Public Speaking Public Speaking Produces Anxiety in Most People People’s Biggest Fears 3. Death 2. Snakes 1. Public Speaking Public Speaking “Talk is cheap” – Not anymore, a well organized, thoughtful talk makes many people a very lucrative wage Henry Kissinger Barbara Walters Colin Powell Oprah Winfrey Speaking Opportunities University – Faculty Board Meetings – Get-togethers – Batch Meeting – Presentations At work – Selling your ideas – Technical presentations – Customer Presentations and Reviews Understand Audience and Listening People Think Faster Than Hear Have Short Attention Span Jump to Conclusions Easily Distracted Listening Remedies Keep Speech Focused Divide Speech into Compact Segments Analyze Audience Carefully Adapt to Situation Understand The Speech Context Audience Setting The Audience Size Demographics Beliefs and Values Receptive/Antagonistic Context - The Setting Indoor/Outdoor Size and Shape of Room Arrangement of Seating Equipment Available Lighting Acoustics Understand & Define Your Purpose Inform Inspire / Persuade Entertain Introduce Accept Pay Tribute Understand the Speech Making Process Choosing/Narrowing a Topic Researching Topic Organizing Your Speech Developing an Outline Rehearsing Speech Delivering Speech Choosing an Appropriate Topic Is It Important to You? Is It Important to Your Audience? Will It Hold Audience’s Attention? Is It Manageable in the Time Available? Is It Appropriate for Oral Presentation? Is It Clear? Develop Central Idea Write a one sentence Georgia 4-H provides us with the skills we need to summary of speech. be successful in life. Generate Main Idea Does It Have Logical Divisions? A... Are There Reasons Why It Is True? B... C... Because... Can You Support It? Narrowing a Topic - Example Protecting the Environment Water Quality in My State Well Water Problems Utilizing Home Well Assessments to Reduce Contamination Risk Getting Topic Feedback From Members of Potential Audience From Friends From Family Researching Topic and Finding Supporting Material Sources of Supporting Material Types of Supporting Material Tests of Supporting Material Sources of Supporting Material Libraries – Books – Periodicals – Newspapers – Reference Materials – CD-ROM Data Bases – Government Documents Sources of Supporting Material (con’t) The Internet/World Wide Web – Search Engines Infoseek Yahoo Lycos HotBot Google, etc. – Online Libraries Types of Supporting Material Common Knowledge Direct Observation Examples & Illustrations Explanations & Descriptions Documents Tests of Supporting Material Is Information Specific? Is Source an Expert? Is Source Unbiased? Is Information Timely? Tests of Supporting Material (con’t) Is Information Relevant to Point Made? Does Information Support the Point? Is Information Timely? Special Considerations for Online Information In Physical Print, Quality Is Controlled by Experts – Journals - Peer Review – Periodicals - Editors – Published Texts - Editors, Librarians Online, Must Do Own Quality Control – Beware! Everything On the Web Is Not ALL True Organizing Your Speech Chronological Topical Spatial Cause-Effect Problem-Solution Comparison- Contrast Types of Outlines Preliminary Outline Preparation Outline (Rough-Draft) Title & Topic – Main points to research Purpose Introduction Main and Sub-Points Transitions Conclusion Support/Evidence Types of Outlines Speaker’s Outline – Introduction – Main Point – Support – Transitions – Conclusion Ethics in Speech Preparation - Researching Take Accurate Notes When Researching Record Complete Source Citations Credit Source of Ideas When in Doubt, Cite Source Don’t Use Someone Else’s Speech! Introductions Types Functions Types of Introductions Identification with Audience Reference to Situation Statement of Purpose Statement of Importance of Topic Surprise Audience with Claim or Statistic Types of Introductions (con’t) Anecdotal Story Rhetorical Question Quotation Humor “So there I was at the summit of Mt. Killimanjaro, and I turned to the guide and said…” Functions of Introductions Get Attention Introduce Topic Provide Motivation Establish Credibility Preview Speech Conclusions Types Functions Types of Conclusions Summary Quotation Personal Reference Challenge to Audience Offer Vision of the Future Types of Conclusions Anecdotal Story Rhetorical Question Quotation Humor Remember what Dwight D. Eisenhower once said: “Things are more like they are now, than they have ever been before.” Functions of Conclusions Summarize Speech Reemphasize Main Idea Motivate Response Provide Closure Methods of Delivery Manuscript Reading only done when absolute accuracy is required Memorized seldom done, if done rehearse until you’re very comfortable doing it Impromptu - speaking with little or no preparation - avoid unless you are extremely comfortable with the subject Extemporaneous carefully prepared and delivered from a brief set of notes Delivering Speech - Beginning Walk Calmly with Confidence to Front Establish Eye Contact Smile Naturally Deliver Introduction Delivering Speech - During Use Effective Eye Contact Use Effective Language Use Effective Gestures Be Enthusiastic Use Conversational Style Use Notes As Needed Delivering Speech - Ending “Frame” the Speech Pause before Returning to Seat – But Don’t Ask for Questions Accept Applause Graciously Elements of Vocal Delivery Speech Rate and Pauses Volume Inflection and Pitch Quality of Voice Pronunciation and Articulation Vocalization Volume – loudness or softness – adjust to the situation (electronically if necessary, don’t yell) Pitch – highness or lowness of the voice – use inflections in your voice to avoid “monotone” Rate speed at which you speak – 120-150 wpm is normal, too slow leaves people hanging on your words, too fast and they get confused and miss information Pauses – momentary breaks in your speaking – takes experience to know when to pause, pause at the end of thought units – avoid vocalized pauses (“uh”, “er”, “um”...) Variety – vary the loudness, pitch and rate to make the speech sound more natural and interesting Pronunciation – use correct pronunciation of common words – genuine, arctic, theater, err, nuclear, February, library Articulation – physical production of speech sounds – we habitually chop, slur and mumble, rather than enunciating – “ought to”, “didn’t”, “for”, “don’t know”, “ask” Dialect – variety of language distinguished by variations of accent, grammar or vocabulary Nonverbal Communications kinesics – the study of nonverbal body motions as a systematic node of communication People trust their ears less than their eyes. – when a speaker’s body language is inconsistent with their words the listeners will tend to believe their eyes Other aspects of nonverbal communications – Personal appearance – Body action – Gesticulation – Eye contact Elements of Physical Delivery or Body Language Appearance Posture Facial Expression Eye Contact Movement Gestures Visual Aids Kinds of visual aids – Objects – Models – Photographs – Drawings – Graphs – Charts – Slides and Videotapes – Computer-Generated Graphics – Transparencies – Multimedia Visual Aid Preparation Prepare them well in advance K.I.S.S. – Keep It Simple Stupid Make sure they are large enough – should be able to be seen by “all” viewers when presented, not just those “up front”. Use easy to read fonts – there is a reason for Times-Roman – non-serif fonts are harder to read Use a limited number of fonts Use color effectively – highlighting – used well proven color schemes, what colors work well together is a tough choice for most people Rehearsing Speech Recreate Setting Practice Without Memorizing Time Speech Rehearsing Speech Practice Out Loud Practice Standing Up Watch Yourself Rehearsing Speech Practice Gestures Practice Eye Contact Practice Volume Plan, Prepare, Polish, Practice, Present The better you know your material the less anxious you’ll be about presenting it. Smile and act natural. Don’t apologize for being nervous. No one will know you’re nervous unless you call attention to it.