• Musical theatre is a form of theatre
combining music, songs, spoken
dialogue and dance.
• Since the early 20th century, musical
theatre stage works have generally
been called simply, "musicals".
• a stage, television or film production
utilizing popular-style songs - dialogue
optional - to either tell a story (book
musicals) or showcase the talents of the
writers and/or performers (revues).
The three main components of a
• the music,
• the lyrics,
• and the book
Elements of a
• be written by one songwriter or
• Important factors in the Score:
• verse sets up the premise of a song
• chorus states the main point of the lyric
• A is the main melody, repeated twice – in part,
so that it can be easily remembered.
• B is the release or bridge, and should contrast
as much as possible with A.
• Then A is repeated a third time, usually with a
melodic twist to give the final bars more interest.
• serve as a dramatic element
• helping to develop character and/or move the
The most memorable show songs tend to gel
around three kinds of character experiences –
• Transition - a moment of change or conversion.
• Realization - reaching an insight or new level of
• Decision - after long wrangling, a character
finally makes up his or her mind.
• Ballads - usually love songs
• Charm Songs - let a character beguile
• Comedy Numbers - aim for laughs.
• Musical Scenes - seamlessly blend
dialogue and song, usually with two or
• strategically placed
• The music says what the restrained words
• Because song placement is of vital
importance in the development of a musical,
the composer and lyricist usually work closely
with the librettist (the script or "book" writer) to
plan each number
Three song choices are of
particular importance –
• The Opening Number
- sets the tone for the rest of the show
• The Main "I Want" Song
- comes early in the first act, with one or more
of the main characters singing about the key
motivating desire that will propel everyone
(including the audience) through the
remainder of the show
• The Eleven O'clock Number
-takes place about midway through Act Two
- It can be a ballad , charm song or comedy
showpiece. It does not necessarily have to mark
a climactic moment in the plot, but it must be
strong enough to energize the audience for the
• The Finale
- should carry an emotional wallop, leaving
audiences with a powerful last impression.
- This is usually done by reprising one of score's
most emotion-packed numbers.
• A reprise is when all or part of a song is
repeated to make a dramatic point and
(usually) to energize the end of a scene
Elements of a Musical
libretto – is the most dramatically important
element of a musical.
Key Book Elements
A musical book must do the following:
• Keep the story line clear and easy to
• Create characters
• Create situations that call characters into
• Move in and out of songs as smoothly
• Hand over much (and sometimes all)
of the plot and character development
to the songs and choreography.
• Make the audience interested.
• book musical must project the action
forward, pointing the audience's interest
into the scenes to come
Ending Act One
Ending Act Two
Making a Broadway Musical
The Production Team
• General Manager
• Stage Manager
• House Manager
• Dance Captain
• Casting Director
• Press Representative
Making a Musical
• Composer &The Creative Team
• Set Designer
• Costume Designer
• Lighting Designer
• Musical Director
• Sound Designer
• Dance Arranger