European Advances in Supermarket Refrigeration Leak Reduction by QOpa3LZ9

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									 European Advances in
Supermarket Refrigeration
    Leak Reduction

         Christoph Meurer
    Solvay Fluor GmbH, Germany
                  Agenda
• European Supermarkets
  • Business Specifics
  • Refrigeration Specifics

• European Legislation and Standards
• Emission results from the field
     Market Structure Germany

                       Sales Area              Nr. of stores
Other Food retail      < 4000 ft²              36.332

Discounter             ≈10.000 ft²             12.770

Supermarket            4.000-15.000 ft²        9.230

Cons. market           15.000-50.000 ft²       1.682

Hypermarket            > 50.000 ft²            681

             European Supermarkets – Business Specifics
            European Supermarkets
       Average Retail Space [m²]
5000

4000

3000

2000

1000

   0
         Italy        Spain    Germany      UK        France   USA



                 European Supermarkets – Business Specifics
     European Supermarkets

• Shops are generally smaller
• Deviations in business structure from
 country to country
• Discounters are gaining popularity –
 especially in GER



        European Supermarkets – Business Specifics
European Supermarkets




 Conventional Multiplex        Low-Charge Multiplex

European Supermarkets – Refrigeration Specifics
     European Supermarkets
• Accessability of pipework key design
 criteria for Supermarket chains
• Leak test methods are being optimised
 (pressure drop tests overrated /
 new detectors find leaks < 5g/anno)
• Nr. of flares reduced
• Total pipe length reduced
      European Supermarkets – Refrigeration Specifics
     European Supermarkets
• Capacity of refrigeration packages
 relatively small  typical GER
 supermarket:75 kW medium / 35 kW low
• Discounter markets (GER) usually operate
 with plug-in freezers for low temp and
 distributed systems for medium temp


      European Supermarkets – Refrigeration Specifics
         STEK Regulation (NL)
• Design Criteria
  • Pipes shall be joined by welded or brazed
    joints
  • Flares joints shall not be used
  • Detailed requirements for relief / safety valves
    (usually blowing to low pressure side not
    ambient)
  • Systems > 300kg shall be located in
    machinery rooms (min. compressor racks)
  • ….
             European Supermarkets – Legislation
         STEK Regulation (NL)
• Service Criteria
  • Systems with charge > 3kg shall be inspected
    annually
  • Systems with charge > 1000kg shall be under
    constant supervision
  • Logbooks must be kept for all systems > 3kg
    charge
  • Refill / top up only permitted if leak is
    identified
             European Supermarkets – Legislation
        European Legislation
              EU F-GAS Regulation (Draft)
• Service / Maintenance regulation
  framework similar to NL STEK
• Mandatory service intervalls:
  • charge > 3kg every 6 months
  • charge > 300kg every 3 months

• Legal Base for that part is „Protection of
  the environment“  member states may
  install additional requirements
           European Supermarkets – Legislation
    European Standardisation
                     EN 378-2000


• No flared joints for pipes between 9mm
 and 19mm
• Flared joints shall not be used to connect
 TXVs
• Operating party must keep logbooks of
 refrigerant consumption

         European Supermarkets – Standardisation
        European Supermarkets
                 Location and Severity of Leaks*
• 96% of the total refrigerant loss was
    through field assembled joints
     Survey and long term of analysis of
•   15% of the leaks were responsible for 85%
    62 supermarket refrigeration systems
    of refrigerant loss
             in two German states.
•      Charge size from leaks where kg
    21,6% of all detected <10 to >360flared
    joints – They are responsible for close to
    50% of lost refrigerant
* FKT Study – Leak tightness of Refrigeration Systems (1999, ILK Drseden)

                     Emission Results from the field
       German Tightness Study*

• 0,16% of brazed joints had leaks
• Systems with substantial leaks over long
   periods had leaks in unaccessible parts of
   the system


* FKT Study – Leak tightness of Refrigeration Systems (1999, ILK Drseden)

                     Emission Results from the field
         German Tightness Study*
         Annual Leakages from Supermarket Systems [%]
    12
              10.5
    10                          9.3


     8


     6


     4                                           3.2
                                                                    2.3
     2


     0
           All Systems      Large Systems   All Systems w/o   Large Systems
                                                total loss    w/o total losses

* FKT Study – Leak tightness of Refrigeration Systems (1999, ILK Drseden)

                         Emission Results from the field
          German Industry Targets*
             Avg. annual Leaks from stationary Systems [%]
        10
         9                     small (<10kg)
         8                     mid (10..100kg)
         7                     large (>100kg)
         6
         5
         4
         3
         2
         1
         0
                   2003               6.2005                 6.2008



FKT Study – Improving Leak tightness of Refrigeration Systems (2003, ILK Drseden)
          Statistics from NL
• Overall leakage rate < 4.5% (2000)
• Leackage rate per sector
  • AC < 1%, Process < 1%, industrial < 5%
  • Fishing industry 80% … 200%

• Tremendous reduction (50%) of refrigerant
 market in spite of economical grow
• Elimination of odd-jobbers/fly-by-nighters
• Increased fleet efficiency (service)
                Summary
• Business Structure in Europe different
 from US
• Means for leak reduction are often simple
• Some areas (NL/GER) have demonstrated
 that very tight DX systems are possible
• Target values of 2% leak p.a. are realistic
• EU legislation will address the issue

								
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