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Clean Coal Technology Indian Perspectives by w23Bxsc5

VIEWS: 10 PAGES: 28

									Clean Coal Technology, The Indian Perspective:
Challenges and Road Map
Presented by Himadri Banerji at TREC-STEP on 25th Jan 2012




                        Presented by Himadri Banerji at TREC-STEP
                        Clean Coal Tiruchirapalli on 25th Jan 2012
      Coal The most Significant Source of Energy

Some 23% of primary energy needs are met by coal and 39% of electricity is
generated from coal.

About 70% of world steel production depends on coal feedstock. Coal is the world's
most abundant and widely distributed fossil fuel source.

The International Energy Agency expects a 43% increase in its use from 2000 to 2020.

Burning coal produces about 12 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide each year which is
released to the atmosphere,
 about 70% of this being from power generation.

Other estimates put carbon dioxide emissions from power generation at one third of
the world total of over 28 billion tonnes of CO2 emissions.


                             Presented by Himadri Banerji at TREC-STEP
                             Clean Coal Tiruchirapalli on 25th Jan 2012
    What are Clean Coal Solutions?

A continuously developing range of technology solutions
which improve the efficiency and environmental impact
of using coal as an energy source.

● Beneficiating coal (pre-combustion) – coal de-watering,
    washing and briquetting.
● Efficient alternative uses of coal reserves – UCG, coal
    seam methane
● Efficiency improvements of power plants (post
    combustion)– Plant upgrades,
● Supercritical and ultra supercritical plants.
● Advanced technologies – IGCC, PFBC and IGFC
● Super-Advanced Technologies – Carbon sequestration
    or elimination Presented by Himadri Banerji at TREC-STEP
                    Clean Coal Tiruchirapalli on 25th Jan 2012
        Why are Clean Coal solutions so important?
Dual Crisis - Energy crisis v Climate change crisis

Energy Crisis – Quick Stats (international Energy Agency, WEO 2006)

•Global energy demand will increase by 70% by 2030.
•70% of the increase will come from China and India.
•Fossil fuels will account for 83% of global energy production.
•Coal will makeup 25% of all fossil fuels used – The largest contributor.
•Power generation will account for over 80% of increased Coal usage.

Energy Crisis---Impacts and Concerns

•Fear and uncertainty for growing economies on how to fuel their continued
economic success is rising.
•Coal is the most abundant source of energy in the world and will be continued to be
used as the major feedstock for electricity production for at least the next 30-40
years
                               Presented by Himadri Banerji at TREC-STEP
                               Clean Coal Tiruchirapalli on 25th Jan 2012
                UNIVERSAL ENERGY ACCESS BY
                           2030

There are estimates that more than 2 Billion people lack access to clean and
modern energy sources.

In China, 423 Million people rely on conventional
biomass for cooking applications.

The corresponding number in India and Africa is 855 and 657 Million
respectively.

Almost 400 million Indians lack access to electricity. The per capita electricity
consumption of India is a measly 600 kWh as against over 12,000 for the US.

Providing clean and cheap energy access is a major challenge, especially in
the developing countries.



                         Presented by Himadri Banerji at TREC-STEP
                         Clean Coal Tiruchirapalli on 25th Jan 2012
India’s Power Sector..Reliance on Coal

Availability of, and access to, electricity is a crucial element of modern economies
and it helps pave the way for human development.

Accordingly, the power sector has been given a high priority in the national planning
processes in India and a concerted focus on enhancing this sector has resulted in
significant gains in generation and availability of electricity in the years since
independence.

Coal-based power has driven much of the
growth in India’s power sector over the                Currently, the power sector consumes
past three decades. By 2004-05, coal and               about 80% of the coal produced in the
lignite accounted for about 57% of installed           country. As the demand for electricity
capacity (68 GW out of 118 GW) and 71%                 is expect to rise dramatically over the
of generated electricity (424 TWh out of               next decade, coal will continue to be
594 TWh) in the country;                               the dominant energy source.
                              Presented by Himadri Banerji at TREC-STEP
                              Clean Coal Tiruchirapalli on 25th Jan 2012
India’s Power Sector Reliance on Sub Critical
Technology


The Central Electricity Authority (CEA) has estimated that meeting electricity
demand over the next ten years will require more than doubling the existing
capacity, from about 132 GW in 2007 to about 280 GW by 2017, of which at least 80
GW of new capacityis expected to be based on coal.


Sub-critical pulverized coal (PC) combustion power plants manufactured by Bharat
Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL) – based on technologies licensed from various
international manufacturers – have been the backbone of India’s coal-power sector.



                             Presented by Himadri Banerji at TREC-STEP
                             Clean Coal Tiruchirapalli on 25th Jan 2012
India’s Load Curve…Recipe for Disaster Can Smart Metering Help?




                           Load Shedding
                           Urban Centric Supply
                           Tariff Distortion




                Presented by Himadri Banerji at TREC-STEP
                Clean Coal Tiruchirapalli on 25th Jan 2012
History of Efficiencies of Indian Power Plants




                    Presented by Himadri Banerji at TREC-STEP
                    Clean Coal Tiruchirapalli on 25th Jan 2012
Presented by Himadri Banerji at TREC-STEP
Clean Coal Tiruchirapalli on 25th Jan 2012
Presented by Himadri Banerji at TREC-STEP
Clean Coal Tiruchirapalli on 25th Jan 2012
Presented by Himadri Banerji at TREC-STEP
Clean Coal Tiruchirapalli on 25th Jan 2012
Presented by Himadri Banerji at TREC-STEP
Clean Coal Tiruchirapalli on 25th Jan 2012
The International Scene on Technology:



    Internationally Combustion based on supercritical steam, offering
    higher efficiencies than sub-critical PC, is a commercial technology.

    Ultra-supercritical PC, which offers even higher efficiency, is also being
    deployed, while oxy-fuel combustion for facilitating capture of carbon-
    dioxide (CO2) is under development.

    Integrated gasification with combined-cycle operation (IGCC), with
    significant potential for high efficiency and for cost-effective reduction
    of CO2 and other emissions, is likely to be commercially available in the
    near future.



                          Presented by Himadri Banerji at TREC-STEP
                          Clean Coal Tiruchirapalli on 25th Jan 2012
                                   Coal-fired power generation, thermal efficiency

                           OECD Projected Costs of Generating Electricity 2010, Tables 3.3.
                    PCC= pulverised coal combustion, AC= air-cooled, WC= water-cooled.

country          Technology                                Efficiency                         Projected efficiency with CCS



Australia        Black ultra-supercritical WC             43%                                 33%

                 Black supercritical WC                   41%

                 Black supercritical AC                   39%

                 own ultra-supercritical WC               35%                                 27%

                 own supercritical WC                     33%

                 own supercritical AC                     31%

Belgium          Black supercritical                      45%

China            Black supercritical                      46%

Czech Republic   own PCC                                  43%                                 38%

                 own ICGG                                 45%                                 43%

Germany          Black PCC                                46%                                 38%

                 own PCC                                  45%                                 37%

Japan, Korea     Black PCC                                41%

Russia           Black ultra-supercritical PCC            47%                                 37%

                 Black supercritical PCC                  42%

South Africa     Black supercritical PCC                  39%

USA              Black PCC & IGCC                         39%                                 39%

USA (EPRI)       Black supercritical PCC                  41%


                                  Presented by Himadri Banerji at TREC-STEP
                                  Clean Coal Tiruchirapalli on 25th Jan 2012
Costs and Efficiencies of some referenced plants




                       Presented by Himadri Banerji at TREC-STEP
                       Clean Coal Tiruchirapalli on 25th Jan 2012
 Chaleenges to Development of Ultra Super Critical Units

The most important challenge is to develop materials to
withstand the tough operating conditions
Main requirements:
Creep rupture strength >100 MPa at 100,000 hrs
Resistance to fire side corrosion at elevated temperatures
 Resistance to steam side oxidation
 Good thermal conductivity
Low coefficient of expansion
Good manufacturability
Amenable to casting, forging, welding, and manufacture
of pipes
and tubes

                     Presented by Himadri Banerji at TREC-STEP
                     Clean Coal Tiruchirapalli on 25th Jan 2012
Adv-USC Materials

Nickel based alloys have been developed for 700 °C
application: IN 617, IN740, Alloy 263 and their variants

Development is also in progress to develop improved
materials to meet specific objectives:

12-15%Cr Advanced Martensitic Steels for temperatures up to 650 °C

Z Phase strengthening steels up to 650 °C

Low Nickel alloys for 700 °C to 710 °C




                           Presented by Himadri Banerji at TREC-STEP
                           Clean Coal Tiruchirapalli on 25th Jan 2012
   Additional Challenges for Adv-USC in India
Developing indigenous processes and capacities for
complex alloys and other materials

Developing technologies and vendors for castings, forgings
for steam turbines and pipes and tubes for boilers

Developing welding technologies for thick sections and for
dissimilar metals in welded rotors

Characterisation and long term testing of indigenously
produced materials

Component testing facility for corrosion with Indian coals

Developing capabilities for ab initio design of equipment
like boilers and steam turbines



                          Presented by Himadri Banerji at TREC-STEP
                          Clean Coal Tiruchirapalli on 25th Jan 2012
    India’s Energy Woes…An Ailing Power Sector


In the case of electric power, any increase in generation
capacity is more than offset by inefficiencies and wastage at
every stage — generation, transmission, distribution and
delivery.

Without fixing these inefficiencies and wastage, increasing
generation capacity and production is like filling a bucket full
of holes!



                     Presented by Himadri Banerji at TREC-STEP
                     Clean Coal Tiruchirapalli on 25th Jan 2012
The key challenges facing India’s power sector :


An urgent need to increase energy and electricity availability for human
and infrastructure development;

Increasing energy security;

Local environment protection and pollution control; and

Control of greenhouse gas emissions (particularly carbon dioxide).




                         Presented by Himadri Banerji at TREC-STEP
                         Clean Coal Tiruchirapalli on 25th Jan 2012
The key challenges facing India’s power sector



 •Generating utility-scale electricity from coal requires a range of tradeoffs –
 financial, natural resource, environmental, and social – and there is need to
 meet the requirements of a diverse set of stakeholders who have strong
 concerns about decisions made in this sector.

 •We need to cut down on transmission and distribution losses and

 •Untangle the environmental problems that coal mining has run into.

 •Policymakers have to balance the needs of development with environmental
 considerations.


                             Presented by Himadri Banerji at TREC-STEP
                             Clean Coal Tiruchirapalli on 25th Jan 2012
Major Constraints in meeting these key challenges

The task of meeting these broad challenges is further
complicated by several constraints:

Availability and quality of domestic coal;

Limited financial resources;

Inadequate technical capacity for R&D, manufacturing, and
O&M; and

The institutional characteristics of the Indian power sector.


                      Presented by Himadri Banerji at TREC-STEP
                      Clean Coal Tiruchirapalli on 25th Jan 2012
 Options in Clean Coal Technology for India:

Commercial supercritical combustion technology is the best option for
India in the short-to-medium term.

While gasification and advanced combustion technologies will be
potentially important options for the longer-term future, there are
significant issues surrounding the current relevance of these emerging
technologies for India, including uncertainties in technical and cost
trajectory, suitability for Indian conditions, and timing of India’s
greenhouse-gas mitigation commitments.




                        Presented by Himadri Banerji at TREC-STEP
                        Clean Coal Tiruchirapalli on 25th Jan 2012
   Suggested Roadmap For India:


implement the following roadmap:

(a) improve the efficiency of the power system (generating stock, T&D
network, and end-use sectors) to reduce the need for addition in
generation capacity and therefore buy time for
making appropriate technology decisions;


(b) implement supercritical-combustion-based generation plants to
meet capacity addition needs in the short-to-medium term;


                        Presented by Himadri Banerji at TREC-STEP
                        Clean Coal Tiruchirapalli on 25th Jan 2012
Suggested Roadmap For India:
(c) enforce and tighten local environmental pollution
controls through better pollution control technologies and
greater and meaningful public participation; and

(d) invest in a focused plan to examine geological carbon
storage options, with detailed assessment of CO2 storage
locations, capacity and storage mechanisms in order to
collect valuable information for India’s carbon mitigation
options and inform future technology selection as well as
siting decisions for coal-power plants.




                    Presented by Himadri Banerji at TREC-STEP
                    Clean Coal Tiruchirapalli on 25th Jan 2012
  Suggested Roadmap For India:
(e) Evaluate on an ongoing basis the appropriateness of emerging
technologies for India through a monitoring and feasibility
assessment program, and

(f) By advancing specific elements of these technologies and ensure
that they can be deployed as and when needed through

(g) Strategic research, development, and demonstration program,
in partnership with key actors from the coal and hydrocarbon
mining, and the petrochemical industry;

(h) Consolidate the existing coal-based R&D programs in
industry, research institutes, and academia under a common vision
with specific objectives and plans for the future, and help make
appropriate international linkages
                       Presented by Himadri Banerji at TREC-STEP
                       Clean Coal Tiruchirapalli on 25th Jan 2012
Funding

Global transition to low carbon technologies is inherently an expensive option.
For instance, most renewable sources are expensive as compared with
conventional technologies.

Wind is now almost cost competitive, but solar power
is very expensive; almost four times that of coal based power generation.

Developing countries would be unable to undertake such a transition in the
absence of a global funding initiative to incentivize a large – scale deployment of
renewable power.

The present mechanisms such as CDM and World Bank/GEF
funded projects have only gone so far and are not adequate for large scale
adoption of renewable sources in developing countries.




                              Presented by Himadri Banerji at TREC-STEP
                              Clean Coal Tiruchirapalli on 25th Jan 2012

								
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