Irrigation Management for High Quality Wine Grape Production by 0S02dBrL

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									Grapevine Irrigation
   Management




     Dr. Robert L. Wample
          April 1, 2004
              Management
                 (Webster’s Dictionary)
   To handle or direct
    with a degree of skill
                                          Wisdom
   To treat with care
   To alter by
    manipulation                          Knowledge
   To achieve one’s
    purpose (goal)
                                         Information
                                  273 0 32      273K 0C 32F
        Irrigation Management
             No More RDI!

Eto x Kc = Etc
Soil moisture       +
Water potential (Plant
water status)




  Information            Knowledge   Wisdom
Grapevine Irrigation Management

                Plant Water Status
                       And
              Physiological Response




   Soil Moisture                Evaporative Demand
   Management                     Eto x Kc = Etc
Grapevine Irrigation Management

            Plant Water Status



   Pressure chamber
   Shoot growth rate
   Leaf temperature
        InfraRed and Air Temperature
                Measurement
   Objective:
       Simultaneous
        measurement of leaf
        and air temperature
       Supplement or
        replacement of
        pressure chamber
       Geolocation of data
       Fast (~ 10 seconds)
Grapevine Irrigation Management

 Eto (class “A” pan or calculated)
 Published information
 Weather Stations


 Crop Coefficient (Kc)               Eto x Kc = Etc
                                     (expenditures)
 Published Information
 Larry Williams Technique (% shade area at
 solar noon X 0.017) + cover crop if present
Grapevine Irrigation Management


                    Neutron Probe
                    Capacitance Probes
                    Tensiometers (?)
   Soil Moisture    Soil Sampling Tube
   (bank account)   Shovel
                    Steel Rod
    Grapevine Water Requirements
   When:
     budbreak    to flowering        (<5%)
     flowering to fruit set          (15%)
     fruit set to veraison           (60%)
     veraison to harvest             (20%)
     harvest to leaf fall (dormancy) (3-5%)

   How much Irrigation:
     On   a worldwide basis 0-30 acre-inches
Grapevine Irrigation Management
   Developing an irrigation plan
     settinggoals for your vineyard
     acquire information
        Eto,
        Kc,
        precipitation(totaland seasonal)
        know your soils (variability)depth, profile, water
         holding capacity, infiltration rate (This is the vines
         “water bank account”)
        evaluate your water supply (reliability, quality)
        Plant water status
Grapevine Irrigation Management

   Developing an irrigation plan (cont.)
     know   your vines
        rootstock,root system
        general health (nematodes, phylloxera, etc.)

     understand      the “banking system”
        deposits(precipitation and irrigation)
        withdrawals (evaporation, transpiration)
        bank charges (bound water, deep percolation,
         impenetrable barriers)
Grapevine Irrigation Management

   Developing an irrigation plan (cont.)
     understand       the “economics of water use”
        changes   in seasonal withdrawals
        benefits or costs of low balance
        the ability to increase your bank balance
             timeliness
             quantity


     UNDERSTAND           YOUR IRRIGATION SYSTEM
Grapevine Irrigation Management
 THERE ARE NO SILVER BULLETS
 THIS IS A HIGHER LEVEL OF MANAGEMENT
 REQUIRES AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE
  ANNUAL CYCLES OF GRAPEVINE GROWTH,
  DEVELOPMENT AND PHYSIOLOGY
 GRAPEVINES ARE VERY TOLERANT OF WATER
  STRESS
              3.5
                                               Available Soil Moisture
              3.0
                                               ETp

              2.5                              Soil Moisture with irrigation
                                               equal to ETp beginning
                                               mid June
              2.0
Acre-Inches




              1.5


              1.0


              0.5


              0.0



                    0   5        10       15          20          25           30
                            Weeks Beginning April 1
NIR SPECTROSCOPY
AND WINEMAKING



BRIMROSE CORP OF AMERICA
Baltimore, Maryland USA
                 What is NIR?
                                                              Radio




                                                                 Short
                                                                         Medium
                              UV




                                                                                  Long
Cosmic Gamma       X                     IR     Micro   UHF


               Ultra violet        Vis    Infrared
                                         Mid
                                         Near         =
       1                      400 750 2.500    16.000         1.000.000 nm




 Small portion of electromagnetic
  spectrum (700-2500 nm)
 No sample preparation -- direct
  measurement on bulk sample
 Non-destructive
       What is NIR?


 Simultaneously measurements for
  different properties within second(s)
 Can measure chemical and physical
  properties
 Good for all sample types --solids,
  liquids, powders, slurries, pastes, gels,
  gases, etc.
            How AOTF Acousto-Optic Tunable
               Filter scans NIR spectrum
Scans extremely rapidly by the
very nature of piezoelectric pulsing




                 White light                    Zero order beam




                                       RF MHz
           Why Acousto Optic Tunable Filter
               (AOTF) Spectrometer?
      AOTF Analyzer                 VS   Traditional Scanning
                                              Monochromators

   Scanning speed: 30-40 spectra per        Scanning speed: 1
    second (16,000 wav/sec)                   spectra per second
   Solid state, no moving parts             MANY moving parts
   High signal to noise                     Good signal to noise
   No Wavelength re-calibration             Wavelength re-calibration
    required                                  required frequently
   Capability to measure in Ambient         Ambient light can be
    light                                     problem
   Miniature, robust design                 Laboratory based
                                              BenchTop design
APPLICATION CALIBRATION
 Collect samples
 Acquire spectra with spectrometer
 Test samples to acquire reference data
 Add spectra and reference data to model
 Create prediction program
      Advantages of AOTF-NIR
            Analyzers
 Portable: vineyard and/or cellar
 Ease of use
 Real-time Simultaneous
  measurements
  of different properties
 Connectivity with GPS
 Downloads to computer system via WIRELESS
  ETHERNET connection automatically
 Economical, year round use
 Allows for individual research and calibration
    CURRENT APPLICATIONS FOR
        RIPENING GRAPES
 Measures sugar (degrees Brix)
 Measures pH
 Measures titratable acid
 Displays results as a frequency
  distribution
     POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS FOR
          RIPENING GRAPES

 Gross phenolics
 Tannins
 Anthocyanins/ color
 Berry texture, cell wall
  breakdown
 Fructose/glucose ratio
 Seed hardness
Thank you

								
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