Sugar supplement and roughage source in dairy

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Sugar supplement and roughage source in dairy Powered By Docstoc
					Effects of sugar supplementation and roughage sources on dairy cattle
performances
V. Pattarajinda1 and A. Paserakung2
1
  Department of Animal Science, Faculty of agriculture, Khon Kaen University, Thailand.
2
  Graduate student, Department of Animal Science, Faculty of agriculture, Khon Kaen
University, Thailand.


Summary
Agro-industrial byproducts normally have low starch level, high fiber and lower digestion in dairy
cattle. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of sugar and roughage sources on
nutrient digestibility and cows performances. The four diets were assigned to sixteen cross-bred
Holstein Friesian as 2x2 factorial in randomized completely block design with two roughages (
rice straw , corn-cob mill), and two sugar levels( 10, 15%DM). Diets had an isonitrogenous at
13.5%CP. Rice straw diets had more effects to DMI, milk yield, milk protein, lactose, and total
solid than corn-cob mill diets( 13.3vs 8.7 kg, 11.7vs9.3 kg, 3.4vs3.1 %, 5.1vs.4.7%, and 13.9vs
12.7%; respectively). Fiber sources tended to effects glucose and BUN utilization. High level sugar
in diets did not alter milk yield and compositions except milk fat content, but it had trend to help
glucose and BUN utilization. The result suggested that intake sugar with long fiber content tend to
lower heat stress condition in cows.

Key words: corn cob, dairy cattle, rice straw, sugar

Introduction

Balance of structural and non structural carbohydrates in the TMR diet impacts milk production
because it affects amount and ratios of microbial and ruminal VFA produced, efficiency of
ruminal ammonia utilization (Hristov et al., 1997).Vagnoni and Broderick (1997) suggested that
enhancing the availability of ruminal fermentable energy could increase microbial capture of
RDP and nutrient utilization. Chamberlain et al. (1985, 1993) also reported that addition of
readily fermentable carbohydrates (sugars) increased N utilization efficiency of sheep and steers.
Our objectives were to determine the influence of altering the level of cane sugar and replacing
corn-cob with rice straw on milk production and composition of dairy cows .

Material and Method

Sixteen cross-bred Holstein Friesian in mid lactation(average in 147 DIM, 457 kg.BW). Animal
were assigned to a 2x2 factorial in randomized completely block design. Dietary treatments
consisted of two roughages ( rice straw , corn-cob mill), and two cane sugar levels( 10,
15%DM). Diets had an isonitrogenous at 14%CP ,and roughage concentrate ratio was 33: 67%.
Experimental period consisted of 74 d, a 14-d adjustment period . Cows were offered their
assigned TMR twice a day to allow ad libitum intake with a 10% refusal. Intakes and refusals,
milk yield were recorded daily for each cow. During d 60 to 74, samples of feed offered and
refused, milk and blood samples were collected for subsequent analysis. Diet composites were
analyzed for CP Fat (AOAC,1990) NDF, ADF(Van Soest et al.,1991) Milk Samples were
analyzed for fat, protein, lactose, total solid(Lactostar, Funke – Dr.N. Gerber).. Blood samples
were analyzed for BUN, Glucose, triiodothyronine (T3). Rectum temperature was recorded
before and after feeding at 1, 2,and 3h. All data were done using the GLM procedure of SAS
(1988).


Table1. Feed ingredients and compositions of experimental diets on DM basis.
 Ingredients                 T1         T2            T3           T4
 Cane sugar                10.0        15.0          10.0         15.0
 Rice straw                33.0        33.0            -            -
 Corn cob                     -          -           33.0         33.0
 Corn grain                17.0        16.8          17.0         17.0
 Cassava chip              21.4        17.0          21.5         16.0
 Soy bean meal             13.4        14.0          13.3         13.8
 Palm Kernel meal            3.0        2.0          3.0           3.0
 Urea                        1.7        1.6          1.6           1.6
 Mineral-vitamin mix         0.6        0.6          0.6           0.6

 Total                     100.0       100.0        100.0        100.0
 Nutrient compositions , %
 TDN                       70.0        70.0          70.0         69.9
 CP                        13.5        13.5          13.5         13.5
 ADF                       17.5        16.9          16.2         15.9
 NDF                       30.8        29.7          38.0         37.5
* NFC= 100- (%CP + %NDF + %EE + %Ash)

Results and discussion
Intake and Milk Yields
Intakes of DM per day were affected (P > .0l) by fiber sources that dry grinding corn cob form
had low intake perform. In term of DMIBW Fiber sources had affected on sugar levels that were
high sugar level supported long size of rice straw intake (Table 2).

Milk Production and Composition
Milk yields and 4% FCM were greater for cows consuming diets containing rice straw than
diets containing corn cob, because of the greater amount of daily intake. Low gut fill diets like
corn cob did not improve milk production compared with long fiber rice straw diets. It might
related to physical form and saliva activated by corn cob diet. Physical form of diets had effect
to percentage of milk composition, and increasing sugar in diets had positive effects on only
milk fat content.

Blood metabolites
The blood glucose and BUN levels at before feeding did not differ among treatments(Table 3).
After feeding , rice straw diet had lower glucose and BUN levels than corn cob and the blood
sugar and BUN levels rose from before feeding to the 3th hr. after feeding. And remained high
throughout the 3rd hr. in all treatments. Levels of sugar in diets did not effects by treatments.


Triiodothyronine (T3) and Rectum Temperature(RT)
Ones of lower heat stress index of animal was increasing T3 and lowing RT in compare groups.
In this study found that rice straw feeding increased heat stress on th 3rd h. because of the value
of T3 was lower than corn cob value. In term of rectum temperature, sugars levels had effect
among treatments at the 2nd , 3rd hr. after feeding. Increasing sugar level in diet was help animal
to being well manage themselves.


CONCLUSIONS
Physical form of fiber diet had direct effect to increasing milk yield and milk contents, and
glucose utilization except BUN utilization. High level sugar in diets did not alter milk yield and
compositions except milk fat content among treatments. However, intake sugar tends to lower
heat stress condition in cows.

Table2.Intake , Milk yield and compositions of experimental diets.
                           Fiber            Sugar                  Effect, p<
Item                 Straw Corn           10     15 SEM Fiber Sugar Fiber*Sugar
DMI, kg/d             13.3      8.7      10.9 11.8 0.31 0.001 0.78            0.62
DMI, %BW               3.2      2.2       2.8 2.7 0.12 0.001 0.24             0.04
Milk yield, kg/d      11.7      9.3      10.5 10.9 0.61 0.007 0.95            0.61
4% FCM, kg/d          12.9      9.1      10.7 11.9 0.75 0.002 0.45            0.54
Milk
Composition, %
Fat                    4.6      4.2       4.1 4.7 0.33 0.16 0.10              0.04
Protein                3.4      3.1       3.3 3.2 0.14 0.05 0.85              0.55
Lactose                5.1      4.7       4.9 4.9 0.18 0.053 0.81             0.52
Total Solid           13.9     12.7      13.1 13.5 0.51 0.052 0.83            0.52
Solid not fat          9.2      8.5       8.9 8.9 0.32 0.04 0.35              0.32

Table 3. Effects of experimental diets on   blood metabolites efficiencies.
                            Fiber               Sugar                       Effect, p<
 Item                   Straw Corn            10     15    SEM Fiber Sugar Fiber*Sugar
 Glucose, mg/dl
 Pre - feeding           32.1 37.9          34.2    35.5    3.12   0.10    0.63        0.38
 1h – post feeding       38.9 34.9          35.1    38.7    2.10   0.09    0.12        0.32
 2h – post feeding       36.2 34.0          36.1    34.1    2.22   0.35    0.40        0.23
 3h – post feeding       39.0 42.8          40.0    41.3    3.01   0.23    0.79        0.61
 average 1-3h            36.0 40.2          37.9    38.2    2.01   0.07    0.43        0.16
 BUN, mg/dl
 Pre - feeding           11.4    9.5        11.3     9.6    1.68   0.29    0.34        0.13
 1h – post feeding       13.2 10.3          13.5    10.0    1.62   0.10   0.053        0.06
 2h – post feeding       14.4 10.6          13.5    11.4    1.79   0.06    0.27        0.11
 3h – post feeding       15.2 10.5          13.7    12.0    1.76   0.02    0.36        0.02
 average 1-3h            14.2 10.5          13.6    11.1    1.67   0.05    0.16        0.05
 T3, ng/dl
 Pre - feeding          131.8 146.1         142.4   135.4   11.3   0.23    0.55        0.79
 1h – post feeding      137.5 147.2         144.0   140.6   12.4   0.45    0.79        0.74
 2h – post feeding      136.1 153.2         142.9   146.4   12.1   0.18    0.77        0.86
 3h – post feeding      133.9 156.6         144.9   145.6   11.6   0.08    0.95        0.59
 Average (1h-3h)        135.8 152.3         143.9   144.2   11.9   0.19    0.98        1.00
 Rectum temperature
 (๐C)
Pre - feeding           37.8    38.0      38.0    37.8    0.12   0.11    0.11        0.92
1h – post feeding       38.0    37.9      38.1    37.9    0.17   0.16    0.05        0.02
2h – post feeding       38.2    38.2      38.3    38.1    0.07   0.61    0.01       0.007
3h – post feeding       38.3    38.3      38.4    38.2    0.11   0.33    0.16        0.11
Average (1h-3h)         38.2    38.1      38.3    38.1    0.05   0.51   0.006       0.006

Acknowledgments
The author would like to special thank you for Roi-Et agricultural research and training center,
Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University for research facilities.

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