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FAA Unmanned Aircraft Systems _UAS_ Update

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					                                                 Federal Aviation
                                                 Administration


FAA Unmanned Aircraft
Systems (UAS) Update



Presented to: UAS Action Summit 2012


By:          James H. Williams, UAS Executive,
             AFS-80, UAS Integration Office
Date:        May 23, 2012
Overview
•   FAA Role
•   Reorganization – UAS Integration Office
•   Vision
•   Perspectives
•   Critical UAS Integration Issues
•   Current UAS Operations
     – Certificate of Waiver or Authorizations (COAs)
•   Current Integration Activities
•   Legislation Summary
•   Test Range Selection
•   A Look Ahead

UAS Integration Office Update
                                                        Federal Aviation   2
UAS Action Summit 2012                                  Administration
May 23, 2012
FAA Role
• FAA is a Regulator
    – Must ensure the safety of
      operations in the National
      Airspace System


• FAA is a Service
  Provider
    – Must preserve the efficiency
      of all of the airspace
      delegated to the
      United States




UAS Integration Office Update
                                     Federal Aviation   3
UAS Action Summit 2012               Administration
May 23, 2012
FAA UAS Reorganization
• UAS Integration Office, AFS-80
      – Establishing a division-level organization reporting to
        the Director of Flight Standards
      – Single executive focal point
               • James H. “Jim” Williams (started March 26)
      – Combining former Air Traffic and Flight Standards UAS
        offices
               • Unmanned Aircraft Program Office (UA PO), AFS-407
               • Unmanned Aircraft Systems Group (UASG), AJV-13




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UAS Action Summit 2012                                    Administration
May 23, 2012
Vision Statement
 • Safe, efficient, and timely integration of UAS
   into the airspace
    – Safe
               • Because that is the FAA Mission!
       – Efficient
               • FAA is committed to reduce delays and increase
                 system reliability
       – Timely
               • FAA is dedicated to supporting this exciting new
                 technology

UAS Integration Office Update
                                                    Federal Aviation   5
UAS Action Summit 2012                              Administration
May 23, 2012
       Perspectives on UAS Integration into the
           National Airspace System (NAS)

     • Today
           – Accommodation
     • Mid-term
           – Integration into the NAS
     • Long-term
           – Integration into the
             NextGen NAS


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                                        Federal Aviation   6
UAS Action Summit 2012                  Administration
May 23, 2012
Who is Operating UAS in the NAS?
 • Public Use Aircraft –               • Civil Aircraft – Special
   Certificate of Waiver or              Airworthiness Certificates
   Authorization (COA)                   in the Experimental
       –   Department of Agriculture     Category and Special
       –   Department of Commerce        Flight Permits issued
       –   Department of Defense         coast to coast
       –   Department of Energy           –   Raytheon
       –   Department of Homeland         –   AAI Corporation
           Security
                                          –   General Atomics
       –   Department of Interior
                                          –   Boeing
       –   Department of Justice
                                          –   Others
       –   NASA
       –   State Universities
       –   Federal/State/Local Law
           Enforcement
 UAS Integration Office Update
                                                       Federal Aviation   7
 UAS Action Summit 2012                                Administration
 May 23, 2012
    COA Operator Statistics




                                      COA Applications Submitted by Proponent


All data as of 4/9/2012
      UAS Integration Office Update
                                                      Federal Aviation   8
      UAS Action Summit 2012                          Administration
      May 23, 2012
    COA Approval Statistics




COA Applications Approved


All data as of 4/9/2012
      UAS Integration Office Update
                                      Federal Aviation   9
      UAS Action Summit 2012          Administration
      May 23, 2012
Where Are UAS Operating?




• UAS are operated in most classes of
  airspace
• Currently, flight over populated areas has
  not been approved
UAS Integration Office Update
                                   Federal Aviation   10
UAS Action Summit 2012             Administration
May 23, 2012
How Are UAS Being Used?
•   System Development
•   Operational Missions
•   Training for Ops Missions
•   Research
•   Sensor Development & Testing
•   Marketing
•   Border Patrol
•   Firefighting
•   Disaster Relief
•   Search and Rescue
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                                   Federal Aviation   11
UAS Action Summit 2012             Administration
May 23, 2012
Authorization Required?
 • Activities completely contained in active
   Special Use Airspace (Restricted and
   Warning Areas)
       – No FAA approval required - range rules apply
 • Private recreational use
       – Advisory Circular 91-57, Model Aircraft Operating
         Standards
 • COA
       – Only available for Public operations
       – Agency determines pilot certification and
         airworthiness
UAS Integration Office Update
                                              Federal Aviation   12
UAS Action Summit 2012                        Administration
May 23, 2012
Authorization Required?
 • Special Airworthiness Certificate in the
   Experimental Category and Special Flight
   Permits for production flight testing
       – Only means of access currently being used by
         civil operators
       – FAA determines airworthiness
       – No commercial operations
       – FAA Order 8130.34, Airworthiness
         Certification of Unmanned Aircraft Systems
         and Optionally Piloted Aircraft
UAS Integration Office Update
                                       Federal Aviation   13
UAS Action Summit 2012                 Administration
May 23, 2012
Critical UAS Integration Issues

•    Unmanned aircraft reliability
•    Aircraft certification standards
•    Control station (cockpit) layout/certification
•    Pilot qualification standards
•    Dedicated, protected spectrum
•    Sense and avoid capability
•    NextGen ground systems design



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                                       Federal Aviation   14
UAS Action Summit 2012                 Administration
May 23, 2012
Why Sense and Avoid?
•     Sense and Avoid (SAA) is the capability of an
      unmanned aircraft system (UAS) to remain well
      clear from and avoid collisions with other airborne
      traffic
•     SAA provides the intended functions of:
           1. Self separation and
           2. Collision avoidance

       A means of compliance with the regulatory
       requirements to "see and avoid“ compatible with
       expected behavior of aircraft operating in the airspace
       system.

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                                               Federal Aviation   15
UAS Action Summit 2012                         Administration
May 23, 2012
A Closer Look at Sense and Avoid
               •   Intent is compliance to Title 14 Code of Federal
                   Regulations, Part 91, §91.113(b), §91.111(a)
                   – § 91.113 (b) General. When weather conditions permit, regardless of
                     whether an operation is conducted under instrument flight rules or visual
                     flight rules, vigilance shall be maintained by each person operating an
                     aircraft so as to see and avoid other aircraft. When a rule of this section
                     gives another aircraft the right-of-way, the pilot shall give way to that
                     aircraft and may not pass over, under, or ahead of it unless well clear.
                   – § 91.111 (a) No person may operate an aircraft so close to another
                     aircraft as to create a collision hazard.
               •   Technology (Systems and Equipment) replacement for
                   pilot’s see and avoid responsibility.
               •   Systems and Equipment require specificity in intended
                   function




UAS Integration Office Update
                                                                     Federal Aviation        16
UAS Action Summit 2012                                               Administration
May 23, 2012
Current Integration Products
• FAA Civil/Public UAS NAS Integration
  Roadmap (UAS Integration Office, AFS-80)
    – Recommendations/inputs from the UAS Aviation
      Rulemaking Committee
    – Projected for Summer 2012
• FAA Concept of Operations (ConOps) (FAA
  NextGen Organization)
    – Projected for September 2012
• Comprehensive Plan (JPDO)
    – Projected for Fall 2012


 UAS Integration Office Update
                                          Federal Aviation   17
 UAS Action Summit 2012                   Administration
 May 23, 2012
Title 14, Code of Federal Regulations, Part
107, Rule: Small UAS
• Purpose of the regulation
     – Enable small UAS to operate safely in limited portions of
       the NAS and gather data
• Focus
     – Enable the widest range of activity that can be safely
       conducted within the shortest rulemaking timeframe
• Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) to be
  released later this year


 UAS Integration Office Update
                                               Federal Aviation   18
 UAS Action Summit 2012                        Administration
 May 23, 2012
Legislation Summary

• UAS Provisions
      – FAA Modernization
        and Reform Act of
        2012
      – National Defense
        Authorization Act
        (NDAA) 2012




UAS Integration Office Update
                                Federal Aviation   19
UAS Action Summit 2012          Administration
May 23, 2012
Legislation Summary
• FAA Modernization and Reform Act of 2012
    – Enacted into law on February 14, 2012
• Subtitle B – Unmanned Aircraft Systems
    – Sections 331-336
• Many tasks with timelines included
• Most prominent task calls for establishment of
  six UAS test sites




UAS Integration Office Update
                                              Federal Aviation   20
UAS Action Summit 2012                        Administration
May 23, 2012
Test Range Selection Plan
• Request for Comment published in Federal
  Register on March 9, 2012
• 60 day comment period
• Webinars during comment period
      – April 10th (455 participants)
      – April 11th (371 participants)
• Screening Information Request (SIR)
• Selection Process
• Six sites selected, December 2012

UAS Integration Office Update
                                        Federal Aviation   21
UAS Action Summit 2012                  Administration
May 23, 2012
  “Common Strategy” Approach with Law
      Enforcement Agencies (LEA)
• Practical common sense approach to resolve difficult
  issues
• Addresses LEA enhanced mission needs without
  compromising safety
• Creates LEA standard of performance providing for
  oversight, safety and improved data collection
• Establishes criteria for addressing all critical safety
  issues
• A Law Enforcement Agency sUAS conference is slated
  for later this year, possibly co-hosted by DoJ National
  Institute of Justice and FAA

 UAS Integration Office Update
                                          Federal Aviation   22
 UAS Action Summit 2012                   Administration
 May 23, 2012
A Look Ahead
• Today/Ongoing
    –   Improve COA guidance and process
    –   Refine FAA Civil/Public UAS NAS Integration Roadmap
    –   Plan/oversee research and development activities
    –   Gather safety data!!
• Near term
    – Implement advanced mitigations (Ground Based Sense
      and Avoid (GBSAA), others)
    – Increase NAS access through small UAS rule
• Long term
    – Reduce dependency on COAs, move towards integration
      into the NextGen environment
 UAS Integration Office Update
                                            Federal Aviation   23
 UAS Action Summit 2012                     Administration
 May 23, 2012
UAS Integration



               SAFE!
                                EFFICIENT!
                                             TIMELY!




UAS Integration Office Update
                                                 Federal Aviation   24
UAS Action Summit 2012                           Administration
May 23, 2012
                           Questions?




UAS Integration Office Update
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UAS Action Summit 2012                  Administration
May 23, 2012
                     Backup Slides




UAS Integration Office Update
                                 Federal Aviation   26
UAS Action Summit 2012           Administration
May 23, 2012
FAA Modernization and Reform Act
of 2012 - Timeline
• May 14, 2012 (90 days)
    – The Secretary will enter into an agreement to simplify the
      process of issuing COAs for public operators
• August 12, 2012 (180 days)
    – Establish a program to integrate UAS at six test ranges
    – Develop plan and initiate process for designating
      permanent areas in the Arctic where small UAS can
      operate 24 hours a day for research and commercial
      purposes
    – The Secretary shall determine if certain UAS may be
      operated safely in the NAS before completion of the plan
      and rulemaking
 UAS Integration Office Update
                                              Federal Aviation   27
 UAS Action Summit 2012                       Administration
 May 23, 2012
FAA Modernization and Reform Act
of 2012 – Timeline (continued)
• November 10, 2012 (270 days)
      – Comprehensive Plan to safely accelerate the
        integration of civil UAS into the NAS
      – The Secretary shall issue guidance regarding
        expanding operation of public UAS
• February 14, 2013 (one year)
      – Report to Congress on copy of plan
      – Five year roadmap for introduction of civil UAS into
        the NAS posted on web site and updated annually



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                                               Federal Aviation   28
UAS Action Summit 2012                         Administration
May 23, 2012
FAA Modernization and Reform Act
of 2012 – Timeline (continued)
• August 14, 2014 (18 months plus one year
  of submission)
      – Publish a final rule on small UAS
      – Publish an NPRM to implement the
        recommendations of the comprehensive plan
      – Update policy statement in Code of Federal
        Regulations for Unmanned Aircraft Operations in the
        National Airspace System
• September 30, 2015 (hard date)
      – No later than date for safe integration of civil UAS
        into the NAS
UAS Integration Office Update
                                                Federal Aviation   29
UAS Action Summit 2012                          Administration
May 23, 2012
FAA Modernization and Reform Act
of 2012 – Timeline (continued)
• December 14, 2015 (one year plus 18 months
  plus 16 months)
   – Publish a final rule for the NPRM
• February 14, 2017 (5 years)
   – Terminate test range program
• May 14, 2017 (90 days after the termination of
  the test range program)
   – Submit a report on the findings and
     conclusions of the test range program

UAS Integration Office Update
                                   Federal Aviation   30
UAS Action Summit 2012             Administration
May 23, 2012
FAA Modernization and Reform Act
of 2012 – Timeline (continued)
• Date to be determined
  – One year after entry into force of an
    agreement for the Arctic requirement
     • Work with relevant communities to establish
       and implement a process for approving use
       of UAS in designated permanent areas in
       the Arctic
• Other activities
  – Requirement for the FAA to conduct all safety
    studies necessary to support the integration of
    UAS into the NAS
  – Model aircraft
UAS Integration Office Update
                                     Federal Aviation   31
UAS Action Summit 2012               Administration
May 23, 2012
Why Does the FAA Use the Term “UAS”?

• The components of a UAS includes an
  “aircraft” vice a “vehicle”
• A UAS is flown by a “pilot in
  command”




UAS Integration Office Update
                                Federal Aviation   32
UAS Action Summit 2012          Administration
May 23, 2012
When Are UAS Flown?
• Daily
• Mostly Daylight Operations
• Some Night Operations




UAS Integration Office Update
                                Federal Aviation   33
UAS Action Summit 2012          Administration
May 23, 2012
Public Operations Primer
• The International Civil Aviation Organization
  (ICAO) considers aircraft to be either Civil or State
• Two types of operations within the United States
     – Civil and Public
• Public includes, but is broader than, “State” aircraft
     – Two steps to Public Operations
           • Operator must qualify as a public entity
           • Operation must qualify as being in the “public interest”
     – Public law allows public operators to certify their
       pilots and determine the airworthiness of the
       aircraft



UAS Integration Office Update
                                                         Federal Aviation   34
UAS Action Summit 2012                                   Administration
May 23, 2012
COA Types

• Standard
• Renewal




UAS Integration Office Update
                                Federal Aviation   35
UAS Action Summit 2012          Administration
May 23, 2012
Special COAs
• DoD / FAA Memorandum of Agreement
      • Non-Joint Use Military Airfield
      • Over Military Lands
• Disaster Relief COA
      • DoD (Predator and Global Hawk)
      • Customs & Border Protection (Predator)
• Emergency COA
      – Issued to proponent that already has a COA to
        operate in response to an emergency situation in
        another location

UAS Integration Office Update
                                             Federal Aviation   36
UAS Action Summit 2012                       Administration
May 23, 2012
Examples of Disaster/Emergency COAs
 • Disaster Relief COAs
       – Haitian Relief (January – February 10)
       – Red River Flooding (CBP) – North Dakota (March 10)
       – Mississippi Canyon (Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill) (June 10)


 • Emergency/Humanitarian COAs
      –   Japanese Earthquake/Tsunami (March 11)
      –   Red River Flooding (UND) – North Dakota (March 10)
      –   Oil relief for Nome, Alaska (March 12)
      –   Numerous Law Enforcement

 UAS Integration Office Update
                                                Federal Aviation   37
 UAS Action Summit 2012                         Administration
 May 23, 2012
    COA Application Statistics




                                      COA Applications Submitted


All data as of 4/9/2012
      UAS Integration Office Update
                                          Federal Aviation   38
      UAS Action Summit 2012              Administration
      May 23, 2012
     Current COA Statistics




                          Approved    Pending
                            327         141

Current Authorizations


All data as of 4/9/2012
      UAS Integration Office Update
                                          Federal Aviation   39
      UAS Action Summit 2012              Administration
      May 23, 2012
FAA Modernization and Reform Act
of 2012
• Enacted into law on February 14, 2012
• UAS identified in Sections 331-336
   – Definitions
   – Comprehensive plan for civil UAS integration into the
     National Airspace System
   – Test sites
   – Expansion in the arctic
   – Jumpstart access for UAS in lieu of rulemaking
   – Accelerate access for “public” aircraft
   – Safety studies
   – Special treatment for model aircraft
UAS Integration Office Update
                                            Federal Aviation   40
UAS Action Summit 2012                      Administration
May 23, 2012
UAS Test Ranges
• National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA),
  December 2011
   – Directs the FAA to develop a program to create six test
     ranges where UAS can be assessed and standards
     developed for UAS integration into the National
     Airspace System (NAS)
• FAA Modernization and Reform Act of 2012
  includes nearly identical language
   – FAA has started the test range program, consistent with
     the legislative language


UAS Integration Office Update
                                            Federal Aviation   41
UAS Action Summit 2012                      Administration
May 23, 2012
What Does the FAA Need From Others?
• Safety data
• Participation in standards development work
    – RTCA Federal Advisory Committee (general UAS standards)
    – American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) (standards for
      the small UAS Rule)
    – Academy of Model Aeronautics (standards for the modeling
      community)
• Comments due on the Test Site Request for Comments
  (posted in the Federal Register) by May 8, 2012
• Comments to the upcoming small UAS Notice of
  Proposed Rulemaking


 UAS Integration Office Update
                                                    Federal Aviation     42
 UAS Action Summit 2012                             Administration
 May 23, 2012

				
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