Child Day Care Professional Fire Safety Course

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					Fire Safety
           Course Objectives
Upon completion of this unit, you will be able to:
• Remember the acronym RACE to use in case of
  a fire.
• Remember the acronym PASS when using a
  fire extinguisher.
• Differentiate between the different classes of
  fire.
      Course Objectives, cont.
• Understand when and how to activate the
  services of the fire department.
• Keep areas in the home and workplace free
  of hazards.
• Locate fire alarms and exits in non-familiar
  locations.
• Evacuate homes and buildings safely.
    Module One

 Motivation to
Teach Fire Safety
As you learn about fire safety, teach
what you learn to others--particularly
           young children!
    Fire in the United States
• How many fire related deaths do
  you think we have in the U.S.
  annually?
• Which nation do you think is the
  highest in fire deaths and incidents
  among the industrialized nations of
  the world?
    Fire in the United States

• 4,000 - 6,000 fire related deaths
  annually
• U.S. is still the highest in fire
  deaths and incidents among the
  industrialized nations of the world
• What do you think is the
  leading cause of fires in
  Georgia?
• What do you think is the
  leading cause fire deaths in
  the Southeast and Georgia?
 # 1 Cause of Fire in Georgia

• Kitchen Fires—leading cause
  of fires
• Alternative heating is the
  primary cause of fire deaths
  in the Southeast and Georgia
  80% of fire
 deaths occur
   in homes
    without       Do you have at least
                  one detector on every
  operational      level of your home?
                  Assignment tonight:
fire detectors.        check it out!
  Check the
 batteries in
 your smoke
  detectors      Suggestion: when
                  you change the
twice a year.   clocks in the spring
                  and fall, change
                   your batteries!
  Module Two

Fire Chemistry
         Oxygen




Fuel                   Heat

       Fire Triangle
          Classes of Fires
• A: ordinary combustibles such as
       paper, wood, plastics, cloth
• B: flammable liquids, greases, and
       gases
• C: energized electrical equipment
• D: metals such as magnesium,
        titanium, sodium, etc.
        Mechanical


Solar                Electrical

        Chemical

Sources of Heat Energy
   Methods of Heat Transfer
• Conduction: heat is transferred directly
  from one object to another
• Convection: movement of a liquid or
  gas transfers the heat
• Radiation: a form of heat travelling
  across a space or through materials as
  electromagnetic waves
  Module Three

Safety Features
 Smoke Detectors and Alarms

• Offer the earliest warning of fire
• A working smoke alarm doubles a
  person’s chance of surviving and
  escaping a fire
 Smoke Detectors and Alarms
• Test smoke alarms monthly (push
  the little button and you should
  hear a chirp—check it out tonight!)
• And did I mention? Change the
  batteries twice a year, when the
  clock changes for daylight savings!
  Carbon Monoxide Detectors
• Alert occupants to dangerous
  levels of carbon monoxide.
• They do not detect smoke and
  so should not be used instead of
  smoke detectors.
• Does your home have both?
        Sprinkler Systems
• Activated by heat and contain fire
  where sprinkler heads are located.
• Must still evacuate building if
  smoke alarm alerts, even if
  sprinkler system does not
  activate—fire could be in walls,
  ceiling, or attic.
    Fire Extinguishers
• Place them in a readily
  accessible location.
• Don’t store them next
  to the stove….duh!
   Fire Extinguishers: PASS
• PULL the locking pin from the
       handle
• AIM the nozzle at the base of
       the flames
• SQUEEZE the handle
• SWEEP the extinguisher from
       side to side
Module Four

 Building
Evacuation
                RACE
• Rescue anyone in immediate danger.
• Activate the alarm.
• Confine the fire (Close windows and
  doors if safe to do so. Shut off
  electrical equipment and oxygen if
  your safety is not endangered).
• Extinguish the fire if the fire is small
  and contained.
    Your safety comes FIRST!
• Do NOT risk your life to put out a fire.
  That’s what the FIRE DEPARTMENT
  is for!
• Evacuate if you are even a little bit
  uncertain!
• Stuff can be replaced. You can’t.
        Fire Escape Plan
• Must have a clear, unobstructed
  means of exiting the building to
  a safe meeting place outside the
  facility.
• Assist those who need help to
  exit the building.
        Fire Escape Plan
• Need to have two ways out in
  case one is blocked by fire or
  structural damage.
• If exiting into a fenced area,
  there must be a means of exit
  from the fence.
      Home Escape Plan
• Know two ways out of every room.
• Sleep with bedroom doors closed.
• Have smoke alarms and fire escape
  ladders.
• Set a meeting place away for all
  family members to gather.
       What are your exits?

• Picture the room where you sleep.
• Where are your two exits?
• Could you get out in the pitch
  black?
• Remember, you can’t see in a fire!
       Family Meeting Place
• Your family should have a “meeting
  place” outside, away from the house to
  meet in case of evacuation.
• A good place might be the mailbox or
  a neighbor’s front porch--assuming
  you know the neighbor! 
• WHY???
      Family Meeting Place
• Having a family meeting place lets
  everyone know that the whole family
  has made it outside safely.
• Otherwise, someone might go back in
  looking for a family member who is
  already safely in the back yard!
• A meeting place saves lives!
     Family Meeting Place
• Remember to tell family
  overnight guests where the
  meeting place is.
• Arrange a meeting place when
  you’re away on vacation, as
  well.
Family/Home Evacuation Drills
• Vary the time of the drills.
• Hold announced and unannounced
  drills.
• When you stay in a hotel, locate the
  fire alarms and exits when you check
  into your room. Count the number of
  doors between your hotel room door
  and the stairwell door.
                Fun Fact!
• When staying a hotel, you might
  want to request a room below the
  ninth floor….
• Why????

The aerial ladder on the fire truck won’t reach
             above the ninth floor!
  During what time of day
  do you think most fatal
   fires occur, and why?

 Most fatal fires occur
 between 8 pm - 8 am.
This is when people are
        sleeping.
 When in a situation with
many people, ONE person
should be designated as the
  liaison to communicate
with emergency responders
  on the scene. This will
  help reduce conflicting
        information.
   Building Evacuation

Now it’s time to practice!
   Module Five

Burn Prevention
 and Treatment
           Burns
♥Burns are the most traumatic
 injury the body can sustain.
♥Infection and shock are the
 two major concerns with
 burn injuries.
           Burns
♥12,000 people die each year
 in the U.S. from burn
 injuries.
♥1,100 are children.
♥What do you think are the #1
 cause of burns to children?
            Burns
♥Scalds are the #1 cause of burns
 to children.
♥Put pots on the back burner and
 turn handles inward.
♥Don’t let children reach hot
 liquids or be in bathroom
 unattended!
      Types of Burns
♥Thermal: hot liquid or surface
 touches skin. Ex: scalds.
♥Chemical: a chemical substance
 touches skin. Ex: acid or bleach.
♥Electrical: electricity comes in
 contact with skin.
    Preventing Burns
♥Keep electrical cords out of
 reach and outlets covered.
♥Keep matches and lighters away
 from children and teach them
 that these are tools for adults
 only.
Call 911 immediately if the
burn:
 ♥is due to chemicals or
  electricity.
 ♥covers a significant area of
  the body.
 ♥is to the face.
       1 st
Treating and  2 nd

  Degree Burns
                 First Degree




                 Second Degree



                 Third Degree
     Treating 3° burns:
♥Always call 911 for any 3° burn!
♥Cool with sterile water and
  cover with dry, sterile dressings.
♥Treat for shock by having the
  victim lie down with the feet
  elevated.
   What NOT to do for burns:
♥Don’t use mayonnaise,
   butter, or ice!
♥Don’t put it in your mouth!
♥Never pop blisters--infection is a
 major concern!
♥Don’t use burn gel on 3° burns!
  What NOT to do for burns:
♥Don’t remove clothing or
   jewelry that is stuck to the
   burned area!
♥Don’t touch the burn with
   anything other than a clean
   covering!
  Module Six

Youthful Fire
  Setting
        Child Fire Play
• Typically performed by children 18
  months old – 6 years old who do not
  understand the consequence of their
  actions.
• Children are setting more than 100,000
  fires each year in the United States.
       Child Fire Play
• Child fire play is the leading
  cause of death in residential
  fires for preschool age children.
• Curiosity is the motivating
  factor.
   Juvenile Fire Setting
• Typically children ages 7 – 18.
• Fire setting in this category
  accounts for 40% of all fires
  started by children and 50% of
  arson arrests.
      Warning Signs
• Poor relationships with other
  children.
• Frequent negative behaviors
  such as impulsiveness,
  stealing, showing off….
       Warning Signs
• Disruptive parental or home
  situations.
• Low self esteem & limited
  participation in activities.
   Module Seven
  Teaching Fire
Safety to Children
Teaching Fire Safety to Children

• Adjust an adult vocabulary to meet
  the level of the preschool child.
• Use simple and basic language.
• Keep messages simple and brief,
  such as “Stop, Drop, and Roll!”
 What every child should learn:

• Dial 911 in an emergency only.
• Home address and phone
  number.
• Stay on the line with 911
  dispatcher until help arrives.
      Teaching 911 skills:
• Teach 9-1-1, not “nine-eleven”.
  Children may look for the
  eleven button on the phone.
• Children ages 3-5 tend to dial
  9-9-1 -- have them practice on a
  play phone.

				
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