, irony, and paradox).
                                                                                                                        Word replacement
                                                               Source: ADE Grades 11-12 ELA Alignment Document
                                                                                                                        Framed poetry
                                                            Historically in Mesa, Shakespeare has not been taught in
                                                            regular junior English (American Literature)                Examining the vernacular

                                                                                                                        Sensory detail activities




                                                                                                                                         MPS Examples/Ideas
             Common Core Standard                                  MPS Explanations for Support/Clarification           (Includes examples and suggestions, but is NOT required
                                                                                                                         curriculum and may not fulfill the standard in its entirety)

  Reading Standards for Literature



NOTE: The bolded part of the standard is new to this grade level
                                                                                       9   (Spring 2012)
                  Arizona’s Common Core Standards • 11th-12th Grades English Language Arts • MPS Instructional Support Document


  11-12.RL.5 Analyze how an author’s                         Students will analyze and critique how authors use        Create a graphic novel or story board based on a
  choices concerning how to structure                         specific genre elements to engage readers’                novel
  specific parts of a text (e.g., the choice of               conventional expectations associated with a variety of
  where to begin or end a story, the choice                   genres (e.g., classical essays, tragedy, comedy/satire,   Re-write an excerpt in a different genre (e.g. write
  to provide a comedic or tragic                              parables, epics, periodicals/journals).                   a chapter as a play).
  resolution) contribute to its overall
  structure and meaning as well as its                       Students may also analyze how an author deviates          Alter one element of the story and explain how it
  aesthetic impact.                                           from genre norms to achieve specific effects.             changes the story (Snapshot activities)

                                                             Students may analyze rhetorical strategies in order to
                                                              understand overall structure and meaning.
                                                               Source: ADE Grades 11-12 ELA Alignment Document




  11-12.RL.6 Analyze a case in which                        Students will analyze and critique how an author            Examples:
  grasping a point of view requires                         achieves specific effects and purposes using literary       “Savages” by Benjamin Franklin ( satire)
  distinguishing what is directly stated in                 devices and figurative language in conjunction with point
  a text from what is really meant (e.g.,                   of view to reinforce key ideas, events, and themes, and     “A Modest Proposal” by Jonathan Swift (satire)
  satire, sarcasm, irony, or                                create multiple layers of meaning.
  understatement).                                                                                                      “Allegory of the Cave” by Plato
                                                            Example:
                                                                understatement                                         Socratic seminar
                                                                mood
                                                                allusion                                               Political speeches/ debates from character point
                                                                allegory                                               of view
                                                                irony
                                                                tone
                                                                satire
                                                                sarcasm
                                                              Source: ADE Grades 11-12 ELA Alignment Document



                                                                                                                                         MPS Examples/Ideas
            Common Core Standard                                   MPS Explanations for Support/Clarification           (Includes examples and suggestions, but is NOT required
                                                                                                                         curriculum and may not fulfill the standard in its entirety)

  Reading Standards for Literature

NOTE: The bolded part of the standard is new to this grade level
                                                                                      10   (Spring 2012)
                  Arizona’s Common Core Standards • 11th-12th Grades English Language Arts • MPS Instructional Support Document

  Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
  11-12.RL.7 Analyze multiple                                                                                   Example: T.S. Elliot’s poem Old Possum’s Book of
  interpretations of a story, drama, or                                                                         Practical Cats contrasted with the musical Cats by
  poem (e.g., recorded or live production                                                                       Andrew Lloyd Webber
  of a play or recorded novel or poetry),
  evaluating how each version interprets                                                                        Compare Shakespeare to an American story,
  the source text. (Include at least one                                                                        drama, or poem
  play by Shakespeare and one play by an
  American dramatist.)                                                                                          Act out a scene

                                                                                                                Make their own movie




  11-12.RL.8 (Not applicable to literature)

  11-12.RL.9 Demonstrate knowledge of
  eighteenth-, nineteenth- and early-                                                                           Compare/Contrast author’s works or historical
  twentieth-century foundational works of                                                                       themes; for example, civil rights, “Ballad of
  American literature, including how two                                                                        Birmingham” by Dudley Randall to “Letter from
  or more texts from the same period                                                                            Birmingham Jail” by Martin Luther King Jr. to Black
  treat similar themes or topics.                                                                               Like Me by John Howard Griffin

                                                                                                                Compare texts from each century




                                                                                                                                 MPS Examples/Ideas
          Common Core Standard                                     MPS Explanations for Support/Clarification   (Includes examples and suggestions, but is NOT required
                                                                                                                 curriculum and may not fulfill the standard in its entirety)

  Reading Standards for Literature

NOTE: The bolded part of the standard is new to this grade level
                                                                                       11   (Spring 2012)
                  Arizona’s Common Core Standards • 11th-12th Grades English Language Arts • MPS Instructional Support Document

  Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity

  11.RL.10 By the end of grade 11,                     Grades 11-CCR Text Complexity Grade Band is Lexile
  read and comprehend literature,                      Range 1215-1355
  including stories, dramas, and poems,                                               Source: Appendix A p. 8
  in the grades 11–CCR text
  complexity band proficiently, with                   For more information about Text Complexity, refer to pages
  scaffolding as needed at the high end                2-16 of the Common Core State Standards for English
  of the range.                                        Language Arts Appendix A: Research Supporting Key
                                                       Elements of the Standards and Glossary of Key Terms.

                                                       For more information about specific text exemplars refer to
                                                       pages 140-183 of the Common Core State Standards for
                                                       English Language Arts Appendix B: Text Exemplars and
                                                       Sample Performance Tasks.




  12.RL.10 By the end of grade 12,                     Grades 11-CCR Text Complexity Grade Band is Lexile
  read and comprehend literature,                      Range 1215-1355
  including stories, dramas, and poems,                                               Source: Appendix A p. 8
  at the high end of the grades 11–CCR
  text complexity band independently                   For more information about Text Complexity, refer to pages
  and proficiently.                                    2-16 of the Common Core State Standards for English
                                                       Language Arts Appendix A: Research Supporting Key
                                                       Elements of the Standards and Glossary of Key Terms.

                                                       For more information about specific text exemplars refer to
                                                       pages 140-183 of the Common Core State Standards for
                                                       English Language Arts Appendix B: Text Exemplars and
                                                       Sample Performance Tasks.




NOTE: The bolded part of the standard is new to this grade level
                                                                                    12   (Spring 2012)
                  Arizona’s Common Core Standards • 11th-12th Grades English Language Arts • MPS Instructional Support Document

                                                                                                                                                MPS Examples/Ideas
                                                                                                                                        (Includes examples and suggestions, but
      Common Core Standard                                         MPS Explanations for Support/Clarification                            is NOT required curriculum and may not
                                                                                                                                             fulfill the standard in its entirety)

  Reading Standards for Informational Text
  The Common Core Standards define Literary Nonfiction as including the subgenres of exposition, argument, and functional text in the form of personal
  essays, speeches, opinion pieces, essays about art or literature, biographies, memoirs, journalism, and historical, scientific, technical, or economic accounts
  (including digital sources) written for a broad audience                                       Source: The Common Core State Standards for ELA page 57

  Key Ideas and Details

  11-12.RI.1 Cite strong and                  The basis of this standard is the author’s use of literary elements and rhetorical        Critical Reading Strategies
  thorough textual evidence to                strategies. Teachers may include multi-culturally diverse texts including non-print       (annotating the text)
  support analysis of what the                or visual texts. Students will describe and analyze literary elements raised in RL
  text says explicitly as well as             Standard 1. 11-12 level band in order to move on to more complexity in:                   Prove an opposing position of an
  inferences drawn from the text,              Theme – multiple levels of theme in one text or across texts                            argument through research
  including determining where                  Point of View – multiple characters acting as narrators each with a limited and
  the text leaves matters                        possibly unreliable narrative perspective
  uncertain.                                   Characterization – more complex, multi-layered characters with varying beliefs,
                                                 values, social class, and gender roles
                                               Setting – considers the social, historical, and cultural significance of setting to
                                                 deepen comprehension, discusses how changes in setting reinforce
                                                 development of character, plot, mood, and theme, and analyzes how settings
                                                 function as metaphor to reinforce themes
                                               Plots – How flashbacks, foreshadowing and subplots function to advance the
                                                 main plot; plot developments could reflect social, cultural and historical conflicts
                                               Tone – the author’s attitude toward the subject
                                               Author background- biography of the author
                                               Purpose
                                               Audience
                                               Persuasive techniques-appeals, parallelism, repetition, antithesis
                                              Students should be able to explain with textual evidence the writer’s use of
                                              irony, contradictions, paradoxes, incongruities, and ambiguities in a literary
                                              selection.
                                              Support ideas with direct quotes from the text, summary, or paraphrasing to prove
                                              the point.
                                                          Source: Adapted from ADE Grades 11-12 ELA Alignment Document


NOTE: The bolded part of the standard is new to this grade level
                                                                                     13   (Spring 2012)
                  Arizona’s Common Core Standards • 11th-12th Grades English Language Arts • MPS Instructional Support Document

                                                                                                                                      MPS Examples/Ideas
           Common Core Standard                                    MPS Explanations for Support/Clarification        (Includes examples and suggestions, but is NOT required
                                                                                                                      curriculum and may not fulfill the standard in its entirety)

  Reading Standards for Informational Text
  11-12.RI.2 Determine two or more                      Students will develop structured mental, oral, or written   See Kylene Beers’ strategies
  central ideas of a text and analyze their              summaries of text in order to delineate complex
  development over the course of the                     relationships among supporting ideas, key ideas, and        Socratic seminars
  text, including how they interact and                  themes.
  build on one another to provide a                     Drawing from relevant prior knowledge and                   Charting
  complex analysis; provide an                           literary/cross-curricular experiences, students will
  objective summary of the text.                         extend, elaborate, and evaluate themes and complex          Précis
                                                         texts (drawing conclusions, identifying implications,
                                                         critiquing underlying assumptions of research and/or        Cornell Notes
                                                         author, formulating higher-level organizing categories,
                                                         and evaluating personal significance).                      Analyze contrasting perspectives
                                                             Source: ADE Grades 11-12 ELA Alignment Document
                                                                                                                     Graphic organizers (Venn Diagram or web) with
                                                                                                                     specific quotes and citations




  11-12.RI.3 Analyze a complex set of                   Students will draw on relevant prior knowledge and          Draw conclusions, identify implications, critique
  ideas or sequence of events and                        cross-curricular experiences to extend, elaborate, and      underlying assumptions, and evaluate personal
  explain how specific individuals,                      evaluate the meaning of events, main ideas, supporting      significance
  ideas, or events interact and develop                  ideas, and themes in a complex text.
  over the course of the text.                          Assess how the text influences history and the historical   Historical background research
                                                         context influences the author
                                                             Source: ADE Grades 11-12 ELA Alignment Document




NOTE: The bolded part of the standard is new to this grade level
                                                                                       14   (Spring 2012)
                  Arizona’s Common Core Standards • 11th-12th Grades English Language Arts • MPS Instructional Support Document

                                                                                                                                     MPS Examples/Ideas
           Common Core Standard                                    MPS Explanations for Support/Clarification       (Includes examples and suggestions, but is NOT required
                                                                                                                     curriculum and may not fulfill the standard in its entirety)

  Reading Standards for Informational Text
  Craft and Structure
  11-12.RI.4 Determine the meaning of                  Students will focus on how an author’s specific word         Charades
  words and phrases as they are used in                choices impact the text (e.g., formal and informal tone,
  a text, including figurative, connotative,           voice) to support the author’s purpose                       Connotations
  and technical meanings; analyze how                   this includes how to infer word meanings from context
  an author uses and refines the                          (e.g., example, restatement)                              Speeches online
  meaning of a key term or terms over                   how to distinguish between the denotative and
  the course of a text (e.g., how                         connotative meanings of words.                            Apology letter
  Madison defines faction in Federalist
  No. 10).                                             Students will defend how word choice conveys intended        Speeches, editorials, essays
                                                       and unintended meanings for readers and can affect           “I’ve Been to the Mountaintop” or
                                                       readers in different ways depending on the context.          Nobel Prize acceptance – MLK
                                                          Source: adapted from ADE Grades 11-12 ELA Alignment
                                                                                                                    Development of slang essay
                                                                                                    Document
                                                                                                                    JFK’s inauguration speech



  11-12.RI.5 Analyze and evaluate the                   Students will analyze how organizational patterns (e.g.,   Précis
  effectiveness of the structure an                      chronological, compare/contrast, problem-solution,
  author uses in his or her exposition                   cause-and-effect, etc.), use of language, and word         Timelines
  or argument, including whether the                     choice work together to create a complex whole.
  structure makes points clear,                         Students will examine the effectiveness of rhetorical      Annotating the text
  convincing, and engaging.                              strategies (allusions, repetition, parallel structure,
                                                         alliteration, etc.) within the argument                    Toni Morrison’s Nobel speech contrasted with
                                                                                                                    “Tradition and the Individual Talent” by T.S. Eliot
                                                              Source: ADE Grades 11-12 ELA Alignment Document
                                                                                                                    Parallel structure




NOTE: The bolded part of the standard is new to this grade level
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                  Arizona’s Common Core Standards • 11th-12th Grades English Language Arts • MPS Instructional Support Document

                                                                                                                                   MPS Examples/Ideas
            Common Core Standard                                   MPS Explanations for Support/Clarification     (Includes examples and suggestions, but is NOT required
                                                                                                                   curriculum and may not fulfill the standard in its entirety)

  Reading Standards for Informational Text
  11-12.RI.6 Determine an author’s point                 Students will critique and evaluate how:                 Rhetorical Triangle
  of view or purpose in a text in which the               an author crafts an intended effect on an audience
  rhetoric is particularly effective,                     appeals to audience emotions, interests, values, and   STAMP (Speaker/Subject, Tone, Audience,
  analyzing how style and content                          beliefs                                                Message, Purpose)
  contribute to the power,                                uses reasoning and evidence to achieve specific
  persuasiveness or beauty of the text.                    purposes for an intended audience                      Literary criticism
                                                                                                                  “The Damned Human Race” by Mark Twain
                                                             Source: ADE Grades 11-12 ELA Alignment Document
                                                                                                                  “The Dear Scottie Letters” by F. Scott Fitzgerald




  Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

  11-12.RI.7 Integrate and evaluate                      Students will synthesize the information from multiple   Give students a variety of formats including: film,
  multiple sources of information                        sources on the same topic in order to develop a case     periodicals, books, websites, and graphics
  presented in different media or                        based upon differences in evidence, reasoning,
  formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively)               assumptions, purposes, beliefs, biases, and arguments.   Wikipedia excluded
  as well as in words in order to                            Source: ADE Grades 11-12 ELA Alignment Document
  address a question or solve a
  problem.




NOTE: The bolded part of the standard is new to this grade level
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                  Arizona’s Common Core Standards • 11th-12th Grades English Language Arts • MPS Instructional Support Document

                                                                                                                                       MPS Examples/Ideas
            Common Core Standard                                   MPS Explanations for Support/Clarification         (Includes examples and suggestions, but is NOT required
                                                                                                                       curriculum and may not fulfill the standard in its entirety)

  Reading Standards for Informational Text
  11-12.RI.8 Delineate and evaluate the                    Students will have a working knowledge of the format      Research a law from its inception
  reasoning in seminal U.S. texts,                          of legal arguments/opinions and briefs.
  including the application of                             Students will comprehend legal vocabulary.                Mock trial
  constitutional principles and use of                     Students will deconstruct the argument/opinion/brief as
  legal reasoning (e.g., in U.S. Supreme                    well as Constitutional documents in order to explain
  Court majority opinions and dissents)                     why a judge ruled the way s/he did. This will involve
  and the premises, purposes, and                           basic analysis of the law.
  arguments in works of public
  advocacy (e.g., The Federalist,                         Offers an opportunity to collaborate with Government
  presidential addresses).                                teacher
                                                              Source: ADE Grades 11-12 ELA Alignment Document




  11-12.RI.9 Analyze seventeenth-,                         Students will compare themes of a variety of works        American Revolutionary War & American Civil War
  eighteenth-, and nineteenth-century                       from different centuries to analyze how the theme         documents
  foundational U.S. documents of                            reflects the era.
  historical and literary significance                     Students will look at the rhetorical features to          Tribal Treaties from the Jackson Era
  (including The Declaration of                             determine if the intent of the document is to persuade,
  Independence, the Preamble to the                         inform, or entertain.                                     Surrender speech by Chief Joseph
  Constitution, the Bill of Rights, and                    Rhetorical devices would include figurative language,
  Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address)                       allusion, tone, point of view, organizational style,
  for their themes, purposes, and                           diction, irony, mood, etc.
  rhetorical features.
                                                              Source: ADE Grades 11-12 ELA Alignment Document




NOTE: The bolded part of the standard is new to this grade level
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                                                                                                                                       MPS Examples/Ideas
           Common Core Standard                                    MPS Explanations for Support/Clarification         (Includes examples and suggestions, but is NOT required
                                                                                                                       curriculum and may not fulfill the standard in its entirety)

  Reading Standards for Informational Text
  Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity

  11.RI.10 By the end of grade 11, read                 Grades 11-CCR Text Complexity Grade Band is Lexile
  and comprehend literary nonfiction in                 Range 1215-1355
  the grades 11–CCR text complexity                                                    Source: Appendix A p. 8
  band proficiently, with scaffolding as
  needed at the high end of the range.                  For more information about Text Complexity, refer to pages
                                                        2-16 of the Common Core State Standards for English
                                                        Language Arts Appendix A: Research Supporting Key
  12.RI.10 By the end of grade 12, read                 Elements of the Standards and Glossary of Key Terms.
  and comprehend literary nonfiction at
  the high end of the grades 11–CCR                     For more information about specific text exemplars refer to
  text complexity band independently                    pages 140-183 of the Common Core State Standards for
  and proficiently.                                     English Language Arts Appendix B: Text Exemplars and
                                                        Sample Performance Tasks

  * AZ11.RI.10a By the end of grade 11,                 Students will demonstrate informational or functional text
  read and comprehend informational and                 knowledge by utilizing glossary, indexes, and navigating
  functional text, including history/social             textbooks.
  studies, science, and technical text, in
  the grades 11-CCR text complexity
  band proficiently, with scaffolding as
  needed at the high end of the range.
  *This is an Arizona addition to the ELA Common
  Core Standards


  * AZ12.RI.10a By the end of grade 12,
  read and comprehend informational and
  functional text, including history/social
  studies, science, and technical text, at
  the high end of the grades 11-CCR text
  complexity band independently and
  proficiently.
  *This is an Arizona addition to the ELA Common
  Core Standards



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                  Arizona’s Common Core Standards • 11th-12th Grades English Language Arts • MPS Instructional Support Document




                                        WRITING
                                       STANDARDS


NOTE: The bolded part of the standard is new to this grade level
                                                                   19   (Spring 2012)
                  Arizona’s Common Core Standards • 11th-12th Grades English Language Arts • MPS Instructional Support Document

                                                                                                                                        MPS Examples/Ideas
           Common Core Standard                                    MPS Explanations for Support/Clarification          (Includes examples and suggestions, but is NOT required
                                                                                                                        curriculum and may not fulfill the standard in its entirety)

  Writing Standards

  When working with the writing standards
          o One of the 3 text types will always be used: argument, informative/explanatory, narrative (writing standards 1, 2, and 3)
          o The production and distribution standards 4, 5, and 6 will be used during the process of teaching standards 1, 2, and 3
          o The writing research standards 7, 8, and 9 will also be used during the process of teaching standards 1, 2, and 3

  Text Types and Purposes
  The Common Core State Standards require that the balance of writing students are asked to do parallel the balance assessed on the National Assessment of
  Educational Progress (NAEP). In high school, 40 percent of student writing should be to write arguments, 40 percent should be to explain/inform, and 20
  percent should be narrative. These forms of writing are not strictly independent; for example, arguments and explanations often include narrative elements,
  and both informing and arguing rely on using information or evidence drawn from texts.
                                                                                                                              Source: Publishers’ Criteria p. 11

  Argument
  An argument is a reasoned, logical way of demonstrating that the writer’s position, belief, or conclusion is valid. Arguments are used for many purposes—to
  change the reader’s point of view, to bring about some action on the reader’s part, or to ask the reader to accept the writer’s explanation or evaluation of a
  concept, issue, or problem. In English language arts, students make claims about the worth or meaning of a literary work or works. They defend their
  interpretations or judgments with evidence from the text(s) they are writing about.
                                                                                                                                        Source: Appendix A p. 23

  11-12.W.1 Write arguments to support                 “Argument” and “Persuasion” – Argument differs from             Political rhetoric – current and historical
  claims in an analysis of substantive                 persuasion. The Standards place special emphasis on
  topics or texts, using valid reasoning               writing logical arguments as a particularly important form of   Current events
  and relevant and sufficient evidence.                college-and career-ready writing.
                                                                                                                       Evaluating resources (annotated bibliography)
                                                       “Argument”
                                                           merit and reasonable claims                                Supreme Court rulings
                                                           logos (a logical argument)
                                                           research                                                   Literary Criticism-Harold Bloom
                                                           documentation of credible sources
                                                           avoid logical fallacies
                                                           objective tone




NOTE: The bolded part of the standard is new to this grade level
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                                                                                                                                           MPS Examples/Ideas
          Common Core Standard                                     MPS Explanations for Support/Clarification             (Includes examples and suggestions, but is NOT required
                                                                                                                           curriculum and may not fulfill the standard in its entirety)

  Writing Standards
  11-12.W.1 (continued)                                “Persuasion” is not included in this standard and is               Political rhetoric – current and historical
                                                       defined as:
                                                            pathos (appeal to the audience’s emotions)                   Current events
                                                            ethos
                                                             o author’s credibility                                       Evaluating resources (annotated bibliography)
                                                             o (appeal to audience’s self interest, character, and
                                                                authority)                                                Supreme Court rulings
                                                            sways an audience based on emotion
                                                            subjective tone                                              Literary Criticism-Harold Bloom
                                                            may have cited sources
                                                                                        Source: Appendix A p. 24

  a. Introduce Précise, knowledgeable                  Claim: A statement that expresses a clear argument or              Graphic organizers (Venn Diagram, Harvard
     claim(s), establish the significance              interpretation, written as a fact. The main claim is a part of     Outline, Cornell notes, Mind Map)
     of the claim(s), distinguish the                  the thesis but is not the thesis itself. (See italicized portion
     claim(s) from alternate or opposing               of example below.)                                                 Determine type and credibility of source (primary
     claims, and create an organization                         An essay will also provide sub-claims and counter         and secondary)
     that logically sequences claim(s),                         claims within body paragraphs to support and
     counterclaims, reasons, and                                defend the thesis.                                        Sequence claims/counterclaims by most convincing
     evidence.                                                                                                            arguments (note cards or outlines)
                                                       Thesis: A statement that expresses the main idea and
                                                       answers a question. It is the main claim plus a distinct
                                                       reason why/how—the “so what”. (See underlined portion of
                                                       example below.)

                                                       Claim and thesis are connected.

                                                       Example:
                                                       This bond allowing the school to add more facilities should
                                                       be passed in order for young students to be provided with a
                                                       better education.




NOTE: The bolded part of the standard is new to this grade level
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                  Arizona’s Common Core Standards • 11th-12th Grades English Language Arts • MPS Instructional Support Document

                                                                                                                                      MPS Examples/Ideas
            Common Core Standard                                   MPS Explanations for Support/Clarification        (Includes examples and suggestions, but is NOT required
                                                                                                                      curriculum and may not fulfill the standard in its entirety)

 Writing Standards
 b. Develop claim(s) and counterclaims                     Students will develop and use a concession                Show examples of credible vs. non-credible sources
    fairly and thoroughly, supplying the                   (acknowledge the counterclaim) and refutation (refuting
    most relevant evidence for each while                  the counterclaim) appropriate for audience.               Annotating the text
    pointing out the strengths and
    limitations of both in a manner that                                                                             Create or identify counterclaims for each claim
    anticipates the audience’s knowledge
    level, concerns, values, and possible                                                                            Create T-chart with strengths and limitations (or
    biases.                                                                                                          pros and cons)

                                                                                                                     Model and discuss arguments based on the
                                                                                                                     audience (trying to convince parent vs. neighbor, vs.
                                                                                                                     a friend)

                                                                                                                     Evaluate speaker/ author bias (motive, background)

                                                                                                                     Evaluate the media to identify logos, pathos, ethos
                                                                                                                     (media fallacies)


 c. Use words, phrases, and clauses as                     Students will use a variety of sentence structures to     Read writing aloud for sentence fluency, both
    well as varied syntax to link the major                highlight and link important ideas and supporting         professional and student writing
    sections of the text, create cohesion,                 evidence
    and clarify the relationships between                                                                            Masterpiece sentences activity (manipulating
    claim(s) and reasons, between reasons                                                                            sentence structure)
    and evidence, and between claim(s)
    and counterclaims.                                                                                               Deconstructing writing using graphic organizers




NOTE: The bolded part of the standard is new to this grade level
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                  Arizona’s Common Core Standards • 11th-12th Grades English Language Arts • MPS Instructional Support Document

                                                                                                                                 MPS Examples/Ideas
            Common Core Standard                                   MPS Explanations for Support/Clarification   (Includes examples and suggestions, but is NOT required
                                                                                                                 curriculum and may not fulfill the standard in its entirety)

 Writing Standards

 d. Establish and maintain a formal style                                                                       Voice Lessons by Nancy Dean
    and objective tone while attending to
    the norms and conventions of the                                                                            Drafting/Revision for tone: SAT/College Board
    discipline in which they are writing.                                                                       prompts, memos, letters of intent, resume, extracts

                                                                                                                Respond to writing prompts with the same topic for
                                                                                                                two different audiences. Discuss the differences.




 e. Provide a concluding statement or                                                                           Cornell Notes – summary
    section that follows from and supports
    the argument presented.                                                                                     Omit the conclusion of a published piece and have
                                                                                                                students generate a replacement conclusion




NOTE: The bolded part of the standard is new to this grade level
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                  Arizona’s Common Core Standards • 11th-12th Grades English Language Arts • MPS Instructional Support Document

                                                                                                                                 MPS Examples/Ideas
              Common Core Standard                                 MPS Explanations for Support/Clarification   (Includes examples and suggestions, but is NOT required
                                                                                                                curriculum and may not fulfill the standard in its entirety)

  Writing Standards

  Informative/Explanatory
  Informational/explanatory writing conveys information accurately. Explanations start with the assumption of truthfulness and answer questions about why or
  how. This kind of writing serves one or more closely related purposes: to increase readers’ knowledge of a subject, to help readers better understand a
  procedure or process, or to provide readers with an enhanced comprehension of a concept. To produce this kind of writing, students draw from what they
  already know and from credible primary and secondary sources.
                                                                                                                                   Source: Appendix A p. 23

  11-12.W.2 Write informative/explanatory
  texts to examine and convey complex ideas,
  concepts, and information clearly and
  accurately through the effective selection,
  organization, and analysis of content.



  a. Introduce a topic; organize complex                                                                        Multimedia:
     ideas, concepts, and information so that                                                                   Digital story telling, Prezi (prezi.com), movie
     each new element builds on that                                                                            maker, Windows story, PowerPoint
     which precedes it to create a unified
     whole; include formatting (e.g.,
     headings), graphics (e.g., figures,
     tables), and multimedia when useful to
     aiding comprehension.


  b. Develop the topic thoroughly by                                                                            Define audience
     selecting the most significant and
     relevant facts, extended definitions,                                                                      Evaluate sources: Annotated bibliography,
     concrete details, quotations, or other                                                                     rhetorical prèsi
     information and examples appropriate to
     the audience’s knowledge of the topic.                                                                     Reinforce critical reading skills (marking text,
                                                                                                                identify claims)




NOTE: The bolded part of the standard is new to this grade level
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                  Arizona’s Common Core Standards • 11th-12th Grades English Language Arts • MPS Instructional Support Document

                                                                                                                                 MPS Examples/Ideas
             Common Core Standard                                  MPS Explanations for Support/Clarification   (Includes examples and suggestions, but is NOT required
                                                                                                                curriculum and may not fulfill the standard in its entirety)

   Writing Standards

   c. Use appropriate and varied transitions                Transitions- should include ideas and complex       Peer editing, multiple revisions- highlight and link
      and syntax to link the major sections                 sentences that introduce new concepts               transitional ideas
      of the text, create cohesion, and
      clarify the relationships among
      complex ideas and concepts.




   d. Use Précise language, domain-                                                                             Emulate the writing style of a respected literary
      specific vocabulary, and techniques                                                                       scholar
      such as metaphor, simile, and
      analogy to manage the complexity                                                                          For help on, metaphors, similes, and analogies see
      of the topic.                                                                                             the website:
                                                                                                                www.colorado.edu/PWR/writingtips/13.html



   e. Establish and maintain a formal style                 Avoid using First Person as part of formal tone.    See argument examples 11-12.RI.4
      and objective tone while attending to
      the norms and conventions of the                                                                          Rewrite colloquia/ informal writing to formal
      discipline in which they are writing.                                                                     language




   f.   Provide a concluding statement or                                                                       Omit the conclusion of a published piece and have
        section that follows from and supports                                                                  students generate a replacement conclusion
        the information or explanation
        presented (e.g., articulating
        implications or the significance of the
        topic).




NOTE: The bolded part of the standard is new to this grade level
                                                                                      25   (Spring 2012)
                  Arizona’s Common Core Standards • 11th-12th Grades English Language Arts • MPS Instructional Support Document

                                                                                                                                 MPS Examples/Ideas
             Common Core Standard                                  MPS Explanations for Support/Clarification   (Includes examples and suggestions, but is NOT required
                                                                                                                curriculum and may not fulfill the standard in its entirety)

   Writing Standards

   Narrative
   Narrative writing conveys experience, either real or imaginary, and uses time as its deep structure. It can be used for many purposes, such as to inform,
   instruct, persuade, or entertain. In English language arts, students produce narratives that take the form of creative fictional stories, memoirs, anecdotes,
   and autobiographies.                                                                                                             Source: Appendix A p. 23-24
   Creative Writing beyond Narrative
   The narrative category does not include all of the possible forms of creative writing, such as many types of poetry. The Standards leave the inclusion and
   evaluation of other such forms to teacher discretion.                                                                           Source: Appendix A p.24
   While narrative writing is given prominence in early grades, as students progress through the grades the Common Core State Standards increasingly ask
   students to write arguments or informational reports from sources. As a consequence, less classroom time should be spent in later grades on personal
   writing in response to decontextualized prompts that ask students to detail personal experiences or opinions.        Source: Publisher’s Criteria p.11

   11-12.W.3 Write narratives to develop                    Narrative writing can be used as a support or a
   real or imagined experiences or events                   supplementary mode in other modes of writing
   using effective technique, well-chosen                   (arguments, informative, etc.)
   details, and well-structured event
   sequences.

   a. Engage and orient the reader by                                                                            Round robin writing—add a character, change the
      setting out a problem, situation, or                                                                       narrator, POV (point of view), antagonist or
      observation and its significance,                                                                          protagonist
      establishing one or multiple point(s) of
      view, and introducing a narrator and/or                                                                    Story map/ board/outline
      characters; create a smooth
      progression of experiences or events.

   b. Use narrative techniques, such as                                                                         Write a script
      dialogue, pacing, description,
      reflection, and multiple plot lines, to                                                                   Newscast
      develop experiences, events, and/or
      characters.                                                                                               Readers Theater

                                                                                                                Effectively embed dialogue into a narrative


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                  Arizona’s Common Core Standards • 11th-12th Grades English Language Arts • MPS Instructional Support Document

                                                                                                                                 MPS Examples/Ideas
             Common Core Standard                                  MPS Explanations for Support/Clarification   (Includes examples and suggestions, but is NOT required
                                                                                                                curriculum and may not fulfill the standard in its entirety)

   Writing Standards

   c. Use a variety of techniques to                                                                            Story map/board
      sequence events so that they build on
      one another to create a coherent                                                                          Cause/Effect organizer
      whole and build toward a particular
      tone and outcome (e.g., a sense of                                                                        Students write their own Choose Your Own
      mystery, suspense, growth, or                                                                             Adventure
      resolution).




   d. Use Précise words and phrases,                                                                            Poetry Out Loud
      telling details, and sensory language
      to convey a vivid picture of the                                                                          Poetry Slam
      experiences, events, setting, and/or
      characters.                                                                                               Sensory Charts

                                                                                                                Write a picture




   e. Provide a conclusion that follows from                                                                    Rewrite endings
      and reflects on what is experienced,
      observed, or resolved over the course                                                                     Create a reflective ending for an established
      of the narrative.                                                                                         narrative (from a different student or published
                                                                                                                sample)




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                                                                                      27   (Spring 2012)
                  Arizona’s Common Core Standards • 11th-12th Grades English Language Arts • MPS Instructional Support Document

                                                                                                                                      MPS Examples/Ideas
       Common Core Standard                                 MPS Explanations for Support/Clarification               (Includes examples and suggestions, but is NOT required
                                                                                                                      curriculum and may not fulfill the standard in its entirety)

   Writing Standards
   Production and Distribution of Writing
   11-12.W.4 Produce clear and                  Six Traits of Writing                                                Student generated rubrics that focus on a
   coherent writing in which the                                                                                     specific(s) trait
   development, organization, and                   Ideas and Content
   style are appropriate to task,                   Writing is clear and focused, holding the reader’s attention     Teacher generated rubrics
   purpose, and audience. (Grade-                   throughout. Main ideas stand out and are developed by strong
   specific expectations for writing                support and rich details. Purpose is accomplished.
   types are defined in standards
   1–3 above.)                                      Organization
                                                    Organization addresses the structure of the writing and
                                                    integrates the central meaning and patterns that hold the
                                                    piece together.

                                                    Voice
                                                    Voice will vary according to the type of piece, but should be
                                                    appropriately formal or casual, distant or personal, depending
                                                    on the audience and purpose.

                                                    Word Choice
                                                    Word choice reflects the writer’s use of specific words and
                                                    phrases to convey the intended message and employs a
                                                    variety of words that are functional and appropriate to the
                                                    audience and purpose.

                                                    Sentence Fluency
                                                    Fluency addresses the rhythm and flow of language.
                                                    Sentences are strong and varied in structure and length.

                                                    Conventions
                                                    Conventions addresses the mechanics of writing, including
                                                    capitalization, punctuation, spelling, grammar and usage, and
                                                    paragraph breaks.
                                                                             Source: 2004 AZ Writing W11.S1.C2



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                  Arizona’s Common Core Standards • 11th-12th Grades English Language Arts • MPS Instructional Support Document

                                                                                                                             MPS Examples/Ideas
           Common Core Standard                                MPS Explanations for Support/Clarification   (Includes examples and suggestions, but is NOT required
                                                                                                            curriculum and may not fulfill the standard in its entirety)

   Writing Standards

   * AZ11-12.W.4a Produce clear and
   coherent functional writing (e.g.,
   formal letters, envelopes, technical
   directions, experiments, labels,
   timelines, graphs/table, procedures,
   charts, maps, captions, diagram,
   sidebar, flow charts) in which the
   development, organization, and style
   are appropriate to task, purpose, and
   audience.




   *This is an Arizona addition to the ELA
   Common Core Standards




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                                                                                                                                           MPS Examples/Ideas
          Common Core Standard                                 MPS Explanations for Support/Clarification                 (Includes examples and suggestions, but is NOT required
                                                                                                                          curriculum and may not fulfill the standard in its entirety)

   Writing Standards

   11-12.W.5 Develop and strengthen                  The Writing Process
   writing as needed by planning,
   revising, editing, rewriting, or trying                Prewriting
   a new approach, focusing on                            Prewriting includes using strategies to generate, plan,
   addressing what is most significant                    and organize ideas for specific purposes
   for a specific purpose and audience.                   – Determine the purpose and intended audience of a
                                                            writing piece
                                                          – Generate ideas through a variety of activities
                                                          – Establish a controlling idea appropriate to the type of
                                                            writing
                                                          – Use organizational strategies to plan writing

                                                          Drafting
                                                          Drafting incorporates prewriting activities to create a draft
                                                          containing necessary elements for a specific purpose.

                                                          Revising
                                                          Revising includes evaluating and refining the draft for
                                                          clarity and effectiveness.
                                                          – Evaluate the draft for use of ideas and content,
                                                            organization, voice, word choice, and sentence fluency
                                                          – Add details to the draft to more effectively accomplish
                                                            the purpose
                                                          – Delete irrelevant and/or redundant information from the
                                                            draft to more effectively accomplish the purpose
                                                          – Rearrange words, sentences, and paragraphs in the
                                                            draft (effectively using transitional words and phrases)
                                                            in order to clarify the meaning or to enhance the writing
                                                            style.

                                                          Editing
                                                          Editing includes proofreading and correcting the draft for
                                                          conventions.




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                  Arizona’s Common Core Standards • 11th-12th Grades English Language Arts • MPS Instructional Support Document

                                                                                                                                        MPS Examples/Ideas
           Common Core Standard                                    MPS Explanations for Support/Clarification          (Includes examples and suggestions, but is NOT required
                                                                                                                        curriculum and may not fulfill the standard in its entirety)

   Writing Standards

   11-12.W.5 (continued)                                     Publishing
                                                             Publishing includes formatting and presenting a final
                                                             product for the intended audience.
                                                                                Source: 2004 AZ Writing W11.S1.C1




   11-12.W.6 Use technology, including                                                                                 Google Docs, Email, Power Points, texting, blogs,
   the Internet, to produce, publish, and                                                                              reputable websites for research, online
   update individual or shared writing                                                                                 collaboration
   products in response to ongoing
   feedback, including new arguments
   or information.




   Research to Build and Present Knowledge

   11-12.W.7 Conduct short as well as                   “Students should conduct several short research projects
   more sustained research projects to                  in addition to more sustained research efforts … A
   answer a question (including a self-                 progression of shorter research projects also encourages
   generated question) or solve a                       students to develop expertise in one area by confronting
   problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry               and analyzing different aspects of the same topic as well
   when appropriate; synthesize multiple                as other texts and source materials on that topic. ”
   sources on the subject, demonstrating
                                                                                   Source: Publishers’ Criteria p.11
   understanding of the subject under
   investigation.
                                                        Students are creating their own thesis statement and
                                                        proving it through research.




NOTE: The bolded part of the standard is new to this grade level
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                  Arizona’s Common Core Standards • 11th-12th Grades English Language Arts • MPS Instructional Support Document

                                                                                                                                             MPS Examples/Ideas
              Common Core Standard                                 MPS Explanations for Support/Clarification               (Includes examples and suggestions, but is NOT required
                                                                                                                             curriculum and may not fulfill the standard in its entirety)

   Writing Standards

   11-12.W.8 Gather relevant information                      MPS requires MLA for English documentation                     Annotated bibliography
   from multiple authoritative print and digital               Teachers familiarize students with MLA style
   sources, using advanced searches                             manuals in book or electronic format for supporting          MLA Works Cited page
   effectively; assess the strengths and                        and citing sources or resource cites
   limitations of each source in terms of the                  Students should utilize and embed quotes correctly
   task, purpose, and audience; integrate                       according to MLA format for function, format, and
   information into the text selectively to                     readability
   maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding
   plagiarism and overreliance on any one
   source and following a standard format for
   citation.



   11-12.W.9 Draw evidence from literary or
   informational texts to support analysis,
   reflection, and research.



   a. Apply grades 11–12 Reading Standards                    The Common Core Standards define Literature as:
      to literature (e.g., “Demonstrate                        Stories – Includes the subgenres of adventure
      knowledge of eighteenth-, nineteenth-                     stories, historical fiction, mysteries, myths, science
      and early-twentieth-century foundational                  fiction, realistic fiction, allegories, parodies, satire,
      works of American literature, including                   and graphic novels
      how two or more texts from the same                      Drama – Includes one-act and multi-act plays, both
      period treat similar themes or topics”).                  in written form and on film
                                                               Poetry – Includes the subgenres of narrative
                                                                poems, lyrical poems, free verse poems, sonnets,
                                                                odes, ballads, and epics
                                                                        Source: The Common Core State Standards
                                                                                                for ELA page 57



NOTE: The bolded part of the standard is new to this grade level
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                  Arizona’s Common Core Standards • 11th-12th Grades English Language Arts • MPS Instructional Support Document

                                                                                                                                         MPS Examples/Ideas
             Common Core Standard                                  MPS Explanations for Support/Clarification           (Includes examples and suggestions, but is NOT required
                                                                                                                         curriculum and may not fulfill the standard in its entirety)

   Writing Standards

   b. Apply grades 11–12 Reading                            The Common Core Standards define Literary Nonfiction
      Standards to literary nonfiction (e.g.,               as including the subgenres of exposition, argument, and
      “Delineate and evaluate the reasoning                 functional text in the form of personal essays, speeches,
      in seminal U.S. texts, including the                  opinion pieces, essays about art or literature,
      application of constitutional principles              biographies, memoirs, journalism, and historical,
      and use of legal reasoning [e.g., in                  scientific, technical, or economic accounts (including
      U.S. Supreme Court Case majority                      digital sources) written for a broad audience
      opinions and dissents] and the
                                                                      Source: The Common Core State Standards
      premises, purposes, and arguments in
                                                                                              for ELA page 57
      works of public advocacy [e.g., The
      Federalist, presidential addresses]”).




   Range of Writing

   11-12.W.10 Write routinely over
   extended time frames (time for research,                                                                             Timed writings
   reflection, and revision) and shorter time
   frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for
   a range of tasks, purposes, and
   audiences.




NOTE: The bolded part of the standard is new to this grade level
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                  Arizona’s Common Core Standards • 11th-12th Grades English Language Arts • MPS Instructional Support Document




                             SPEAKING and
                               LISTENING
                              STANDARDS

NOTE: The bolded part of the standard is new to this grade level
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                  Arizona’s Common Core Standards • 11th-12th Grades English Language Arts • MPS Instructional Support Document

                                                                                                                                 MPS Examples/Ideas
             Common Core Standard                                  MPS Explanations for Support/Clarification   (Includes examples and suggestions, but is NOT required
                                                                                                                 curriculum and may not fulfill the standard in its entirety)

   Speaking and Listening Standards
   Comprehension and Collaboration

   11-12.SL.1 Initiate and participate                                                                          Socratic seminar
   effectively in a range of collaborative
   discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and                                                                      Think/pair/share
   teacher-led) with diverse partners on
   grades 11–12 topics, texts, and issues,                                                                      Four corners
   building on others’ ideas and expressing
   their own clearly and persuasively.                                                                          Philosophical Chairs-AVID



   a. Come to discussions prepared,                                                                             Debate
      having read and researched material
      under study; explicitly draw on that                                                                      Mock Trial
      preparation by referring to evidence
      from texts and other research on the                                                                      Present a visual aide for the argument
      topic or issue to stimulate a
      thoughtful, well-reasoned exchange
      of ideas.



   b. Work with peers to promote civil,                                                                         Set discussion norms
      democratic discussions and
      decision-making, set clear goals                                                                          Mock Trial with jury, judge, lawyer
      and deadlines, and establish
      individual roles as needed.                                                                               Assign clear individual roles in group- leader,
                                                                                                                scribe, presenter




NOTE: The bolded part of the standard is new to this grade level
                                                                                      35   (Spring 2012)
                  Arizona’s Common Core Standards • 11th-12th Grades English Language Arts • MPS Instructional Support Document

                                                                                                                                 MPS Examples/Ideas
                 Common Core Standard                              MPS Explanations for Support/Clarification   (Includes examples and suggestions, but is NOT required
                                                                                                                 curriculum and may not fulfill the standard in its entirety)

   Speaking and Listening Standards

   c. Propel conversations by posing and                                                                        Create questions according to Bloom’s Taxonomy
      responding to questions that probe
      reasoning and evidence; ensure a                                                                          Socratic seminars
      hearing for a full range of positions on a
      topic or issue; clarify, verify, or challenge
      ideas and conclusions; and promote
      divergent and creative perspectives.

   d. Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives;                                                             Create questions according to Bloom’s Taxonomy
      synthesize comments, claims, and
      evidence made on all sides of an issue;                                                                   Blogging and Forums
      resolve contradictions when possible; and                                                                 Socratic method
      determine what additional information or
      research is required to deepen the
      investigation or complete the task.

   11-12.SL.2 Integrate multiple sources of                                                                     Socratic Seminars
   information presented in diverse formats and
   media (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) in                                                            Gallery Walk
   order to make informed decisions and solve
   problems, evaluating the credibility and                                                                     Think/Pair/Share
   accuracy of each source and noting any
   discrepancies among the data.

   11-12.SL.3 Evaluate a speaker’s point of view,                                                               Use a podcast/YouTube/Teacher Tube clip on
   reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric,                                                                 evaluating websites for credibility
   assessing the stance, premises, links among
   ideas, word choice, points of emphasis, and                                                                  Conduct and evaluate an interview(s)
   tone used.
                                                                                                                Create a commentary on a political speech, sporting
                                                                                                                event etc., compare to a professional commentary

                                                                                                                americanrhetoric.com – use for speeches


NOTE: The bolded part of the standard is new to this grade level
                                                                                   36   (Spring 2012)
                  Arizona’s Common Core Standards • 11th-12th Grades English Language Arts • MPS Instructional Support Document

                                                                                                                                 MPS Examples/Ideas
              Common Core Standard                                 MPS Explanations for Support/Clarification   (Includes examples and suggestions, but is NOT required
                                                                                                                 curriculum and may not fulfill the standard in its entirety)

  Speaking and Listening Standards
  Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas

  11-12.SL.4 Present information, findings,                                                                     Present – oral speeches, ad campaign, debates,
  and supporting evidence, conveying a                                                                          book talk
  clear and distinct perspective, such that
  listeners can follow the line of reasoning,
  alternative or opposing perspectives are
  addressed, and the organization,
  development, substance, and style are
  appropriate to purpose, audience, and a
  range of formal and informal tasks.


  11-12.SL.5 Make strategic use of digital                                                                      Blogs/Forums
  media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual,
  and interactive elements) in presentations                                                                    PowerPoint
  to enhance understanding of findings,
  reasoning, and evidence and to add                                                                            Digital story telling
  interest.
                                                                                                                Video (create a music video)

                                                                                                                *MPS offers many of these classes through
                                                                                                                Professional Development

  11-12.SL.6 Adapt speech to a variety of                                                                       Revise speech for a variety of formal audiences
  contexts and tasks, demonstrating a                                                                           (school board, parents, bank, etc.)
  command of formal English when indicated
  or appropriate.
  The CCR anchor standards and high
  school grade-specific standards work in
  tandem to define college and career
  readiness expectations—the former
  providing broad standards, the latter
  providing additional specificity.



NOTE: The bolded part of the standard is new to this grade level
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                  Arizona’s Common Core Standards • 11th-12th Grades English Language Arts • MPS Instructional Support Document




                                        LANGUAGE
                                        STANDARDS


NOTE: The bolded part of the standard is new to this grade level
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                  Arizona’s Common Core Standards • 11th-12th Grades English Language Arts • MPS Instructional Support Document

                                                                                                                                      MPS Examples/Ideas
           Common Core Standard                                    MPS Explanations for Support/Clarification        (Includes examples and suggestions, but is NOT required
                                                                                                                      curriculum and may not fulfill the standard in its entirety)

   Language Standards
   The inclusion of Language standards in their own strand should not be taken as an indication that skills related to conventions, effective language use, and
   vocabulary are unimportant to reading, writing, speaking, and listening; indeed, they are inseparable from such contexts.
                                                                                                                           Source: Common Core ELA Standards p. 51

   Conventions of Standard English

   11-12.L.1 Demonstrate command of                    Refer to the Language Progressive Skills table to reinforce
   the conventions of standard English                 the skills taught in previous grades.
   grammar and usage when writing or
   speaking.                                           Appendix A p.31




   a. Apply the understanding that                                                                                   Compare historical documents
      usage is a matter of convention,
      can change over time, and is                                                                                   View video/read samples from historical time
      sometimes contested.                                                                                           periods

                                                                                                                     Compare AP Style to MLA (Journalism and
                                                                                                                     Humanities formats)



   b. Resolve issues of complex or                                                                                   Critical reading (class offered through district)
      contested usage, consulting
      references (e.g., Merriam-                                                                                     Vocabulary practice/development- including parts
      Webster’s Dictionary of English                                                                                of speech
      Usage, Garner’s Modern
      American Usage) as needed.                                                                                     Definition Essays




NOTE: The bolded part of the standard is new to this grade level
                                                                                       39   (Spring 2012)
                  Arizona’s Common Core Standards • 11th-12th Grades English Language Arts • MPS Instructional Support Document

                                                                                                                                 MPS Examples/Ideas
             Common Core Standard                                  MPS Explanations for Support/Clarification   (Includes examples and suggestions, but is NOT required
                                                                                                                 curriculum and may not fulfill the standard in its entirety)

  Language Standards
  11-12.L.2 Demonstrate command of the                      Refer to the Language Progressive Skills table to
  conventions of standard English                           reinforce the skills taught in previous grades.
  capitalization, punctuation, and spelling
  when writing.                                             Appendix A p.31



  a. Observe hyphenation conventions.




  b. Spell correctly.



  Knowledge of Language
  11-12.L.3 Apply knowledge of language to                                                                      Peer editing
  understand how language functions in
  different contexts, to make effective
  choices for meaning or style, and to
  comprehend more fully when reading or
  listening.


  a. Vary syntax for effect, consulting
     references (e.g., Tufte’s Artful
     Sentences) for guidance as needed;
     apply an understanding of syntax to
     the study of complex texts when
     reading.




NOTE: The bolded part of the standard is new to this grade level
                                                                                     40   (Spring 2012)
                  Arizona’s Common Core Standards • 11th-12th Grades English Language Arts • MPS Instructional Support Document

                                                                                                                                   MPS Examples/Ideas
             Common Core Standard                                  MPS Explanations for Support/Clarification     (Includes examples and suggestions, but is NOT required
                                                                                                                   curriculum and may not fulfill the standard in its entirety)

   Language Standards
   Vocabulary Acquisition and Use

   11-12.L.4 Determine or clarify the                       Refer to Lexile scores for grades 11-12 reading and   Create student generated vocabulary list &
   meaning of unknown and multiple-                         content.                                              correct definition
   meaning words and phrases based on
   grades 11–12 reading and content,                                                                              Picture/Dynamic Dictionary
   choosing flexibly from a range of
   strategies.


   a. Use context (e.g., the overall meaning                                                                      Reference Structured Reading or Critical Reading
      of a sentence, paragraph, or text; a                                                                        Strategies
      word’s position or function in a
      sentence) as a clue to the meaning of
      a word or phrase.


   b. Identify and correctly use patterns of
      word changes that indicate different
      meanings or parts of speech (e.g.,
      conceive, conception, conceivable).


   c. Consult general and specialized
      reference materials (e.g., dictionaries,
      glossaries, thesauruses), both print
      and digital, to find the pronunciation of
      a word or determine or clarify its
      Précise meaning, its part of speech,
      its etymology, or its standard usage.




NOTE: The bolded part of the standard is new to this grade level
                                                                                     41   (Spring 2012)
                  Arizona’s Common Core Standards • 11th-12th Grades English Language Arts • MPS Instructional Support Document

                                                                                                                                          MPS Examples/Ideas
           Common Core Standard                                    MPS Explanations for Support/Clarification            (Includes examples and suggestions, but is NOT required
                                                                                                                          curriculum and may not fulfill the standard in its entirety)

  Language Standards
   d. Verify the preliminary determination
      of the meaning of a word or phrase
      (e.g., by checking the inferred
      meaning in context or in a
      dictionary).




   11-12.L.5 Demonstrate understanding                  Students will analyze the impact of figurative language (e.g.,   Rhetorical Analysis – Précis
   of figurative language, word                         formal and informal tone, voice) to support purpose
   relationships, and nuances in word                   This includes:
   meanings.                                             literary devices-understatement, sensory details,
                                                           connotation/denotation
                                                         figurative language-personification, simile, symbolism,
                                                           foreshadowing, metaphor, hyperbole, mood, allusion,
                                                           irony, and paradox
                                                                           Source: Adapted from ADE Grades 11-12
                                                                                         ELA Alignment Document

   a. Interpret figures of speech (e.g.,
      hyperbole, paradox) in context and
      analyze their role in the text.




   b. Analyze nuances in the meaning of
      words with similar denotations.




NOTE: The bolded part of the standard is new to this grade level
                                                                                       42   (Spring 2012)
                  Arizona’s Common Core Standards • 11th-12th Grades English Language Arts • MPS Instructional Support Document

                                                                                                                                      MPS Examples/Ideas
           Common Core Standard                                    MPS Explanations for Support/Clarification        (Includes examples and suggestions, but is NOT required
                                                                                                                      curriculum and may not fulfill the standard in its entirety)

   Language Standards
   11-12.L.6 Acquire and use accurately                 This standard presents one way for students to understand    Students incorporate vocabulary acquisition
   general academic and domain-specific                 that many content areas rely on student knowledge of Greek   strategies such as the Frayer Model, graphical
   words and phrases, sufficient for                    and Latin roots, prefixes, suffixes, and cognate words to    representation of words, vocabulary building
   reading, writing, speaking, and listening            determine meaning.                                           games, root trees, etc. to identify cross-curricular
   at the college and career readiness                                                                               connections.
                                                               Source: ADE Grades 11-12 ELA Alignment Document
   level; demonstrate independence in
   gathering vocabulary knowledge when                                                                               Quizlet.com
   considering a word or phrase important
   to comprehension or expression.




NOTE: The bolded part of the standard is new to this grade level
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                  Arizona’s Common Core Standards • 11th-12th Grades English Language Arts • MPS Instructional Support Document


                                                                   Language Strand – Standards 1 and 2
                                                                       Progressive Skills by Grade
The Language standards offer a focus for instruction each year to help ensure that students gain adequate mastery of a range of skills and applications. Students
advancing through the grades are expected to meet each year’s grade-specific standards and retain or further develop skills and understandings mastered in
preceding grades. The skills are likely to require continued attention in higher grades as they are applied to increasingly sophisticated writing and speaking.

Kindergarten
          Form regular plural nouns orally by adding /s/or /es/                               3rd Grade
          Use the most frequently occurring prepositions                                             Explain the function of nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, and
          Capitalize the first word in a sentence and the pronoun I                                     adverbs in general and their functions in particular sentences
          Recognize and name end punctuation                                                         Form and use regular and irregular plural nouns
                                                                                                     Use abstract nouns
1st Grade                                                                                            Form and use regular and irregular verbs
          Use common, proper, and possessive nouns                                                   Ensure subject-verb and pronoun-antecedent agreement
          Use singular and plural nouns with matching verbs                                          Form and use comparative and superlative adjectives and adverbs,
          Use personal, possessive, and indefinite pronouns                                             and choose between them depending on what is to be modified
          Use verbs to convey a sense of past, present, and future                                   Use coordinating and subordinating conjunctions
          Produce and expand complete simple and compound declarative,                               Produce simple, compound, and complex sentences
             interrogative, imperative, and exclamatory sentences                                    Capitalize appropriate words in titles
          Capitalize dates and names of people                                                       Use commas in addresses
          Use end punctuation for sentences                                                          Use commas and quotation marks in dialogue
          Use commas in dates and to separate single words in a series                               Form and use possessives
                                                                                                     Use conventional spelling for high-frequency and other studied
2nd Grade                                                                                               words and for adding suffixes to base words
          Use collective nouns
          Form and use frequently occurring irregular plural nouns                            4th Grade
          Use reflexive pronouns                                                                     Use relative pronouns and relative adverbs
          Form and use the past tense of frequently occurring irregular verbs                        Form and use the progressive verb tenses
          Use adjectives and adverbs, and choose between them depending                              Use modal auxiliaries to convey various conditions
             on what is to be modified                                                               Order adjectives within sentences according to conventional patterns
          Produce, expand, and rearrange complete simple and compound                                Form and use prepositional phrases
             sentences                                                                               Correctly use frequently confused words
          Capitalize holidays, product names, and geographic names                                   Use commas and quotation marks to mark direct speech and
          Use commas in greetings and closings of letters                                               quotations from a text
          Use an apostrophe to form contractions and possessives                                     Use a comma before a coordinating conjunction in a compound
                                                                                                        sentence




NOTE: The bolded part of the standard is new to this grade level
                                                                                44   (Spring 2012)
                  Arizona’s Common Core Standards • 11th-12th Grades English Language Arts • MPS Instructional Support Document




5th Grade                                                                                     7th Grade
          Explain the function of conjunctions, prepositions, and interjections                      Explain the function of phrases and clauses in general and their
             in general and their function in particular sentences                                      function in specific sentences
          Form and use the perfect verb tenses                                                       Choose among simple, compound, complex, and compound-
          Use verb tense to convey various times, sequences, states, and                                complex sentences to signal differing relationships among ideas
             conditions                                                                              Place phrases and clauses within a sentence, recognizing and
          Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb tense                                      correcting misplaced and dangling modifiers
          Use correlative conjunctions                                                               Use a comma to separate coordinate adjectives
          Use punctuation to separate items in a series
          Use a comma to separate an introductory element from the rest of                    8th Grade
             the sentence                                                                            Explain the function of verbals (gerunds, participles, infinitives) in
          Use a comma to set off the words yes and no, to set off a tag                                 general and their function in particular sentences
             question from the rest of the sentence, and to indicate direct                          Form and use verbs in the active and passive voice
             address                                                                                 Form and use verbs in the indicative, imperative, interrogative,
          Use underlining, quotation marks, or italics to indicate titles of works                      conditional, and subjunctive mood
                                                                                                     Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb voice and mood
6th Grade                                                                                            Use punctuation (comma, ellipsis, dash) to indicate a pause or break
          Ensure that pronouns are in the proper case                                                Use an ellipsis to indicate an omission
          Use intensive pronouns
          Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in pronoun number and                    9th/10th Grade
            person                                                                                   Use parallel structure
          Recognize and correct vague pronouns                                                       Use a semicolon (and perhaps a conjunctive adverb) to link two or
          Recognize variations from standard English in their own and others’                          more closely related independent clauses
            writing and speaking, and identify and use strategies to improve                         Use a colon to introduce a list or quotation
            expression in conventional language
          Use punctuation to set off nonrestrictive/parenthetical elements
                                                                                              11th/12th Grade
                                                                                                     Apply the understanding that usage is a matter of convention, can
                                                                                                       change over time, and is sometimes contested
                                                                                                     Resolve issues of complex or contested usage, consulting
                                                                                                       references
                                                                                                     Observe hyphenation conventions




NOTE: The bolded part of the standard is new to this grade level
                                                                                45   (Spring 2012)

								
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