SECTION 10: AREA NAVIGATION APPROACH
LOCALIZER PERFORMANCE WITH VERTICAL
GUIDANCE (LPV) SURVEYS
1. DESCRIPTION be referenced to the North American
Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88).
Area Navigation Approach (ANA) surveys
for Localizer Performance with Vertical ANA-LPV surveys also establish (if it does
guidance (LPV) approach procedures not exist) geodetic control in the airport
provide runway, obstruction, and other vicinity consisting of a Temporary Survey
information to support precision and Mark (TSM) accurately connected to the
nonprecision instrument approach National Spatial Reference System (NSRS).
procedure development for conventional This control and the NSRS connection
aircraft using area navigation systems, such assures accurate relativity between surveyed
as, GPS. In addition, these surveys provide points on the airport and between these
positions and elevations for selected points and other surveyed points in the
navigational aids (NAVAIDS) associated National Airspace System (NAS), including
with the airport. the navigation satellites. Refer to
htm for geodetic control specifications and
2. DATUM TIE AND guidelines.
Surveys accomplished in accordance with
these standards shall be tied to the NSRS. Accuracy requirements for control station
Positions shall be referenced to the North and obstruction data provided in accordance
American Datum of 1983 (NAD 83) which within these specifications are identified in
is operationally equivalent to, and may be Table 1 and Table 2. Accuracy
used as, World Geodetic System of 1984 requirements for all other surveyed data
(WGS 84) values for charting and identified in these specifications shall be in
navigation purposes. Refer to: accordance with FAA No. 405 standards.
http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/faq.shtml#Transfo Accuracy requirements for control stations
rm for clarification of WGS 84 conversions. are presented in Table 1. Accuracy
Orthometric heights (MSL elevations) shall requirements for obstructions are presented
in Table 2.
TABLE 1 CONTROL STATIONS
ITEM (VALUES ARE IN CENTIMETERS) HORZ ORTHO ELLIP AGL
CONTROL STATION (PACS) 1 5 25 15 N/A
CONTROL STATION (SACS) 2 3 5 4 N/A
WIDE AREA AUGMENTATION
SYSTEM (WAAS) REFERENCE STATION 1 5 10 10 N/A
WIDE AREA AUGMENTATION
SYSTEM (WAAS) REFERENCE STATION 3 1 0.2 2 N/A
SURVEY MARK (TSM) 1 (TO BE USED WITHOUT PACS OR 5 25 15 N/A
ACCURACIES ARE RELATIVE TO THE NEAREST NATIONAL GEODETIC SURVEY SANCTIONED
CONTINUOUSLY OPERATING REFERENCE STATION
ACCURACIES ARE RELATIVE TO THE PACS AND OTHER SACS AT THE AIRPORT
ACCURACIES ARE RELATIVE TO THE OTHER WAAS REFERENCE STATION AT THE SITE
ANA-LPV APPROACH OBSTRUCTION ACCURACIES
ITEM (VALUES ARE FEET) HORZ ORTHO ELLIP AGL
NON MAN-MADE OBJECTS, AND MAN-MADE OBJECTS
LESS THAN 200 FEET AGL, THAT PENETRATE THE
FOLLOWING OBSTRUCTION IDENTIFICATION SURFACES:
THE PRIMARY SURFACE 20 10 10 N/A
THOSE AREAS OF THE APPROACH SURFACE 20 10 10 N/A
WITHIN 10,200 FEET OF THE THRESHOLD
THOSE AREAS OF AN APPROACH TRANSITION 20 10 10 N/A
SURFACE WITHIN 2,766 FEET OF THE THRESHOLD
THOSE AREAS OF THE APPROACH TRANSITION 50 20 20 N/A
SURFACE FURTHER THAN 2,766 FEET FROM THE
THRESHOLD BUT NOT MORE THAT 10,200 FEET
FROM THE THRESHOLD
THE MISSED APPROACH SURFACE 50 20 20 N/A
THOSE AREAS OF THE APPROACH SURFACE 100 50 50 N/A
FURTHER THAN 10,200 FEET FROM THE
THOSE AREAS OF THE APPROACH TRANSITION 100 50 50 N/A
SURFACE FURTHER THAN 10,200 FEET FROM THE
MAN-MADE OBJECTS EQUAL TO OR GREATER THAN 200
FEET AGL THAT PENETRATE THE FOLLOWING
OBSTRUCTION IDENTIFICATION SURFACES:
THE PRIMARY SURFACE, THOSE AREAS OF THE 20 10 10 10
APPROACH AND TRANSITION SURFACES WITHIN
10,200 FEET OF THE THRESHOLD
THE MISSED APPROACH SURFACE 20 10 10 10
Accuracies are relative to the nearest PACS, SACS, HRP, or TSM.
Distances relative to the threshold or runway end are measured along the runway centerline or centerline
extended to the abeam point.
4. REQUIRED DATA FOR Runways shall be identified by the number
RUNWAYS painted on the runway at the time of the
field survey. If a number is not painted on
Runway data shall be provided for all the runway, the runway number published in
runways with a specially prepared hard the United States Government flight
surface (SPHS) existing at the time of the information publication "U.S. Terminal
field survey. Data shall be provided for Procedures" current at the time of the field
non-SPHS runways only if specifically survey shall be used.
requested by appropriate Federal Aviation
Administration authorities. If runway is Surveyed runway points shall include the
under construction, then refer to FAA Runway Thresholds and Touchdown Zone
Specification 405, Section 11, OEP Surveys, elevation (if applicable). Additional profile
item #4. points abeam are also required if the runway
is served by an Instrument Landing System.
Unless otherwise stated, all runway points Stopways, Blast Pads, and other
shall be on the runway centerline. supplemental profile points are not required.
Required data for SPHS runways are
presented in Table 3. (Also see Figure 1).
REQUIRED RUNWAY DATA
RWY/STWY POINT SPHS RWY NON-SPHS RWY
LAT LON ELEV DIST LAT LON ELEV DIST
AIRPORT ELEV X X X X
2 2 2
RUNWAY ENDS X X X X X X
DISPLACED THLDS X X X X X
TOUCHDOWN ZONE X
POINT ABEAM GS X X X
POINT ABEAM MLSEL X X X
POINT ABEAM OFFSET LOC X X
POINT ABEAM OFFSET LDA X X
POINT ABEAM OFFSET SDF X X
POINT ABEAM OFFSET MLSAZ X X
Note: THE TOUCHDOWN ZONE ELEVATION IS REQUIRED ONLY FOR SPHS
RUNWAYS WITH A LANDING LENGTH EQUAL TO, OR GREATER
THAN 3,000 FEET.
1) DISTANCE FROM NEAREST RUNWAY END
2) THE RUNWAY END LATITUDE, LONGITUDE AND ELEVATION OF
NON-SPHS RUNWAYS IS REQUIRED ONLY WHEN THE AIRPORT
ELEVATION EXIST ON THE NON-SPHS RUNWAY.
A FACILITY IS CONSIDERED OFFSET IF LOCATED MORE THAN 10 FEET FROM THE RUNWAY
An obstruction, for purposes of this section,
5. NAVIGATIONAL AIDS is any object that penetrates an ANA-LPV
obstruction identification surface (OIS).
A position, and sometimes an elevation,
depending on the navigational aid 6.2. OBSTRUCTION
(NAVAID), shall be provided for electronic IDENTIFICATION SURFACES
NAVAID facilities associated with the
runway approach being surveyed. The OIS dimensions for ANA-LPV surveys are
horizontal and vertical survey points for presented in Tables 4 through 7, and Figures
electronic NAVAIDS are listed in FAA 2 and 3.
Standard No. 405, Appendix 4. NAVAIDS
not associated with the runway approach
being surveyed are not required.
Survey data is required for NAVAIDS
meeting all of the following three criteria:
- The NAVAID is listed in Standard
No. 405, Appendix 4.
- The NAVAID is located within 10
nautical miles of the Airport Reference
- The NAVAID is associated with an
instrument approach procedure for the
airport being surveyed and the
procedure is published in the United
States Government flight information
publication "U.S. Terminal Procedures"
current at the time of the field survey.
This requirement also applies to Airport
If the NAVAID is also an obstruction, the
obstruction requirements of Section 6 also
Visual NAVAIDS are not required.
AREA NAVIGATION APPROACH
BEGINS 200 FT. ON APPROACH SIDE OF THRESHOLD
LENGTH 200 FT.
WIDTH AT THRESHOLD 1,000 FT.
WIDTH AT THRESHOLD PLUS 200 FT. 1,000 FT.
SLOPE SEE "ELEVATION" BELOW
ELEVATION ELEVATION OF RUNWAY CENTERLINE AT THRESHOLD
THE PRIMARY SURFACE IS A 1,000 FOOT WIDE RECTANGLE CENTERED ON THE RUNWAY
CENTERLINE, BEGINNING 200 FEET ON THE APPROACH SIDE OF A RUNWAY THRESHOLD OR
DISPLACED THRESHOLD AND EXTENDING TO THE RUNWAY THRESHOLD OR DISPLACED
AREA NAVIGATION APPROACH
BEGINS 200 FT. ON APPROACH SIDE OF RUNWAY END THRESHOLD
(AT END OF PRIMARY SURFACE)
LENGTH 20,000 FT.
BEGINNING WIDTH 800 FT.
WIDTH AT 20,000 FT. 2,240 FT.
SLOPE 50:1 FOR FIRST 2,566 FT. THEN 34:1 TO END OF
ELEVATION AT BEGINNING ELEVATION OF THRESHOLD
ELEVATION AT 2,566 FT. 51.3 FT. ABOVE THRESHOLD
ELEVATION AT 20,000 FT. 564.1 FT. ABOVE THRESHOLD
THE APPROACH SURFACE IS CENTERED ON THE RUNWAY CENTERLINE/CENTERLINE EXTENDED.
WHEN RUNWAY END THRESHOLD IS DISPLACED, APPROACH SURFACE BEGINS 200 FEET ON
APPROACH SIDE OF DISPLACED THRESHOLD.
APPROACH TRANSITION SURFACE
AREA NAVIGATION APPROACH
BEGINS 200 FT. ON APPROACH SIDE OF THRESHOLD
LENGTH 20,000 FT.
BEGINNING WIDTH 600 FT. (EACH SIDE OF APPROACH SURFACE)
WIDTH AT 20,000 FT. 2,910 FT. (EACH SIDE OF APPROACH SURFACE)
SLOPE 7:1 PERPENDICULAR TO RUNWAY
TOP ELEVATION AT BEGINNING 85.7 FT. ABOVE THRESHOLD
TOP ELEVATION AT 2,566 FT. 179.4 FT. ABOVE THRESHOLD
TOP ELEVATION AT 20,000 FT. 979.9 FT. ABOVE THRESHOLD
TRANSITION SURFACES EXISTS ALONG THE ENTIRE LENGTH, AND ON EACH SIDE, OF THE
APPROACH SURFACE. THE WIDTH AND SLOPE ARE MEASURED PERPENDICULAR TO THE RUNWAY
MISSED APPROACH SURFACE
AREA NAVIGATION APPROACH
BEGINS 1,300 FT. ON APPROACH SIDE OF THRESHOLD
LENGTH 7,800 FT.
BEGINNING WIDTH 2,333.3 FT.
WIDTH AT 7,800 FT. 6,200 FT.
ELEVATION AT BEGINNING 22 FT. ABOVE THRESHOLD
ELEVATION AT 7,800 FT. 217 FT. ABOVE THRESHOLD
THE MISSED APPROACH SURFACE IS CENTERED ON THE RUNWAY CENTERLINE/CENTERLINE
6.3. SPECIAL CASES
6.3.2. Vehicular Traverse Ways
In general, a vehicular traverse way shall be
In most cases, the position and elevation of treated as any other obstruction, except that
supporting towers will adequately represent the appropriate vehicle height allowance
catenaries. These towers shall be treated as must be included in the elevation. (See
any other potential obstruction. However, if "Obstruction Exemptions" in this subsection
one, or both, towers are outside the limits of for possible exemptions that may apply to
the obstruction surface, the catenary itself vehicular traverse ways).
may become a significant obstruction. In
these cases, a position and elevation shall be
provided on the imaginary straight line Vehicle Height Allowances follow:
connecting the tops of the two adjacent
catenary support towers at the highest point Noninterstate roads 15 feet
within the obstruction surface. The
elevation of this point shall be carried as an Interstate roads 17 feet
estimated maximum elevation (EME).
Railroads 23 feet
6.3.6. Manmade Objects Equal to or
Greater than 200 Feet Above Ground
6.3.3. Mobile Obstructions
The AGL elevation shall be determined for
Representative obstructions that are mobile manmade objects equal to, or greater than,
within a defined area (except vehicles on 200 feet AGL. The AGL shall be measured
roads and railroads, and vessels which are from the highest point of ground in contact
treated under separate headings) shall have with either the object or the structure on
an estimated maximum elevation (EME) which the object rests. This AGL
determined for each area. EME points shall requirement applies only to representative
be selected at: (1) the point nearest to the objects that normally would be carried on
runway centerline at the threshold for ANA-LPV survey products and does not
primary surface penetrations, (2) the most necessarily require measuring all 200+ AGL
penetrating point for approach surface manmade objects in the survey area.
penetrations, and (3) as appropriate to
represent each mobile object area. (See 6.3.7. Obstruction Exemptions
The following obstructions are not required
The word "MOBILE," which always implies to be measured or carried on ANA-LPV
an EME, shall be included in the object Conventional Landing products:
name, such as, "MOBILE CRANE."
- Vegetation that is both obstructing
6.3.4. Obstructions Under Construction by less than three feet and with a
maximum cross sectional diameter
Representative obstructions that are under no greater than one-half inch where
construction shall be identified as being transected by an obstruction surface.
under construction, such as, "BUILDING
UNDER CONSTRUCTION." The - Annual vegetation, such as annual
elevation at the time of the survey shall be weeds, corn, millet, and sugar cane.
carried. However, if a construction crane
extends above the feature under - Frangible objects under the control
construction, it is necessary and sufficient to of airport authorities with locations
carry the elevation and position of the crane. fixed by function. Examples are
runway and taxiway signs, and
6.3.5. Vessels many approach light structures.
Because of uncertainties in determining - Roads with restricted public access
maximum vessel heights, travel limits, and that are intended for airport/facility
frequency of passage, vessel heights and maintenance only. This exemption
locations shall not be provided. However, if does not apply to airport service
a possible obstructing condition exists, an roads associated with other airport
obstructing vessel caution shall be provided operations, such as, food, fuel, and
on ANA-LPV survey products cautioning freight transportation.
that vessels may obstruct at certain times
and that further investigation by the data - Construction equipment and
user regarding maximum vessel height, debris, including dirt piles and batch
travel limits, and frequency of passage is plants, that are: (1) temporary in
advised. This exemption does not apply to nature, (2) under the control of
vessels that are permanently moored. airport authorities, and (3) located
on airport property.
- Vessels. However, if a possible approach area and also higher than
obstructing condition exists, an the threshold. These objects may
obstructing vessel caution shall be or may not penetrate the approach
provided on ANA-LPV survey surface and may be nonobstructing
products cautioning that vessels may EME points.
obstruct at certain times and that
further investigation by the data user The highest obstruction between
regarding maximum vessel height, 2,566 feet and 10,000 feet of an
travel limits, and frequency of approach area. This area is the
passage is advised. This exemption first 7,434 feet of the 34:1 slope
does not apply to vessels that are area.
The highest obstruction in the
- Parked aircraft. The location and approach area.
maximum elevation of individual
parked aircraft cannot be determined - Transition Surfaces (See Figure 7)
and shall not be provided under
ANA-LPV surveys. This exemption The two highest obstructions in
does not apply to aircraft that are the first 2,566 feet (as measured
permanently parked for display along the runway centerline or
purposes. centerline extended) of each
6.4. SELECTION The highest obstruction in the first
10,000 feet of each transition area.
Obstruction selection shall include a
representation of objects that penetrated The highest obstruction in each
ANA-LPV OIS's at the time of the field transition area.
survey. In addition, certain nonobstructing
objects may be required in the first 2,566 - Missed Approach Surface (See Figure
feet of the approach area. The special cases 8)
that apply to obstructions (see Subsection
6.3) also apply to these required The highest obstruction and the
nonobstructing objects. most penetrating obstruction on
each side of the runway centerline
Required objects/obstructions include: or centerline extended.
- Primary Surface (See Figure 4) Note: obstructions may be EME points for
obstructing mobile object areas. (See Figure
The highest obstruction on the 9)
approach side of the threshold.
- Approach Surfaces (See Figures 5 and In some cases, strict adherence to the object
6) selection criteria listed above may result in
congestion or inadequate obstruction
The two most penetrating representation. To minimize these
obstructions and the most situations, the following guidelines shall be
penetrating man-made obstruction followed in object selection:
in the first 2,566 feet of an
approach area. - If objects that are required in the
primary area or first 10,000 feet of an
The two highest objects that are approach area are located within 100
within the first 2,566 feet of an
feet of each other, the lower object may
be omitted. (See Figure 6)
- If objects that are required outside the
primary or first 10,000 of an approach AIRPORT REFERENCE POINT
area are located within 500 feet of each
other, the lower object may be omitted. The Airport Reference Point (ARP) shall be
(Note: required primary or approach computed using the centerline end positions
objects shall not be omitted because of of all usable runways. However, since
the close proximity of higher objects runways without specially prepared hard
outside of the primary or approach surfaces are often not required to be
areas). (See Figure 6) surveyed, the ARP position for these
airports shall be approximate. The ARP
- When a required object is omitted shall be tagged with the year of the most
because of congestion, a replacement recent runway end survey used in the ARP
object/objects shall be selected if computation, such as, "ARP (1995)."
possible that meets the spacing criteria.
Procedures for computing ARP are
- Occasionally, additional obstruction presented in FAA Standard No. 405,
information may be useful in Appendix 2.
representing certain obstructing
conditions. While rigorous selection 10. DATA DELIVERY
criteria is not practical, information
useful to obstruction clearing activities NGS SURVEYS
should be considered in the selection.
ANA-LPV survey data shall be furnished in
the Universal Data Delivery Format
7. PLANIMETRIC DETAIL (UDDF). UDDF information, including
documentation, is available at:
Planimetric detail is not required http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/AERO/uddf.html.
The data shall be delivered to both
Aeronautical Information Services and AVN
and be designated as ANA-LPV survey.
3RD PARTY SURVEYS
Meteorological apparatus data is not
required unless it is selected as a Refer to statement of Work for submission
representative obstruction. of data.