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					Psychological Assessment

    Projective Personality Tests
Projective Tests: Essential Features

   Individuals must impose their own structure
    which is meaningful
   Stimulus material is unstructured
   Indirect (disguised) method
   Freedom of response
   Interpretation is broad
Projective Tests

   Rorschach Inkblot Test
   Thematic Apperception Test
Rorschach Inkblot Test
   Hermann Rorschach (1884-
   Nicknamed “Kleck” or
   Talented art student who
    decided to study science
   Dream convinced him of
    relationship between
    perception and unconscious
   1921 published
   Died in 1922
Rorschach: Historical

5 Scoring Systems
 Adopted by 5 American psychologists with
  very different theoretical backgrounds
 Shared common features (same blots were
  used, response phase followed by inquiry)
 5 different systems of administration, scoring
  and interpretation emerged
 Two most popular (Beck, Klopf)
Rorschach: Validity and Reliability

Poor psychometric reputation:
 Lack of standardized rules for administration
  and scoring
 Poor inter-rater reliability

 Lack of adequate norms

 Unknown or weak validity
Rorschach: Contemporary Use

   John Exner
   Established Rorschach Research Foundation
    in 1986
   Integrated five scoring and interpretation
   Established empirical support for new system
   Provide a center for training
Contemporary Use: Administration

Association Phase               Inquiry Phase
What might this be?             I want you to help me see
                                   what you saw. I’m going to
   Present all the cards          read what you said, and
                                   then I want you to show me
   Record response verbatim       where on the blot you saw it
   Note location of response      and what there is there that
                                   makes it look like that so
                                   that I can see it too. I’d like
                                   to see it just like you did, so
                                   help me now.
Rorschach Inkblot Test

   A psychometrically sound test?
   An in-class exercise
Contemporary Use: Scoring
Exner scoring system: The Structural Summary

 Location (W, D, Dd)

 Use of white space (S)

 Form (good, poor, bad quality)

 Movement (active and passive)

 Color

 Texture

 Shading
Rorschach Inkblot Test

   A psychometrically sound test?
   Particularly useful in assessing thought
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)

   Developed by Henry Murray and colleagues
    at Harvard Psychological Clinic
   31 TAT cards depicting people in a variety of
    ambiguous situations (one blank card)
   Examinee is asked to create a story about
    each picture
TAT: Administration

   Now I want you to make up a story about
    each of these pictures. Tell me who the
    people are, what they are doing, what they
    are thinking or feeling, what led up to the
    scene, and how it will turn out.
TAT: Scoring/Interpretation

   Content analysis of themes that emerge from
    the stories
TAT: Psychometric Critique

   Selection of cards is not standardized
   Lack of norms
   Clinicians rely on qualitative impressions
Thematic Apperception Test

Used to assess:
 Locus of problems

 Nature of needs

 Quality of interpersonal relationships
Psychological Assessment

    Objective Personality Testing
What is Personality?

    • characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling,
      and acting
    • emerges in informal, familiar situations in

      which we feel unconstrained
   principle of aggregation –
       personality is the sum of the best descriptors and
        predictors of our actions over time in a number of
Objective Personality Tests

                 Material Covered

   4 major approaches to test construction
   Examples of test based on first three test
    construction procedures
   Use of personality tests in modern clinical
Characteristics Objective Personality Tests

   Standard set of questions
       Standardization as a concept: given to large #'s
        of people--yield norms to which an individual's
        scores can be compared
       Norms are defined as a set of scores from a large
        group of people who have completed the

   Fixed response options
Objective Personality Tests: Advantages

   Individual or groups (economical)
   Administration is simple/objective
   Scoring is simple/objective
   Interpretation of results requires less
    interpretative skill than projective tests
   Apparent increased objectivity and reliability
Objective Personality Tests: Disadvantages

   Items limited to behavior
   Single overall score
   Transparent meaning of items
   Forced choice approach
Test Construction Approaches

   Logical or content validation
   Empirical Criterion Keying (MMPI)
   Factor Analysis (NEO Personality Inventory)
   Construct Validity (Combines all of the
Approaches to Test Construction: Content

   Defining all aspects of the construct
   Consulting experts about the constructs
   Having expert judges assess each potential
   Perform psychometric analyses of items
Content Validation: An Example

Goal: Construct a test designed to measure
 attitudes toward school

Answer true or false
 I enjoy getting up in the morning for school

 I like my teacher(s)

 I enjoy seeing my friends at school

 I enjoy the subjects I learn about at school
Content Validation: Advantages and
Advantages                Disadvantages

Face validity with test   Easy to fake good or bad
Content Validation: The Mooney Problem
Assesses emotional functioning in the following areas:

   Home and family
   Interpersonal relationships
   Courtship and marriage
   Morals an religion
   School/occupation
   Economic security
   social skills and recreation
   Health and physical development
Approaches to Test Construction:
Empirical Keying

   Create test items to measure one or more
   Administer test items to a “criterion” and
    “control” group
   Select items that distinguish between these
    two groups
   Content of the item is not considered
Empirical Keying: Minnesota Multiphasic
Inventory (MMPI)

   Developed in 1930’s
   Starke Hathaway Ph.D. & J. Charnley McKinley,
   Needed test to identify diagnosis
   Developed an item pool
   Identified a group of patients and nonpatients
   Resulting scale of 550 items (true/false/cannot say)
MMPI Clinical Scales
Scale #   Scale Name             Meaning of High
1         Hypochochodriasis      Concern about health
2         Depression             Depression
3         Hysteria               Somatic complaints
                                 Denial of psych. prob.
4         Psychopathic Deviate   Antisocial behavior
5         Mas.-Fem               Nonstandard gender
6         Paranoia               Suspiciousness
7         Psychasthenia          Anxiety
8         Schizophrenia          Disturbed thought
9         Hypomania              Manic mood
10        Social Introversion    Shy, social inept
MMPI: Validity Scales
? (Cannot say)
 Unanswered items

L (Lie)
 Faking good

F (Infrequency)
 Faking bad

K (Defensiveness)
 Defensiveness in admitting to problems
Interpreting MMPI

   Validity Scales
   Single scales
   Profile analysis
MMPI: Shortcomings

   Unrepresentative normative sample
   Language of items was outdated (including
    sexist language)
   Inadequately addressed difficulties such as
    suicide or drug use
MMPI: Revision

   Assembled team of MMPI experts
   Rewrote some items
   Added new items
   Administered new item pool (n=704) to a
    standardization sample (representative)
   Retained 567 items from the item pool
Continued problems

    failure of some items to reliably discriminate
     between groups
    dimensions based on pre-conceived theory about
     structure of personality,
    scales correlate highly and thus provide
     redundant information
    they are highly influenced by state at the time of
     taking, and the test and re-test stability may
     therefore be lower than desired (a problem for
     many/most trait measures)
MMPI-2 Content Scales

   Anxiety               Antisocial Practices
   Fears                 Type A
   Obsessiveness         Low Self-Esteem
   Depression            Social Discomfort
   Health Concerns       Family Problems
   Bizarre Thoughts      Work Interference
   Anger                 Negative Treatment
   Cynicism               Indicators
Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI):
   more useful than the MMPI-2 for diagnosis
   The purpose of the MCMI is to help the clinician
    make a diagnosis of personality disorder.
       These disorders are pervasive and stable patterns of
        maladaptive behavior that are deeply ingrained and
        influence the individual's thinking, feeling, and acting in a
        wide range of situations.
   The MCMI is primarily used for clinical populations;
    it is not intended for normal subjects.
Approaches to Test Construction: Factor
Analysis (Internal Consistency)

   Correlational technique used to determine
    whether a group of items are correlated with
    one another
Revised NEO Personality Inventory
   Based on five factor model of personality
    (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness,
    Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness)
   Name derived from initials of the first three traits
   Assesses all five traits
   Emphasizes assessment of normal personality style
    rather than psychopathology
   Parallel forms
    The Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive
                Personality (SNAP)
   a factor-analytically derived instrument designed to
    assess traits important in personality disorders
   15 scales:
       12 trait scales assess specific or primary traits and
       3 temperament scales measure more general affective
   5 validity scales plus an overall validity index
   items to assess the personality disorder criteria in
    the DSM
   follows the three-factor model of personality
       Neuroticism/Negative Emotionality, Extraversion/Positive
        Emotionality, and Disinhibition vs. Constraint.
Approaches to Test Construction:
Construct Validity
   Combines aspects of content validity,
    empirical criterion keying and factor analytic
    approaches in developing assessment
    devises (Clark and Watson, 1995)
The Place of Personality Assessment in
Contemporary Clinical Psychology
       Why do we use these tests?
Psychological Assessment: Purpose
(Textbook Response)

   Classification (diagnosis)
   Description
   Prediction

   Results from psychological testing assists in
    making a diagnosis
   Critics of psych testing- tests are not reliable
    or valid diagnostic instruments
   Defenders: test information is used in
    conjunction with other clinical data

                   provides a
                   time efficient
Dependent          means of
Depressed Client   developing a      Depressed
                   broader           Client
                   of the patient.

Test findings can be used to make predictions
  about behavior

   Whether client will benefit from
   What type of psychotherapy would be best
   Suicidal risk
   Risk for violence
The Place of Personality Assessment in
Contemporary Clinical Psychology
       Why do we use these tests?
Psychological Assessment: Purpose: Typical
Referral Question

   Please evaluate for organic brain damage
    (patient has history of polysubstance abuse)
    and evaluate for psychotic thinking
Tests Administered

Evidence of Organic         Evidence of Psychotic
  Damage                      Thought

   Weschler Memory            MMPI
    Scale                      Rorschach
   Trail Making Test          Beck Depression
   Rey-Osterieth Complex       Inventory
    Figure Test
   Benton Test of Visual
Interpretation of Results

   Normal performance on tests of memory, concentration and
   Personality testing suggested the primary etiological role of
    emotional turmoil.
   Presence of both acute distress and chronic characterological
   Acute distress: severe depression and a risk for suicide
   Reality testing in the normal range
   Significant ego regression when faced with affective arousal was
Projective and Objective Personality Tests:
Incremental Validity

   Degree to which assessment increases
    prediction based on base rates (prevalence)
    or other sources
Incremental Validity: Current Findings

   Tentative support for the incremental validity of the MMPI-2
    scales in prediction of personality disorder, aggression, and
    differentiation between depressed patients and substance abuse

   NEO-PI-R: personality disorder, maternal responsiveness to
    infants and violence

   Rorschach: thought disorder but not other scores

   TAT: not adequately investigated
Objective Tests: Summary

                 Material Covered

   4 major approaches to test construction
   Examples of test based on first three test
    construction procedures
   Use of personality tests in modern clinical

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