The Paris Peace Conference by Zf2cT6j

VIEWS: 0 PAGES: 16

									The Roles and Goals of Lloyd George
 in Creating the Treaty of Versailles

        Ministry Position
           Ambitions
   The Paris Peace Conference
               &
    The Treaty of Versailles
      Ministry Position
Lloyd George was considered a pacifist yet the
outbreak of of World War 1 altered his attitude
dramatically, in the early years of the war George was
the Chancellor of the Exchequer yet in 1915 he was
appointed Minister of Munitions by Asquith, the Prime
Minister of Britain at the time who he became
increasingly critical of due to his failure to adapt the
machinery of government to the need of war. In 1916 he
was appointed ‘Secretary of State for War’ and later that
year, after the resignation of Asquith, on the 6th of
December George became Prime Minister of Britain
and leader of the ‘War Coalition’.
George was Britain's senior representative at the ‘Paris
Peace Conference’ where in which the Treaty of
Versailles was negotiated. As the leader of one of
Europe's ‘Great Powers’ Lloyd George, as well Frances
Georges Clemenceau and Italy's Vittorio Orlando, along
with Americas Woodrow Wilson made up the ‘Big Four’
who dominated the Conference.
               6 th         of December 1916.
                                                         Lloyd George was
                                                         appointed Prime Minster
                                                         of Britain after the
                                                         resignation of Herbert
                                                         Asquith, he would be
                                                         faced many
                                                         predicaments during his
                                                         6 years in power most
                                                         notable the Paris Peace
Lloyd George being appointed as British Prime Minister   Conference of 1919.
     The War Coalition
                        Lloyd George was the
                        leader of the Liberal Party
                        and relied heavily on the
                        Conservatives for support
                        during his time in office. The
                        War Cabinet was a very
                        successful innovation, it
                        made all major political,
                        military, economic and
Lloyd George entering
   Parliament, 1918
                        diplomatic decisions
                  The Big Four
               Vittorio Orlando       Woodrow Wilson



                                                  The “Big Four”
Lloyd George                                      dictated the
                                                  proceedings of the
                                                  Paris Peace
                                                  Conference and
                                                  made many
                                                  important decisions.


                             Georges Clemenceau
                     Public View in 1918
                                     “The mandate of this government at
                                     the next election will mean that the
                                     British Government will be in favour
                                     of peace”
                                     Lloyd George speaking to Parliament (12
                                     November 1918)

                                             However
 A cartoonist interpretation of
Georges role at the Paris peace   The “Hang the Hun” campaign was very
         Conference
                                  apparent in the British press and many people
                                  in Britain wanted to see Germany punished.
                                  George was re-elected in 1918 as he
                                  convinced the British Public that he shared
                                  this view.
          AMBITIONS
Lloyd George anticipated the afflictions of the
future, his foresight motivated his sympathetic
attitude towards the Germans at the ‘Paris peace
Conference’ of 1919 as he knew of the economic
state in which Britain depended upon, “was it
sensible to treat her (Germany) as a cow from
which to extract milk and beef at the same time”.
George described Germany as a race who were
‘proud, intelligence, with great tradition’. The
prospect of retribution was dismissed by the
French President Clemenceau, as revenge was
seen as paramount, George believed that
Germany would not react well to be put under
‘races whom they regard as their inferior’, thus his
ambitions fir the Paris Peace Conference was to
ensure the well fare of his country and prevent
future Wars.
                      Foresight
                        Georges foresight is apparent in his ambitions, Britain
                        was not subjected to the devastation of France thus
                        George did not share the desire for retribution, his
                        sympathetic attitude towards German in the Treaty of
                        Versailles was very much to prevent the onset of
                        another World War.


                      “We shall have to fight another
Lloyd George in his
      study.
                      war again in 25 years time.”
                      Lloyd George, talking about the Treaty of
                      Versailles
             “Stern but Just”
“The terms are in many respects terrible terms
to impose upon a country. Terrible were the
deeds which it requites...        Germany not
merely provoked, but planned the most
devastating war the earth has ever
seen... She deliberately embarked upon it,
not to defend herself against assailants, but to
aggrandize herself at the expense of her
neighbours. I cannot think of a worse crime. Georges “Stern but Just”
                                                 approach alludes to his
            [The aim of the Treaty is] to compel ambitions, he wished to
Germany, in so far as it is in her power, to punish the Germans as
restore, to repair and to redress. Yes, and to his campaign in the
take every possible precaution of every kind “Khaki election” of 1918
that is in our power against the recurrence of pledged yet not to put
another such crime - to make such an Germany in such a state
example as will discourage ambitious peoples in which they will attempt
from ever attempting to repeat the infamy.”      redemption.
Lloyd George, speaking in Parliament (3 July 1919).
        Support for the League of
                Nations
Lloyd George says that Woodrow Wilson can
think and talk of nothing but his League of            George was a good friend with
Nations. Wilson will only take any interest in         Woodrow Wilson who found him
talks if everything centers on the League. He has      'extremely pleasant', ‘genuine
started to annoy Lloyd George by talking of            and friendly in his accost‘, both
matters that have already been settled as though       George and Wilson apposed
they were still open for discussion.                   Clemenceu and his motives and
                                                       Wilson wished for the League of
  From the diary (March 1919) of Frances Stevenson,
                                                       Nations to be put first on the
                    Lloyd George’s private secretary   conferences agenda to which
                                                       George reluctantly agreed.
                                                       However
                                                       George did not wish for the Britain
                                                       to be told what to do by the
                                                       League nor wanted to break up the
                                                       commonwealth.
  Georges other Ambitions for
        the Conference
George wished to ensure the security of France as well as
remove the threat of Germany’s “High Seas Fleet”. The
crippling of Germany would result in unemployment in
Britain as Germany was once there number 2 trading
partner thus George wished “to restore, to repair and to
redress” Germany.




      George and other menbers of the Big Four Leaving the Paris Peace
                         Conference to ovations.
           The Paris Peace Conference
                        &
             The Treaty of Versailles
The Paris Peace conference was held at the Palace of Versailles
where in which five treaties were constructed, one of which was the
Treaty of Versailles which articulated the compromises reached at
the conference, including the punishment brought upon Germany
and a plan for League of Nations. George was Britains senor most
representative at the conference and was put in a difficult political
position. He was re-elected in the ‘Khaki election’ of 1918 as his
ensure the people of Britain he was the best possible politician to
deal with the punishment of Germany, he vowed to hold Germany
accountable for the war as well as those responsible brought to
justice.
                             However.
The prospect of future wars was of great concern to George, he
believed that the mistreatment of Germany would result in a another
revolution like that of the Russian and communism would spread
“from Russia to the Rhine”, thus George indorsed a sympathetic
attitude towards the Germans during the ‘Paris Peace conference’.
             The Signing of the
             Treaty of Versailles
                                                   The signing of the Treaty of
                                                   Versailles on January 18th
                                                   1919 brought much jubilation
                                                   to the French people, it was
                                                   a short proceeding with the
                                                   Germans signing first
                                                   followed by Clemenceau,
                                                   George, then the remaining
                                                   allied leaders, once the
                                                   Germans exited the hall they
                                                   were described as “prisoners
                                                   from the dock, their eyes still
                                                   fixed upon some distant
The signing of the Treaty, Hall of Mirrors 1919.
                                                   point of the horizon."
                               Results
                                          •Germany lost 14% of its pre-war
                                          territory.
                                          •All of its overseas possessions,
                                          •Its industries were to be occupied by
                                          Allied forces,
                                          •The treaty also stipulates that
                                          Germany     would  pay  for  the
                                          devastation of the war in annual
                                          payments.
                                          •Its Military forces were restricted
                                          dramatically.

Newspaper advertisement, June 30th 1919
Contrast from Clemenceau
                                                 George Clemenceau was the French
                                                 President and Frances major
                                                 reprehensive at the Paris Peace
                                                 Conference, he demanded retribution
                                                 after the costly war Germany
                                                 brought upon his country. Lloyd
                                                 George did not share his desire for
                                                 revenge rather wished to restore
                                                 Germany to ensure economic
                                                 security as well as have a buffer
                                                 zone between England and Russia.


George and Clemenceau


“I don't like being double-crossed. Lloyd George has deceived me.
He made me the finest promises, and now he breaks them”
           A quote describing Clemenceau’s feelings towards George.
Achievements at the
    Conference
    It is evident that Lloyd Gorge was
    concerned about the territorial provisions of
    the Treaty, he was successful in preventing
    the separation of the Rhineland from
    Germany yet achieved little more.
    Germanys Military forces were not entirely
    depleted as George campaigned for as he
    wished for a barrier in which to prevent the
    spread of communism. George wished to
    prevent the “crippling” of Germany to
    resume trade, he was successful to an
    extent as the Treaty of Versailles specified
    that trade would be concentrated on
    countries such as Britain and France.

								
To top