Radio Communication

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					Radio Communication
                  The World of Radio
• #1T/F- Radio signals are strong enough to reach everywhere in the
• 97% of teenagers listen to the radio at least once a week.
• Radio is a form of mass media, which means it is communication that
  can reach a large audience.
• There are over 26,000 stations worldwide.
• Over a third of those stations are in the United States.
• There are 500 million radios worldwide.
                    The World of Radio
• #1IC- The radio’s advantages over other forms of communication
  include being the most universal form of communication, being
  portable, being able to listen while doing other tasks, and being
  invaluable during emergencies.
• #2T/F- In historical perspective, radio is a relatively recent invention.
• #27B- The hero in the development of radio was Guglielmo Marconi,
  a young Italian who sent and received the first radio signal in 1895.
• A wireless is another name for early radios.
• The early radios were used the most by sailors on ships to
  communicate once they left port.
• #3T/F- The survivors of the Titanic owe their lives to a wireless
                The First Radio Station
• #2IC- The historical process of the first commercial radio began when
  Marconi sent the first radio signal in 1895. In 1920, Dr. Frank Conrad
  built a studio in his garage and broadcast shows 3 times a week. A
  local store began buying advertising time, and the commercial radio
  was born.
• #4T/F- Most radio station survive by selling commercial time.
                  The Growth of Radio
• The government had to set up the Federal Radio Commission in 1927
  because there were so many stations that the reception was bad.
• #25B- The Federal Communications Commission regulates the radio
  now and took over in 1967 from the FRC.
• Stations began networks, or chains of stations linked together coast to
  coast. They often aired (broadcast) the same processes.
              The Advent of Television
• #5T/F- The age of television dramatically changed radio
• #26B- After the advent of television, radio changed its programming
  from drama, comedy, and variety to music, news, and talk.
• Radio was able to survive because it was so flexible.
               FM Ascends the Throne
• With the invention of rock ‘n’ roll, radio took off again.
• Deejays, or disc jockeys, were the on-air personalities on the radio.
• Radios developed playlists or lists of music they put on the air.
• FM radio gained popularity with rock ‘n’ roll.
• FM radio or frequency-modulated radio wave, changes how rapidly a
  radio wave vibrates making it more static free.
• AM radio or amplitude-modulated radio wave, changes the size of the
  sound wave.
• In 1967, the FCC allowed FM radio to stereo broadcast.
                FM Ascends the Throne
• #6T/F- FM radio now affects a much larger audience than AM radio.
• FM radio now attracts 70% of radio audience.
• AM radio has a thousand more stations, but only a third of the
• #7T/F- AM radio now airs primarily news/talk radio.
• #23B- Music radio stations hope to appeal to 15-30 year olds;
  news/talk radio stations shoot for the 30 to 50 age range; and full-
  service radio stations aim for people aged 45 and older.
• Formats refer to the programming styles of radio stations or what
  type of music they choose to air.
• #8T/F- Radio station call letters are not randomly assigned; the radio
  station gets to choose them.
• #9T/F- Two radio stations may not share the same call letters.
• Stations west of the Mississippi River start with a “K”, and stations
  east of the Mississippi start with a “W”.
              Operating a Radio Station
• #10T/F- On-air studios are used by the deejay for live productions
  while production studios are used to prepare material for later airing.
• #3IC- The operation of a radio station involves the on-air studios are
  used by the deejay for the live music and talk programs, while
  production studios produce the commercials.
• #24B- Equipment in a studio is usually set up in a u-shape.
• An audio console is the equipment that combines the recording and
  playback machines, volume controls, and other audio equipment at the
  deejay’s fingertips.
• #11T/F- The patch panel allows an operator to mix audio from several
  sources with regular programming.
                Radio Station Positions
• #12T/F- Radio provides many opportunities for careers.
• The radio industry employees over 100,000 people.
• Ronald Reagan, Dan Rather, and George Carlin all got started in
• An announcer is someone who reads the news, weather, public
  service announcements, and station breaks.
• The general manager must make sure that the station is profitable
  and keeps it license.
• The program director makes the decisions about what type of deejay
  to hire, the amount of news and music to air, and what playlist to
                Radio Station Positions
• The chief engineer makes sure the radio station’s signal goes out as
  far as possible.
• The traffic director is responsible for planning the daily schedule.
• A sales manager sells a station’s air time to local businesses.
• A copywriter writes the commercials that are aired.
      Performing and Writing Techniques
• A radio broadcaster must possess the ability to read aloud effectively
  with proper pronunciation and inflection.
• #13T/F- Listeners tend to prefer deeper voices.
• Positive personalities are a big advantage.
• Broadcasters must be able to use a microphone properly.
• #22B- Microphones contain diaphragms, thin metal disks that vibrate
  when sound waves strike them.
• #4IC- Some tips for using a microphone effectively include not
  breathing into the mike, holding the script behind the mike, not
  coughing in the mike, keeping it 8 to 12 inches from your mouth, and
  keeping the mike directly in front of you.
      Performing and Writing Techniques
• #5IC- Some hints for relaxing during and before a broadcast include
  reading the material aloud ahead of time, taking deep breaths,
  stretching to relax, imagining your talking to a friend, and giving
  yourself time before beginning.
• #14T/F- Posture and facial expression are a big concern to radio
• Sitting up straight and smiling adds enthusiasm to your voice.
• #15T/F- No matter how serious a mistake on the radio, keep going.
• #21B- Veteran announcers frequently say “Check that” or “Correction
  that should be” when they have made a mistake.
• #20B- A written script supplies a safety net, even for the high-flying
      Performing and Writing Techniques
• #6IC- Some of the information that is prohibited on the radio includes
  profane and obscene material, false or misleading information,
  invasion of privacy, or broadcasting someone without their
• #7IC- When you are writing your scripts you should remember to
  avoid certain word combinations, avoid sentences with numbers, and
  underline key words.
                  Writing Commercials
• #16T/F- Radio commercials should be pitched to some basic human
• #17T/F- Familiar melodies should not be used in radio commercials
  since people focus on the tune more than the message.
• Music beds refers to the music used in commercials.
• #18T/F- All radio stations do not make their own sound effects. They
  usually have CD’s with general sound effects.
• #8IC- Some strategies for advertising on the radio include focusing on
  a basic human need, making the buyer feel smart, and painting a
  picture with your words.
          Public Service Announcements
• Public service announcements are special commercials for good
  causes and charities.
• #19T/F- A station does not get to choose whether or not to air public
  service announcements (PSA’s).
• The Federal Communications Commission requires a station do so
  many over a period of time.

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