Kids Public Speaking tips by mayurarpunniyar

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									Public Speaking
   Public Speaking Produces
    Anxiety in Most People
People’s Biggest Fears
3. Death
2. Snakes
1. Public Speaking
Public Speaking
   “Talk is cheap”
    – Not anymore, a well organized, thoughtful talk
      makes many people a very lucrative wage
          Henry Kissinger
          Barbara Walters
          Colin Powell
          Oprah Winfrey
Speaking Opportunities
   University
    –   Faculty Board Meetings
    –   Get-togethers
    –   Batch Meeting
    –   Presentations
   At work
    – Selling your ideas
    – Technical presentations
    – Customer Presentations and Reviews
Understand Audience and
       Listening
   People Think Faster Than Hear
   Have Short Attention Span
   Jump to Conclusions
   Easily Distracted
Listening Remedies
   Keep Speech Focused
   Divide Speech into Compact Segments
   Analyze Audience Carefully
   Adapt to Situation
Understand The Speech
       Context


     Audience
     Setting
              The Audience

   Size
   Demographics
   Beliefs and Values
   Receptive/Antagonistic
Context - The Setting
   Indoor/Outdoor
   Size and Shape of Room
   Arrangement of Seating
   Equipment Available
   Lighting
   Acoustics
    Understand & Define Your
            Purpose
   Inform
   Inspire / Persuade
   Entertain
   Introduce
   Accept
   Pay Tribute
     Understand the Speech
        Making Process
 Choosing/Narrowing a Topic
 Researching Topic
 Organizing Your Speech
 Developing an Outline
 Rehearsing Speech
 Delivering Speech
Choosing an Appropriate Topic

   Is It Important to You?
   Is It Important to Your Audience?
   Will It Hold Audience’s Attention?
   Is It Manageable in the Time Available?
   Is It Appropriate for Oral Presentation?
   Is It Clear?
    Develop Central Idea

Write a one sentence   Georgia 4-H provides us
                       with the skills we need to
summary of speech.       be successful in life.
Generate Main Idea
   Does It Have Logical Divisions?
                                        A...
   Are There Reasons Why It Is True?   B...
                                        C...
                                        Because...
   Can You Support It?
Narrowing a Topic - Example
          Protecting the Environment
           Water Quality in My State

           Well Water Problems
Utilizing Home Well Assessments to Reduce
            Contamination Risk
Getting Topic Feedback
   From Members of Potential Audience
   From Friends
   From Family
      Researching Topic and
    Finding Supporting Material

   Sources of Supporting Material
   Types of Supporting Material
   Tests of Supporting Material
Sources of Supporting Material
   Libraries
    – Books
    – Periodicals
    – Newspapers
    – Reference Materials
    – CD-ROM Data Bases
    – Government Documents
       Sources of Supporting
          Material (con’t)
   The Internet/World Wide Web
    – Search Engines
          Infoseek
          Yahoo
          Lycos
          HotBot
          Google, etc.
    – Online Libraries
Types of Supporting Material
   Common Knowledge
   Direct Observation
   Examples & Illustrations
   Explanations & Descriptions
   Documents
Tests of Supporting Material
   Is Information Specific?
   Is Source an Expert?
   Is Source Unbiased?
   Is Information Timely?
        Tests of Supporting
          Material (con’t)

   Is Information Relevant to Point Made?
   Does Information Support the Point?
   Is Information Timely?
     Special Considerations for
        Online Information
   In Physical Print, Quality Is Controlled by Experts
    – Journals - Peer Review
    – Periodicals - Editors
    – Published Texts - Editors, Librarians
   Online, Must Do Own Quality Control
    – Beware! Everything On the Web Is Not ALL True
     Organizing Your Speech
   Chronological
   Topical
   Spatial
   Cause-Effect
   Problem-Solution
   Comparison- Contrast
           Types of Outlines
   Preliminary Outline   Preparation   Outline
    (Rough-Draft)           Title & Topic
    – Main points to
      research              Purpose
                            Introduction
                            Main and Sub-Points
                            Transitions
                            Conclusion
                            Support/Evidence
            Types of Outlines
   Speaker’s Outline
    – Introduction

    – Main Point

    – Support

    – Transitions

    – Conclusion
Ethics in Speech Preparation
        - Researching

   Take Accurate Notes When Researching
   Record Complete Source Citations
   Credit Source of Ideas
   When in Doubt, Cite Source
Don’t Use Someone Else’s
         Speech!
Introductions


        Types

      Functions
    Types of Introductions
   Identification with Audience
   Reference to Situation
   Statement of Purpose
   Statement of Importance of Topic
   Surprise Audience with Claim or Statistic
Types of Introductions (con’t)
   Anecdotal Story
   Rhetorical Question
   Quotation
   Humor

                          “So there I was at the summit of
                          Mt. Killimanjaro, and I turned to
                          the guide and said…”
Functions of Introductions
   Get Attention
   Introduce Topic
   Provide Motivation
   Establish Credibility
   Preview Speech
Conclusions


       Types

     Functions
    Types of Conclusions
   Summary
   Quotation
   Personal Reference
   Challenge to Audience
   Offer Vision of the Future
Types of Conclusions
   Anecdotal Story
   Rhetorical Question
   Quotation
   Humor              Remember what Dwight D. Eisenhower
                      once said: “Things are more like they are
                       now, than they have ever been before.”
Functions of Conclusions
   Summarize Speech
   Reemphasize Main Idea
   Motivate Response
   Provide Closure
           Methods of Delivery
   Manuscript Reading
    only done when absolute accuracy is required

   Memorized
    seldom done, if done rehearse until you’re very
    comfortable doing it

   Impromptu
    - speaking with little or no preparation
    - avoid unless you are extremely comfortable
    with the subject

   Extemporaneous
    carefully prepared and delivered from a brief set
    of notes
        Delivering Speech -
             Beginning
   Walk Calmly with Confidence to
    Front
   Establish Eye Contact
   Smile Naturally
   Deliver Introduction
Delivering Speech - During
   Use Effective Eye Contact
   Use Effective Language
   Use Effective Gestures
   Be Enthusiastic
   Use Conversational Style
   Use Notes As Needed
Delivering Speech - Ending
   “Frame” the Speech
   Pause before Returning to Seat
    – But Don’t Ask for Questions

   Accept Applause Graciously
Elements of Vocal Delivery
   Speech Rate and Pauses
   Volume
   Inflection and Pitch
   Quality of Voice
   Pronunciation and Articulation
Vocalization
 Volume – loudness or softness
   – adjust to the situation (electronically if necessary,
     don’t yell)
 Pitch – highness or lowness of the voice
   – use inflections in your voice to avoid “monotone”
 Rate speed at which you speak
   – 120-150 wpm is normal, too slow leaves people
     hanging on your words, too fast and they get confused
     and miss information
 Pauses – momentary breaks in your speaking
   – takes experience to know when to pause, pause at the
     end of thought units
   – avoid vocalized pauses (“uh”, “er”, “um”...)
 Variety
   – vary the loudness, pitch and rate to make the
     speech sound more natural and interesting
 Pronunciation – use correct pronunciation of
  common words
   – genuine, arctic, theater, err, nuclear, February,
     library
 Articulation – physical production of speech
  sounds
   – we habitually chop, slur and mumble, rather
     than enunciating
   – “ought to”, “didn’t”, “for”, “don’t know”, “ask”
 Dialect – variety of language distinguished by
  variations of accent, grammar or vocabulary
Nonverbal Communications

   kinesics – the study of nonverbal body motions as a
    systematic node of communication
   People trust their ears less than their eyes.
    – when a speaker’s body language is inconsistent with their words
       the listeners will tend to believe their eyes
   Other aspects of nonverbal communications
    – Personal appearance
    – Body action
    – Gesticulation
    – Eye contact
  Elements of Physical
Delivery or Body Language
   Appearance
   Posture
   Facial Expression
   Eye Contact
   Movement
   Gestures
Visual Aids

   Kinds of visual aids
    – Objects
    – Models
    – Photographs
    – Drawings
    – Graphs
    – Charts
    – Slides and Videotapes
    – Computer-Generated Graphics
    – Transparencies
    – Multimedia
    Visual Aid Preparation
 Prepare them well in advance
 K.I.S.S. – Keep It Simple Stupid
 Make sure they are large enough
     – should be able to be seen by “all” viewers when presented, not just
        those “up front”.
   Use easy to read fonts – there is a reason for Times-Roman
     – non-serif fonts are harder to read

   Use a limited number of fonts
   Use color effectively
     – highlighting
     – used well proven color schemes, what colors work well together is a
        tough choice for most people
    Rehearsing Speech
   Recreate Setting
   Practice Without Memorizing
   Time Speech
       Rehearsing Speech

   Practice Out Loud
   Practice Standing Up
   Watch Yourself
      Rehearsing Speech

   Practice Gestures
   Practice Eye Contact
   Practice Volume
       Plan, Prepare, Polish,
         Practice, Present
The better you know
  your material the less
  anxious you’ll be
  about presenting it.
Smile and act natural.
  Don’t apologize for
  being nervous. No one
  will know you’re
  nervous unless you
  call attention to it.

								
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