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Human Civilization by U7x7nZ

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   Human Civilization
Muslims contribution to Medicine &
            Healthcare
            Mamdouh EL-Adl
          Consultant Psychiatrist
     mamdouh.eladl@nht.northants.nhs.uk




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Aim of presentation:
To bring to your attention 2 concepts:
1. Unity of the human race.
2. Human Civilization is one continuum.




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     Contents of Presentation

•   Our parents & the human race.
•   The Human Civilization.
•   Islam & Civilization.
•   Muslims & Medicine.
•   The future.


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             Our Parents

• According to the 3 monotheistic religions,
  God created:
  - The universe including the mankind.
  - Adam & Eve (parents of the mankind).




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Let us read the books




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    Adam & Eve in the Bible
• “ In the beginning God created the heaven
  & the earth”         [Genesis Ch.1, verse 1]
• “And God said let us make man in our
  image”               [Genesis Ch.1, verse 26]
• “And Adam, called his wife’s name Eve;
  because she was the mother of all living”
                        [Genesis Ch.3, verse 20]


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           ‫‪In the Noble Qur’ān‬‬

                    ‫بسم هللا الرحمن الرحيم‬

‫”يا أيها الناس انا خلقناكم من ذكر وأنثى وجعلناكم شعوبا وقبائل‬
          ‫لتعارفوا, ان أكرمكم عند هللا أتقاكم, ان هللا عليم خبير“‬

                                                    ‫سورة الحجرات, آيه 31‬




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   In the name of Allah, the Most Beneficent,
               the Most Merciful


“Human beings, we created you all from a
  male (Adam) & a female (Eve, Hawaa),
  and made you into nations & tribes so that
  you may know one another. Verily the
  noblest of you in the sight of Allah (God) is
  the most God–fearing of you. Surely God
  is All-knowing, All-Aware.

Surah number 49 “Al-Hujarat”, Verse number 13
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   In the name of Allah, the Most
   Beneficent, the Most Merciful
 “O mankind! Be dutiful to your Lord, Who created you
  from a single person (Adam), and from him (Adam)
  He created his wife (Eve), and from them both He
  created many men and women; fear Allah through
  Whom you demand your mutual (rights) and do not
  cut the relations of the wombs (Kinship). Surely,
  Allah is Ever an All-Watcher over you.”


Surat An-Nisa (The Women), Verse 1



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                Hindu Religion*
• Contrary to popular understanding, Hindus
  recognise one God (Brahman).
• Brahman is the eternal origin who is the
  creator and cause of all existence.
• Brahman who creates the universe.



*www.bbc.co.uk/religions/hinduism. Accessed on 31.08.07

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Adam, Eve & their Children

              Mixed
                               Black




              Adam
      White           yellow
              & Eve




              Other



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   Nations, cultures & Civilizations
• Human beings differentiated over the decades into:
 - Tribes & nations.
 - Different cultures.
 - Different civilizations.

• But we need to remember:
 - One creator
 - One parent.
 - One race.
we share the same feelings: sadness, happiness, joy, love,
  fear, worry, anxiety, ….. Same hopes & ambitions and
  same needs: peace, love, respect, care and more.

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               Civilization
• Civis: Latin word for citizen or townsman.
• Being Civilised: a citizen who is governed by
  his/her city, town or community.
• “Civilisation” is the opposite “Barbarity”
• Civilization: refers to human society as a
  whole.
• Civilization is not only about advances in
  technology but Principles, Morals & Ethics


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 Each of us influences &
is influenced by the other




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                         Race & Racism
• A characteristic of human beings is to
  compare themselves to others.
  Why?
  - To enhance self esteem
  - To set boundaries *



* Favazza A (2005): Contribution of the Sociocultural Sciences, in Comprehensive Textbook of
    Psychiatry edited by, 8th Edition, pp: 598–623

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                             Modern Racism*
• Began in Spain (15th Century), where Christians
   were divided into old & new.
    1. Old Christians: “had purity of blood”.
    2. New Christians: converted Jews.
On biological grounds, Jews & later Muslims, were
   declared incorrigibly inferior. They were excluded
   from mainstream Spanish society.
* Favazza A (2005): Contribution of the Sociocultural Sciences, in Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry edited by, 8
                                                                                                                  th

    Edition, pp: 598–623




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          In the New World
• Spanish conquerors brutalised & enslaved
  the local populations to mine for gold. Their
  justification came from some theologians
  who declared that Indians lacked
  rationality & morality and therefore were
  in Aristotelian terms “Natural Slaves”



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 Paracelsus: a famous Physician

• Indians were soulless, inferior beings
  because they had not descended from the
  Biblical Adam.




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             Pope Paul III
• In 1537, Pope Paul III ruled out that:
  “The Indians are truly men”

• However economic interests prevailed, the
  Papal declaration was ignored and harsh
  slavery continued for several hundred
  years.

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In 17th century, transatlantic slave trade
was developed with the following rationalisations


                  A. Religious




C. Scientific                     B. Philosophical


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                              A. Religious

• Blacks (many British referred to non-white
  persons as black) supposedly were cursed
  by God as descendents of Ham, an Old
  Testament biblical figure who saw his
  father naked*.

* Favazza A (2005): Contribution of the Sociocultural Sciences, in Comprehensive Textbook of
    Psychiatry edited by, 8th Edition, pp: 598–623



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             B. Philosophical
• Dave Hume: only white persons are capable of
  creating civilized nations & of producing ingenious
  manufacture, art & science.

• John Locke (English Physician-Philosopher)
  supported the degeneracy theory: “the white
  European is the normal natural state of human
  beings & other races developed through biological
  and psychological degeneration”

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                  C. Scientific
• Scientists noted that:
- White was the true colour of nature.
- Degenerative process found in non-whites.
- This degeneration might be reversed by exposure to
  European culture.
- Non-white were deemed to be psychologically flawed &
  unable to rule themselves as demonstrated by the ease
  with which European colonialists subjugated vast areas
  of the east.
- As late as 1963, a British historian stated that, although
  black Africans have darkness, only European have
  history in Africa.
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         In USA (19th Century)
• Samuel Morton (Professor of Anatomy): claimed that
  cranial capacity of skulls was unchanged for 3000 years,
  was largest for whites, followed by Asians, native
  Americans & Africans.
• Robert Bean (Professor of Anatomy at John Hopkins
  University,1906) confirmed this finding. He stated that
  Negroes have well developed lower mental faculties
  such as smell & melody while whites have well
  developed higher faculties such as self-control & reason.
•


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                  American Psychiatry
• Drapetomania: a term coined by an American
  Psychiatrist to describe slaves & cats who had
  irrestrainable propensity to run away from their masters.
• In 20th century, American Psychiatrists published
  articles in prestigious Journals demonstrating that lower
  rate of mental illness among slaves compared to free
  blacks i.e. slavery protected the mental health of blacks
  because of the supervision they received.
• A study in 1914 concluded that: negro mind is
  irresponsible, unthinking, easily aroused to happiness
  and rarely experiences depression*.
* Favazza A (2005): Contribution of the Sociocultural Sciences, in Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry edited by,
    8th Edition, pp: 598–623


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                   USA
• The founding fathers of US wrote a
  constitution & a bill of Rights proclaiming
  that all men were created equal & have
  the right to pursue happiness. Yet slavery
  was common at the time in Northern &
  Southern states.



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                            Healthy Cultures*
• Healthy cultures have the capacity to change
   their social patterns in response to new ideas,
   desires and technologies.
• Change may come:
 - Gradually especially when many of the perceived
   inferior group members come to believe that they
   are truly inferior.
 - Rapidly with forceful rebellion and civil war.
*Favazza A ( 2005): Contribution of the Sociocultural Sciences, in Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry edited by, 8 th
    Edition, pp: 598–623




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The Islamic Era




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 Muslims’ Contribution to Medicine

• Many if not all nations contributed to the
  development of the human civilization.
• We may or may not know about all the
  nations & their contribution.
• No one nation can claim the credit.




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           Islamic Values
-   Monotheism (one God)
-   Education and Literacy
-   Modesty and Chastity
-   Honesty, Humility, Trustworthiness.
-   Family as a basic unit of society
-   Consultation and Consensus
-   Purity of intent and action

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      Islam & Tolerance
• Freedom of choice is laid down by the Qur'an
  itself: 'There is no compulsion in religion'.
  (2:256)
• The human life and property of all citizens in
  the society are considered sacred whether a
  person is Muslim or not.
• All human beings are equal, no racism.


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       Revealed Prophets
-   Noah       -   Solomon
-   Abraham    -   Zacharias
-   Adam       -   Elisha
-   Isaac      -   Elias
-   Ishmael    -   John the Baptist
-   Moses      -   Jesus
-   David      -   Mohammed


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             Islamic Influences
 Astronomy                         Medicine
   discovered stars: Algol            first hospital – Baghdad
   Deneb, Betelgeuse, Rigel,           706
   Aldebaran                           A&P: surgery
   compiled astronomical tables       emphasized empirical
   and almanacs                        observation
   established observatories          hygiene and
   translated Ptolemy’s               pharmacology
   Almagest                         Universities
 Mathematics                          Al-Zaytunah, Tunis – 732
   Arabic numerals                    Al-Azhar, Cairo – 988
   Zero                               Muslim Spain: Granada,
   Algebra, algorithm                 Seville, and Cordoba, – 9th c.

 Inventions                        Literature
   quadrant and astrolabe          Religious Toleration

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       Medieval Islamic Scientists

Jaber Ibn Haiyan (Geber)   Abu Al-Qasim Al-Zahravi
  alchemist/metallurgist     (Albucasis)
   died 803 A.D.             surgeon/author
Ibn Sina (Avicenna)           936-1013 A.D.
  physician/philosopher    Ibn Rushd (Averroes)
   981-1037 A.D.
                             physician/philosopher
Ar-Razi (Rhazes)              1128-1198 A.D.
  physician/ philosopher
   864-930 A.D.            Al-Khawarizmi (Algorizm)
                              mathematician/ astronomer
                              770-840 A.D.

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The Taj Mahal, Agra, India




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    History of Medicine, why?
• The concept that medicine is exclusively
  the product of Western minds, remains
  unquestioned by most individuals.
• A review of any of the standard texts or
  encyclopedias regarding the history of
  medicine would support this view.


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        History of Medicine
Most texts give little or no mention of the
  advancements made by ancient Indian,
  Chinese, Persian or, particularly, Arab &
  Muslim physicians.
• George Perkins (A British Surgeon) is
  considered the pioneer of what is called the
  Delayed Splintage Theory, while Avicenna
  (Ibn Sina) wrote about this theory in his book
  Al-Qanunn 1000 year before Perkins.

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       History of Medicine
George Sarton (1884-1956) was a
 Belgian-American historian of science.
States that modern Western
 medicine did not originate from
 Europe and that it actually arose
 from the orients.

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Al-Razi is considered the first
who described what is called
now Baker’s cyst. Which is
attributed to the English
surgeon William Baker (1839-
1896) who described it in
1877.
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The final page of a manuscript of al-Hawi by al-Razi. It is the
The final page of a manuscript of al-Hawi by al-Razi. It is the
 oldest manuscript kept in NLM, and the third oldest Arabic
 oldest manuscript kept in NLM, and the third oldest Arabic 48
                             manuscript
                     medical manuscript
                     medical
           Treating Patients
• Muslims believed in
  finding remedies for
  disease rather than
  relying on prayer.
• As a result Islamic
  medicine was far
  more advanced than
  medicine in Europe.


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  Other points to Remember…
• Muslims believed that Hygiene was
  important for health.
• Charity & caring for others was encouraged.
• Hospitals set up for sick people.
• Sick people even given money so they
  didn’t have to beg or rush back to work.



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             Medical Ethics
• Medical ethics & regulating medical profession
  was given a high importance in the Islamic era.
• Islamic era was much different from its
  predecessors (e.g. Hamoraby, Ancient Greek)
• You will find similarity between the principles
  adopted in Islamic era & our current time e.g. by
  the UK General Medical Council (GMC).



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   Medical Responsibility (1)
1. Doctor’s responsibility.
2. Patient’s responsibility.
• Good Clinical Care:
 - Doctors must recognise & work within their professional
  competence.
 - Be competent when making diagnosis & giving
  treatment.
 - Be willing to consult colleagues.      (GMC-UK, 1998)


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  Medical Responsibility (2)

• Iraq (Hamoraby Law, 1700 y before birth of
  C):
- If a physician treats a seriously wounded man using a scalpel or
   treated an eye abscess and he recovered, the physician is to be
   paid 10 Shawaqil of silver.
- If the man dies or looses his eyesight, the physician’s hand is
   to be amputated!
• Ancient Greek (Aesculapius):               A physician who put
  a condition that if a man wanted to learn medicine, he must be
  from his own noble family or from a recognised & rich family.
  They put a system for accountability & a noble man to look into
  complaints against physicians.

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      Medical Responsibility (3)
• Islamic era: Prophet Mohamed’s Hadith
  ‘A person who practiced medicine, without having the necessary
   knowledge & skills, is liable’.
Ibn Al-Qayim (scholar) had classified physicians regarding medical
   responsibility into 5 types & as a conclusion: The physician is not
   deemed liable if he:
   1. Has the appropriate knowledge & skills.
   2. Intended & aimed to do the patient good.
   3. Adheres to the recognised & accepted medical knowledge & rules.
   4. Has obtained consent of the patient or his next of ken if appropriate.

                            (Kaadan, Medicoethics, islamicmedicine.org, 2005)

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    Medical Responsibility (4)

      ↑
• With numbers of practitioners in Muslim countries, a
  supervising system was developed (Al-Hisbah).

• The Chief of Physicians was responsible to (Al-
  Mohtasib).

• The Chief of physicians adopted strict rules in
  supervising the practitioners. These rules included: not
  to prescribe a harmful medication, not to inform women
  of drugs that could be used to harm foetus, or men of
  drugs that could adversely affect fertility, to respect
  privacy and confidentiality of patient & his family.
                   (Kaadan, Medicoethics, islamicmedicine.org, 2005)

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   Medical Responsibility (5)

• Physicians had to undergo a test before
  having a permission to practice e.g.
 Alkahaloon (Ophthalmologists):
To be examined in:
- Honain Bin Ishaq book (10 articles about
  the anatomy and diseases of the eye).
- Drugs used for treating the eye.
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Ibn Sina: (980-1037 A.D.) the Genius Boy
  Ibn Sina's portrait is in the hall of the Faculty of Medicine in

  Paris University of. He is known in the West as Avicenna.




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Al-Zahravi is called the "father of
    surgery"(963-1013 AD) .




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               Hospitals (1)
• The development of efficient hospitals was
  an outstanding contribution of Islamic
  medicine.
• The hospitals served all citizens free of
  charge regardless their colour, religion, sex,
  age or social status.
• Hospitals had separate wards for male and
  female


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                  Hospitals (2)
•   Teams: qualified physicians, nurses, pharmacist, ...
•   Baths and water supplies.
•   Medical records.
•   Medical Schools
•   Extensive libraries were attached to the hospitals,
    containing most up-to-date books.
    -Tulum Hospital in Cairo in 872 CE had 100,000
    books. (Mustansiriyya University in Baghdad had
    80,000 volumes. Cordova library had 600,000
    volumes; Cairo had 2,000,000 and Tripoli 3,000,000).


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SOME FAMOUS HOSPITALS:

•   Al-Nuri Hospital: Damascus in 706
•   Al-Fustat Hospital: Cairo in 872
•   Al-Salahani Hospital: Jerusalem in 1055
•   -Mansuri Hospital: Cairo in 1248
•   Al-Qayrawan Hospital: Tunisia in 830
• Marakesh Hospital: In 1190
• Granada Hospital: Spain in 1366
• Delhi Hospitals in India


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 “A man or a woman who
has a ghost or a familiar
spirit shall be put to death;
they shall be pelted with
stones; their blood guilt
shall be upon them.”
      Leviticus 20:27
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The Future!




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Better understanding about each other,
 more achievements & more flowers




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Love + Justice  Peace




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Thank You



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