cc vol14 no2 by deiJ3Wq3


									Volume 14, Number 2

The old and the new are flourishing in in Cornwall.

Delabole Slate and the the Good Energy windfarm are side by side in the village of Delabole, located on the
north shore of Cornwall. See pages 6,7 and 8 for more detaills on this unique village.
Delabole Slate has been operating as a slate works for the past 1000 years. It is England’s oldest working
slate quarry.

Several smaller quarries were combined in 1841 to form The Delabole Slate Company, which was finally
liquidated in 1977. After a short management under corporate hands, the operations have continued as a
private local company since 1999. Besides serving local needs, the company now hopes to link with tourism
through a visitor center. This would be of special interest to the Cornish slatemen that moved elsewhere,
and particularly to those of our Cornish Cousins in the Pen Argyle area of Pennsylvania. We appreciate the
company's permission to allow us to reproduce here the picture from their website.

Program: Ringwood Iron Mines
Speaker: Ralph Colfax, President
North Jersey Highlands Historical Society
       The North Jersey Highlands Historical Society is a non-profit organization dedicated to preserving
and interpreting New Jersey history and the rich local history of the North Jersey Highlands Region. For over
50 years, the Society has published the Highlander, a scholarly journal of regional history, as well as books,
pamphlets and maps. We have also funded various historic restoration projects, produced annual
conferences, field trips, exhibits and historical reenactments. The Society also operates the gift shop at
Ringwood Manor and maintains at Ringwood Manor a historical reference library of some renown.

13th Annual Meeting
On Saturday, March 1, CHSE celebrated Saint Piran Day with a Cornish cream tea with orange scones,
sausage rolls, heavy cake, cucumber sandwiches and clotted cream. We also had our usual Rocky’s Port
Oram pasties.

Twenty one members attended the meeting where we accepted the Nominating Committee’s report and
installed the following officers:
President               Joan Iva Wheeler
1st Vice President Margaret Carne

Since we were unable to fill the 2nd VP position, we have separated the membership record keeping from
the 2nd VP role. Joan Wheeler has agreed to continue with that duty for the current year.

We are now seeking a 2nd VP to fill the member services for the remainder of this year.

Since we need greeters for our meetings, Shirley O’Brien and Jacklyn Gilbert have volunteered to take on
that role for the June meeting.

President’s Message
Joan Iva Wheeler
It is a great honor and privilege to be writing this, my first message as your President. From that wonderful
Saturday several years ago when I first learned about the CHSE, I knew immediately I was interested in
membership. I had stopped to pick up pastys at Rocky’s Pasty Shoppe for my Mom and her friend at their
nursing home. It was then that I met Barry and Art who were picking up the pasty order for the CHSE
meeting’s lunch. They were easily identified as they were wearing their CHSE shirts.

Both were so very welcoming when I identified my Cornish heritage. They invited me back to the meeting
at the church and I have been a member ever since.
The devotion and knowledge of all to our great Cornish Heritage started by the founding members in 1995
has been a very enlightening experience to me and serving as your President is my humble honor.

My goals for CHSE are to continue all the great programs and to ask each member to bring one new to the
September 2008 meeting to share this same knowledge and devotion I found on my first visit. Thank you
again for your trust.

CHSE has lost a great friend.

As this issue of the Cornish Crier goes to press, we were saddened to hear of the passing of Martin
Trengove on Thursday, May 8.

Our beloved Martin was one of the founding members of CHSE and has served the organization in many
ways since its inception in 1995.

We send our condolences to his widow, Edith and his family.

We will publish a more detailed tribute to Martin in the next issue of the Cornish Crier.

Past, Present and Future of Mt. Hope Miners’ Church

A Power Point presentation by:
            Bonnie-Lynn Nadzeika, Director, Morris County Historical Society
          Mark Texel, Director of Historic Sites for the Morris County Park Commission
Reported by Anne Stephens

The Mt. Hope Miners’ Church is located just off Interstate 80 and only a few miles from the Rockaway
Townsquare Mall, yet few people are aware of the industry that was once the center of community life in the
Rockaway area.

The focus of the first half of the program was on the history of the church and the social impact the mining
industry had on Morris County.

The Morris County iron industry began in Mine Hill in 1713 with the opening of the Dickerson Mine. A few
years later, in 1722, industrialists Jackson and Hurd began buying up property in the Dover area. In 1747,
Boonton began its own iron works. Moving ahead to 1770, John Jacob Faesch purchased 6000 acres near
his mansion in Mt. Hope for his iron works. This is the area where we locals have always referred to as the
place New Jersey made cannon balls for General Washington.

By the 1790-1810 era, there were over 22 iron forges in the Rockaway/Dover area. Soon other Morris
County areas, including Morristown and Chester, developed more iron works, mines, forges and furnaces.

During the 1800s, the Morris Canal and later the railroads were built to take the ore to market. Morris
County’s great iron ore industrial era began.

The Mt. Hope Mining Company, as well as many other companies needed to import experienced hard rock
miners to operate their mines. Many of these were Cornish miners and ancestors of CHSE members.

My own great grandfather, Edward Rodda was one of them. He was enumerated in the 1870 Federal
Census as living in Mt. Hope and working as a miner.

The mining company built mine company towns for the Cornish miners who brought their families with them.
In 1868 the Mt. Hope Mining Company participated in the erection of the Mt. Hope Miners’ Church. Since a
group of Cornish Methodists had already been holding services in the mine captain’s home, the church soon
became the Mt. Hope Methodist Church with 140 members.
In those early days, the churches needed to be within walking distance from the members' homes, so many
small churches were built. Time moved on with increasing complexity into the early 1900s when the iron ore
boom began to bust. The surplus of cheaper iron ore from mines in Michigan and other places out west
dropped the price of iron. The last of the mines closed one by one.

Problems first came with the great depression of the 1930s, then World War II which was followed the great
post war prosperity. It was no more 'a chicken in every pot and a car in every garage.' It was beefsteak on
the grill and two car families. The automobile enabled the Mt. Hope Methodists and others to easily travel
five to ten miles on a Sunday to go to church. Also, the Mt. Hope community changed and by 1978 the
church had fewer than twenty member families. The church closed.

The finalization came when, in 1984, the Northern New Jersey Annual Conference of the Methodist Church
voted to ratify the decision of the local church to close the doors of the Mt. Hope Miners’ Church.

It was the end of an era.

Public Perception Goals:
To offer a reflection of the time of New Jersey and Morris County’s industrial prowess
To preserve the history of the church as a base of community life

Connections between the church and the park
Location across the street from the Ford Faesch House
One half mile from the New Leonard Mine
Close proximity to Mt Hope Pond
Complex and trails of Mt Hope Historical Park
Archeological treasure trove
The church is on the original site significance

Current condition--currently closed
Lack of visitor amenities
Quarry traffic—especialy during summer and fall
Funding for rehabitalization and operation
Located within the Highlands Bill Region

Restore exterior to 1870s-1880s era
Rehabilitate sanctuary in main block and wing
Resourse listed on both state and National Register of Historical Sites
Clean up four acres of land
Great archeological potential
Interpret mining history in original context
New recreational and educational programming
Collaboration with local organizations
Place for community gatherings
Create sustainable programming

2008 goals—continue with present plan
Continue to secure funding sources
Pursue state and national registration nominations for the resource
Implement program of archeological investigation
Involve local residents in programs
Continue Mt. Hope Mine Task Force
Hold a Mt. Hope Revival Day
In the first article we wrote on Mt. Hope and the Morris County Historical Park, (Cornish Crier—Dec. 2005)
we included a comment by a long term resident of the Mt. Hope/Teabo area, CHSE member, Ecla
Wellington. “I would like to see a ‘Cornish Cookery’ with Cornish pasties and saffron buns.”

Maybe Ecla’s dream will come true.

CHSE members Margaret Carne, Robert Carlyon and Anne Stephens attended this presentation.

Written by Ray Wordon of Delabole, Cornwall, especially for the Cornish Crier

The village of Delabole is situated on the wind-blown north coast of Cornwall. It is about a mile inland and at
six hundred feet above sea level, is the third highest village in the county. From one direction it stands
exposed to the westerly winds coming in from the Atlantic Ocean and from the other, easterlies, originating
from continental Europe and beyond.

For centuries traditional industries in the area have been farming and slate quarrying. Competition from less
durable but cheaper slate quarried elsewhere has seen the quarry workforce drop over the years to less
than a tenth of what it was in it’s heyday. A similar decline in the prosperity of British agriculture has meant
that in recent years more and more farmers have been looking at various means of diversifying away from
their core business of farming.

There is nothing new about harnessing wind power to create energy. Millers have used it to grind corn for
centuries. The concept of using it on a commercial scale to generate electricity has, however, been totally
new to the United Kingdom until recent times. There have been instances where small-scale wind turbines
had been used to provide power for individual dwellings in isolated locations, but little more than that.

Today, politicians and scientists commonly use phrases like “global warming” and “greenhouse gases” when
talking about the adverse effects on our environment caused by the continued use of fossil fuels to provide
our main sources of energy. Until the early 1990s, though, there wasn’t so much concern as to how our
planet was going to be preserved for future generations to enjoy.

As part of the privatisation of the Electricity Boards by the Thatcher Government in 1990, the 12 newly
created Electricity Supply Companies were obliged to subsidise the production of energy by renewable
means, making wind generation a viable economic proposition. Here in Cornwall, a farmer had the foresight
to recognise how important the use of renewable assets was going to be as a means of combating climate
change and protecting the earth from irreversible damage in the years to come.

Peter Edwards and his family farmed at Deli Farm, which is about a mile from the village of Delabole and
some 200 feet higher. The Edwards family formed a company, “Windelectric”, with the aim of creating the
first commercial windfarm in the United Kingdom. Detailed plans were drawn up for the erection of several
wind-powered turbines at Deli Farm. When news of the scheme became public, it was initially received with
much suspicion and from some quarters, hostility on the grounds of the visual impact the turbines would
have on their surroundings in an area already designated as being of outstanding natural beauty. At 150 feet
tall, they would dominate the landscape for miles around. Concerns were voiced about how much noise the
blades would make and whether they would cause interference with TV signals to neighbouring houses.

After detailed consultation with the local community, however, fears were allayed and the district planning
authority in August 1991 granted permission for the plans to be implemented. Work on the site commenced
at the end of the same month.

There were ten turbines, of Danish design and manufacture, each one standing over 100 feet tall and
topped by three rotor arms of over 110 feet in diameter. The turbines were positioned about 900 feet apart to
minimise energy loss due to turbulence. So that normal farming activities could be carried on around them
without undue hindrance, no roads were laid on the site, all cables buried underground and the turbines
carefully positioned in existing hedge lines. Also, to meet the conditions of the planning authority, all the
turbines had to be situated at least 325 yards from the nearest human habitation.
The construction work was completed in very short time and the last turbine was connected to the National
Grid via an existing local high voltage sub-station in December 1991.

Since then the windfarm has produced an output of 12 million kilowatt-hours of electricity annually, which is
the approximate consumption of nearly 3000 average homes. In other words it provides enough energy to
satisfy the needs of a small town. Producing the same amount of electricity by normal methods, about 2000
tonnes of oil or 5000 tonnes of coal would have to be burned each year, pumping 12,000 tonnes of carbon
dioxide and 120 tonnes of sulphur and nitrous oxide into the atmosphere.

Nothing stands still, however. “Windelectric” is now part of a group called “Good Energy” which is proposing
major changes and improvements to the windfarm at Delabole in the very near future. After more than fifteen
years, technology has moved on. Plans are on-going for the existing ten turbines to be replaced by six
new-generation machines that will stand twice the height and provide more than double the capacity of the
existing ones. It is calculated that during it’s lifetime over one million tonnes of CO2 emissions will be saved
by the site compared to that produced by fossil fuel power stations.

Even so, windfarms are not universally accepted as the way forward for energy production. There are many
detractors on the grounds of efficiency by comparison to other methods, unsightliness, noise, interference
with military and television signals as well as potential danger to bird life. “Good Energy” has taken all this
into consideration and has consulted very closely with appropriate environmental and planning authorities as
well as local residents when formulating plans for what they term as the “repowering” at Delabole.

Having lived with the windfarm on their doorstep for so long now, the people of Delabole are not likely to be
unduly troubled by the proposed upgrade as and when it comes to pass. To most locals the turbines are
now almost as much part of the landscape as their world famous quarry. In actual fact, windfarms are
becoming increasingly familiar in other parts of Cornwall and throughout the country as a whole as the
search for more environmentally friendly means of generating electricity gathers pace. Wind power, wave
power and hydro-electric power are just a few of the technologies being trialed and evaluated as the UK
strives to meet it’s target of producing 10% of it’s total energy requirements by non-fossil means by the year

And the winds of change are finally beginning to blow through the United States as well. Almost in parallel to
the Edwards family in Delabole, a man in the small town of Roscoe, Texas, looking to augment his income
from farming by other means, recognised the potential, both economic and environmental, of wind power
and opened the biggest windfarm in the world to date, comprising over 600 turbines. Delabole can never
hope to emulate that, but it’s place in history is assured thanks to the vision and enterprise of an ordinary
farmer who saw the opportunity presented by the exposed location of his land and seized it with both hands
About the author:

Ray Worden lives in Delabole in north Cornwall, home of the famous slate quarry and now, the UK’s first
commercial windfarm.

At our request, he has written this article especially for the Cornish Crier. As photography is one of his
hobbies, he has taken all of the windfarm photos in the Crier.

Thanks, Ray.

Also a thank you to Rebecca Brown of Good Energy for her assistance.

Catherine Lorigan’s Delabole
Reveals the Secret Life on an inward-looking Place
A review by Gage McKinney

This article is a reprint from Tam Kernewek, Spring 2008, Volume 26, Issue 1

Now that Catherine Lorigan’s history of Delabole has been released it can’t be long before tourists are seen
wandering the old slate quarry village using the book as their guide. With its colorful maps of Delabole,
Pengelly and the parish of St. Teath, and with photos of quarry and village, the book could make a useful
guide, though its scope is much larger.

Delabole: The History of the Slate Quarry and the Making of its Village Community combines economic,,
social and religious history to lead us not merely through streets and lanes but through the historic
consciousness, the inner life of a remote and inward-looking place. Lorigan’s book began as a dissertation,
and happily developed into something more, a readable landscape.

Here’s a book to teach us about slate. Lorigan begins with the geology and moves to the economics of the
business, describing developments and the emergence of new products, such as powdered slate, that
extended the life of the quarry. She traces the success and failures from the early capitalists, called
“outadventurers,” to the nineteenth century joint-stock companies and twentieth century corporations. She
explains that the quarry has returned surprisingly in the twenty-first century to single-family ownership.

While economics are important, even more revealing are the stories of the people who made Delabole and
gave the village and surrounding hamlets their character. Among them were the various quarry owners.
While some lived far off in Plymouth, others were enmeshed with the community, sitting on the parish
council, school board and judicial bench, and playing the chapel organ. Their wives organized teas and
bazaars and visited the sick.

The best kind of leader was Robert Pearce, who began life in the quarry but for his gifts as a student rose to
become headmaster from 1893 - 1920. As a teacher, he introduced the children of quarrymen to
Shakespeare and Walter Scott. Whether serving as clerk to the sanitation board, honorary secretary of the
Liberal Association, chairman of the war memorial committee or chapel preacher, he drove community

Lorigan tells as well the story of working families who inhabited two or four-room cottages, tended garden
plots and took in lodgers though they hardly had room for themselves. She describes the leisure time
activities of the workers, including the tea treats and games that the community sanctioned and the
poaching and gambling the judges and preachers condemned.

An interesting chapter describes the influence of Welsh methods and strategies, and the more direct
influence of Welsh managers, on Cornwall’s famous quarry. Cornishmen themselves gained valuable
experience in Wales, and migration between the two Celtic lands often preceded a longer migration across
the Atlantic.

For those living far from Cornwall, the book’s attention to migration gives it a special appeal. Lorigan traces
quarry workers to Tasmania, the “Delabole” quarry of South Australia and the slate belt of Pennsylvania and
elsewhere. Some of the most intriguing material deals with the movement of workers within Britain,
especially to Yorkshire and the Lake District. return migration of slate workers gave rise to a section of
cottages back in Cornwall called “California.”

Given the detail of this 270-page book, perhaps only determined readers or those whose families actually
lived near Delabole will read it from cover-to-cover. A wider range of cornish enthusiasts will want a copy
for reference to this corner or north Cornwall, defined by a unique kind of mining. For myself, having
discovered the hidden life of Delabole in these pages, I’m looking forward to seeing the revealed life of the
place on my next excursion to cornwall. I’ll take along Lorigan’s book for my guide.

3 JANUARY 1851
West Briton newspaper transcripts at:
Transcribed by:
Julia Symons Mosman, OPC for St Austell and Rita Bone Kopp, OPC for St Stephen In Brannel, along with
Isabel Harris, William Kemp and numerous other dedicated volunteers.
LITERATURE, & C. Practical Observation on the Diseases of the Cornish Miner, Part 1 - Consumption. By
William Wale Tayler, M.R.C.S.E., Surgeon to Fowey and Par Consols Mines, &c., London; John
CHURCHILL, Princes- street, Soho.

Here are some excerpts from this very interesting article published in 1851.

The true Cornish miner," he says," is quite of a distinct race from the agricultural labourer of the county, and
they differ as essentially in habits, appearance, and temperament, as if they belonged to separate nations.
In stature, he is generally below, rather than above the middle height; in form not stout, but compact, well
proportioned, exhibiting no great muscular development, though his strength and powers of bearing fatigue
are surprising; his distinguishing characteristics are shrewdness, intelligence, indomitable perseverance,
and a fondness or passion for what in the dialect of the county is called "venturing.”

Mr. Tayler justly conceives that this persevering and "venturing" spirit strongly operates to excite the Cornish
miner to seek for the earth's mineral treasures. Most persons who have found an opportunity to observe
the habits of the Cornish miners, will also agree with him, that the majority of them are industrious, moral,
and sober men. He observes that "the miner is generally a religious man, and usually a member of some of
the numerous dissenting sects with which Cornwall abounds, seldom of the Church of England.

The author remarks on the great partiality for dress which they and their families exhibit, and which may be
seen in the mining districts every Sunday. The "mine-maidens," he says, "carry this fondness to extremes;
all the dresses exhibited in the plates of the monthly books of fashion, may be seen at Tywardreath or St.
Blazey on a fine Sunday afternoon, not even omitting the additional accompaniments of parasols,
lace-edged pocket-handkerchiefs, &c." He observes, however, (on the other side of the account) that they
are "strong, healthy, active, well-formed girls, and make for the most part very good wives, generally
contriving to hold the reins of power in their own hands, ruling their husbands and his finances, with a good
deal of tact and discretion; for be it known that the whole of the earnings or gettings are generally entrusted
to the wife's care; and, like a good Chancellor of the Exchequer, she lays out the surpluses to the best
possible advantage."

The author notices - what is very commendable - the affectionate interest which miners' families generally
take in the welfare of their kindred. He next draws the distinction between the labour of tutwork and tributors,
which is well known to most of our readers; and in doing so he makes the following remarks:
"A miner's son generally begins at the age of fourteen or fifteen to accompany his father in his labours
underground, and even at an earlier period; but this extremely youthful initiation to the art is not, as a
stranger might imagine, at all injurious to his future health, for I have ascertained, by repeated inquiries, that
the oldest miners now capable of working are those who commenced in their earliest youth."

"Many of the miners live from four to five miles from the seat of their work, which I consider is very injurious
to their constitutions; imagine a man, after working eight hours in a place so hot, that the very water he has
carried down with him in his keg has become undrinkable from the intense heat - and moreover that he has
been working quite divested of all clothing - and then walking several miles in the depth of winter, exposed
either to heavy rain, or to the intense cold of frost or snow; and yet all this danger is quite unnecessarily
incurred, as there are plenty of habitations to be found in the neighbourhood of the mines.”
The Crier staff will have copies of this seven page article available at the June meeting. Also, the article wil
be available to members in an online pdf file or a paper copy on request from:
Anne Stephens, 23 Weldon Road, Lake Hopatcong, NJ, 07849
or email at
“The Duchy is one of the greenest regions in the UK. “
For more information on the greening of Cornwall, see the article “Sustainable Cornwall” in Cornish World,
Issue 57, Apr/May 2008 pg 24. Copies of the article are available on request from CHSE library.
Subscribe to Cornish World at:
Cornish World Media
PO Box 71, Penzance, Cornwall TR18 2ZR UK

or: email Nigel Pengelly at:

CHSE library
New additions to our library:

Who Were he Celts?
       Kevin Duffy
A Prospect of Cornwall
       Donald R. Rawe
PASCOE’S all over the world
       W. H. (Harry) Pascoe
Tales of the Cornish Miners
       John Vivian
The Story of Troon
       David Oates
Oxford Furnace, NJ
       Edited by George K Warne
In the Late Nineteenth Century (1855-1875)


Book Review of books in our society library by Myna Dumpert:
The books below are a good source to put flesh on the bones of your Cornish Ancestors in writing their

 “Life in Cornwall”
In the Early Nineteenth Century ( 1810-1834)
“Life in Cornwall”
In the Mid Nineteenth Century (1835-1854)
“Life in Cornwall”
“Life in Cornwall”
At the end of the Nineteenth Century (1876-1899)
        The four books comprise excerpts from the West Briton Newspaper selected and edited by Rita M.
        If you are enjoying the excerpts published in the Crier each month, you will enjoy these books. Ms
Rita Barton has chosen the selections with a view to giving the reader a well rounded understanding of all
aspects of Cornish life. It gives one insight into the specific areas in many cases where our ancestors lived.
There are fairs, cattle markets, mine workings, accounts of wrecking, plagues, schools, superstitions and
word of those you came to America and lost their lives or returned rich. It is sometimes humorous,
sometimes sad, but very informative. Each has a good index with topics, names of places and people.

“A History of Cornish Methodism” by Thomas Shaw
This is a book of 136 pages on the history of Methodism in Cornwall as well as insight into the people, the
preachers, and chapels. It includes the later off-shoots. It speaks of the beliefs and the puritan traditions
of the original Methodist people, the musical instruments used in the chapels and parish churches and
some Cornish traditions in general, such as the funeral walk with instruments and singing of hymns. I found
it very interesting. It has a good index of names of towns and peoples. I did find a short mention of my
Captain Lean as a class leader in Camborne.

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