Introduction to Hazard Mitigation

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					Hazard Mitigation Planning




                            State and Local Plans




     Network of State Hazard Mitigation Officers
Objectives

   Identify the minimum requirements for state &
    local hazard mitigation plans

   Review the mechanics of conducting a risk
    assessment and developing a mitigation
    strategy

   Review sample state and local plans
                Network of State Hazard
                   Mitigation Officers       2nd Edition
Why Plan?
Planning is Mandated

   Section 322 of the Stafford Act/Disaster
    Mitigation Act of 2000
    –   Stipulates the process states must use in the
        development of a Hazard Mitigation Plan


   Interim Final Rule (February 26, 2002, Federal
    Register)


                    Network of State Hazard
                       Mitigation Officers              2nd Edition
Key Concept

   Planning is a process
    –   States and local governments are free to design
        their own Hazard Mitigation Plans
    –   The FORMAT is not specified
    –   Minimum criteria IS specified




                    Network of State Hazard
                       Mitigation Officers          2nd Edition
“Standard” State Plan -
Minimum Criteria
 Description of the planning process
 Risk assessment
 Mitigation strategy
 Coordination of local mitigation planning
 Plan maintenance process
 Plan adoption process
 Assurances

                Network of State Hazard
                   Mitigation Officers        2nd Edition
“Enhanced” State Plan

 Minimum Criteria
  All elements of the Standard Plan
  Integrated into other planning documents
  Documented success implementing projects
  Demonstrated success with existing mitigation
   programs and goals
  Demonstrated commitment to a
   comprehensive mitigation program

                Network of State Hazard
                   Mitigation Officers      2nd Edition
Local Plan - Minimum Criteria
   Description of the planning process
   Risk assessment
   Mitigation strategy
   Plan maintenance process
   Adopted by local governing body
   Reviewed by state and federal government


                Network of State Hazard
                   Mitigation Officers     2nd Edition
The Planning Process & Team
                   Recruit a cross-section of state
                    & local leaders & members
                   Demonstrates commitment
                   Buy-in - the key to success
                   No one has all the answers
                   Many viewpoints give
                    perspective




        Network of State Hazard
           Mitigation Officers                2nd Edition
Who are our Federal
    Partners?

   Federal Emergency Management Agency
   Dept. of Housing and Urban Development
   Economic Development Administration
   United States Geological Survey
   Natural Resources Conservation Service
   United States Army Corps of Engineers
   U.S. Fish and Wildlife
   Universities/Research Laboratories
                Network of State Hazard
                   Mitigation Officers       2nd Edition
    Who are our State
       Partners?
   Governor’s Office
   Historical Commission
   Resource Conservation
   Emergency Management
   Coastal Zone Management
   Dam Safety
   Waterways/Riverways
   Housing & Community Development
   Fish & Wildlife
   Fire Warden
   Capital & Asset Management
                  Network of State Hazard
                     Mitigation Officers    2nd Edition
        Who are our Local
           Partners?
   Mayor/City Council/Selectmen/Town Manager
   Police Chief, Fire Chief, Emergency Manager
   School Administrator/Superintendent
   Planning Board and Zoning Board
   Public Works Director or Road Agent
   Private Sector
    –   Chambers of Commerce
    –   Industry, Business & Higher Education
    –   Utilities and Transportation Systems
    –   Workforce unions and professional groups
    –   Volunteer & faith-based organizations

                         Network of State Hazard
                            Mitigation Officers    2nd Edition
          What Makes a Good
               Partner?

   Compatible mission/authority/capability –
    they can bring something to the table (i.e.
    technical expertise, program knowledge)

   Motivation – something is in it for them
    (coordination, funding)

   Enthusiasm – they want to be involved and
    can act as a cheerleader
                    Network of State Hazard
                       Mitigation Officers        2nd Edition
Risk Assessments
     Taking a closer look at the
     mechanics of conducting a
     risk assessment

Step 1: Hazard Analysis
Step 2:Vulnerability Analysis



                 Network of State Hazard
                    Mitigation Officers    2nd Edition
    Risk Assessment Step 1:
    Hazard Analysis

   The hazard analysis answers the following
    three questions
        What    has occurred?
          –   Document previous events
        What    can occur?
          –   probability of future event
        How    bad is it likely to get?

                                 USE MAPS WHEN APPROPRIATE


                        Network of State Hazard
                           Mitigation Officers         2nd Edition
What has occurred? What can occur?
Flooding

 Heavy Rain
 Rapid Snow-Pack
  Melt
 Hurricane
 River Ice
 Dam Breach
                                       Hooksett, NH
                                          1936
             Network of State Hazard
                Mitigation Officers                   2nd Edition
What has occurred? What can occur?
Wildfire




             Network of State Hazard
                Mitigation Officers    2nd Edition
What has occurred? What can occur?
Geologic Hazards

   Earthquake
   Landslide
   Subsidence
   Tsunami
   Volcanism


                                           Survey of the World’s
                                             Great Tsunamis
                 Network of State Hazard
                    Mitigation Officers                            2nd Edition
What has occurred? What can occur?
Severe Wind Related Hazards
 Tornado
 Hurricane
 Nor’easter
 Thunderstorm
    –   Downburst
    –   Lightning
    –   Hailstorms
                Network of State Hazard
                   Mitigation Officers    2nd Edition
What has occurred? What can occur?
Winter Weather Related Hazards

  Heavy Snow
  Nor’easters
  Blizzard
  Ice Storm
  Snow Avalanche
  River Ice Flooding

             Network of State Hazard
                Mitigation Officers    2nd Edition
Profile Each Hazard
      Frequency of occurrence
      Magnitude and potential intensity
      Location
      Probable spatial extent
      Duration
      Seasonal Pattern
      Speed of Onset
      Availability of warnings


               Network of State Hazard
                  Mitigation Officers      2nd Edition
Prioritize Each Hazard

     Use hazard rating worksheet
     Use hazard profile worksheet
     Assign severity ratings
     Focus on hazards that are life
      threatening or financially costly




               Network of State Hazard
                  Mitigation Officers     2nd Edition
How bad will it get?
Step 2: Vulnerability Analysis
     Describe vulnerability by:
      –   jurisdictions most threatened by the
          identified hazards
      –   jurisdictions most vulnerable to damage and
          loss
     Describe and analyze potential losses to
      vulnerable structures (include potential
      dollar losses for state structures)

                  Network of State Hazard
                     Mitigation Officers           2nd Edition
What state & local assets are at risk?
Vulnerability Analysis
      Life/citizens
      Critical Facilities (airports, ports, etc.)
      Critical Services
      Public Infrastructure (Roads, Dams etc,)
      Private Infrastructure (Utilities, Dams etc.)
      Business infrastructure & economic losses
      Agricultural and livestock losses
      Historical Resources

                  Network of State Hazard
                     Mitigation Officers          2nd Edition
What state & local assets are at risk?
Historical Resources
   Buildings (Historic Register)
   Dams
   Covered and other Bridges
   Archeological Sites
   Cemeteries
   Transportation centers
    (ports, airports, etc.)




                   Network of State Hazard
                      Mitigation Officers    2nd Edition
The State & Local Mitigation
Strategy
  A mitigation strategy is the
  blueprint for reducing
  the losses identified in the
  risk assessment

        1. Capability Assessment
        2. Goals & Objectives
        3. Mitigation Measures
               Network of State Hazard
                  Mitigation Officers    2nd Edition
    1. State & Local Capability
    Assessment

   Describe:
     –   Pre- and post-disaster hazard management policies
     –   Capabilities to mitigate hazards
             include state and/or local laws, regulations, policies and
              programs
     –   State & local funding capabilities
     –   Effectiveness of state & local mitigation policies,
         programs, and capabilities



                           Network of State Hazard
                              Mitigation Officers                    2nd Edition
2. Hazard Mitigation Objectives?


     “What are we trying to accomplish”?

     Objectives should not be
      unattainable i.e., “To Protect the
      Population from Harm”



                Network of State Hazard
                   Mitigation Officers     2nd Edition
What Goals Will lead us to our
Objectives?
     Goals should be articulated as achievable
      ends and move the organization toward its
      objectives
     Goals and objectives should be developed
      without consideration to available funding
     Each goal may support one or more Activity
      or, “Mitigation Measure”


                  Network of State Hazard
                     Mitigation Officers     2nd Edition
Example
                                Objective
                  Reduce the loss from flood damage for
                     citizens and business owners
                        in the 100-year floodplain


              Goal #1                 Goal #2                Goal #3
           Comply with the         Implement a        Limit Development to
           National Flood         Voluntary Flood         Open Space
         Insurance Program        Buyout Program        Compatible Uses


   Activity #1         Activity #2
   Pass NFIP       Coordinate with the
 City Ordinance    state on all no-rise
                       certificates
3. Mitigation Measures (Activities)

   Measures are achievable ends and should
    move the organization toward the attainment of
    one or more given objectives
   Have timeframes for completion
   Contain milestones to mark progress
   Identify a lead agency or agencies
   Identify support agencies as necessary


                 Network of State Hazard
                    Mitigation Officers      2nd Edition
Mitigation Measure Examples:
           Property Protection

                                Relocation
                                Acquisition
                                Building Elevation
                                Floodproofing (dry & wet)
                                Sewer backup protection
                                Storm shutters
                                Hurricane/roof straps
                                Landscape maintenance
                                Insurance (NFIP)

       Network of State Hazard
          Mitigation Officers                      2nd Edition
Maintenance, Adoption &
Approval
Update plans every 5 years.
Adopted plan required for eligibility for future Hazard
Mitigation Grant Program (HMGP) funding and other
mitigation funding
Each jurisdiction must adopt.
Local plans submitted to State Hazard Mitigation
Officer (SHMO) for initial review.
 SHMO forwards local plans to FEMA region for final
review and approval.
States submit state plans to appropriate FEMA Region
for final review and approval.
                     Network of State Hazard
                        Mitigation Officers           2nd Edition
Key Points

   The Planning Process is as important, if not
    more important, than the document itself
   Convening all relevant parties and
    considering all resources and points of view
    is the ideal approach to:
    –   Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment
    –   Designing and implementing cost-effective Hazard
        Mitigation Measures


                   Network of State Hazard
                      Mitigation Officers          2nd Edition
Key Points
   Once the State has conducted the Planning
    process and produced the Plan:
    –   Local governments must be encouraged to draw on the
        state’s initiative and engage in their own planning
        process.


   The coordination of state and local plans and
    implementation of hazard mitigation measures is
    the responsibility of the SHMO

                    Network of State Hazard
                       Mitigation Officers            2nd Edition
Key Points
   Communities with severe flood hazards
    should develop their All-Hazard Mitigation
    Plan in conjunction with the planning
    requirements for the Flood Mitigation
    Assistance Program and/or the NFIP
    Community Rating System

   Allows access to NFIP credits and funding

               Network of State Hazard
                  Mitigation Officers     2nd Edition
Review Hazard Mitigation Plans
   Does the plan meet the minimum planning requirements
    per the federal regulations (Interim Final Rule)?
   How is the Plan arranged (chapter headings?)
   What is the most prominent risk?
   What types of mitigation activities are identified?
   Is funding identified for activities?
   Is there a timeline or agency identified as “lead agency”?
   How will the plan be implemented and maintained and
    who will do this?


                      Network of State Hazard
                         Mitigation Officers            2nd Edition
Summary
   Identified the minimum requirements for state
    & local hazard mitigation plans

   Reviewed the steps for developing plans, such
    as conducting a risk assessment and
    developing a mitigation strategy

   Reviewed sample state and local plans



                  Network of State Hazard
                     Mitigation Officers      2nd Edition

				
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