DCDT preparation SJ 20071262566013

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					Effective Practices during Transition:
Does Preparation Make a Difference

         Mary E. Morningstar, Ph.D.
           University of Kansas

             Sung Jik Bae, Ph.D.
       University of Louisiana-Lafayette
Addressing Teacher Quality for Transition: What are the Issues?



  • Limited knowledge of competency levels of
     secondary special educators
  • Limited knowledge of implementation levels of
     secondary special educators
  • Limited quality teacher preparation for transition
  Research Questions:
  1. What are the levels of preparation &
     implementation of critical elements of transition
     services?
  2. Are high qualified professionals more likely to
     engage in transition practices?
                 Participants


Convenience sample: 1475 professionals
 who completed a demographic survey as
 part of their enrollment in online training
 through the Transition Coalition
 (www.transitioncoalition.org)
  – 682 identified themselves as educators
  – 101 were not currently teaching
Sample: 581 educators working directly with
 students with disabilities
                  Demographic Info.                                                                                                              user_state


                                                                                                                                                                                     Cumulative
                                                                                                                                     Frequency       Percent        Valid Percent     Percent
                                                 ethnicity                                                  Valid   Alabama                  2                 .3               .3               .3
                                                                                                                    Arizona                 10                1.7             1.7               2.0
                                                                                                                    Arkansas                 4                 .7               .7              2.7
                                                                                         Cumulative
                                                                                                                    California               8                1.3             1.3               4.0
                                     Frequency         Percent         Valid Percent       Percent                  Colorado               116            19.2               19.2           23.2

Valid     White                            536               88.9                88.9                88.9           Connecticut              7                1.2             1.2           24.4
                                                                                                                    DC                       1                 .2               .2          24.5
          Black                             33                5.5                 5.5                94.4
                                                                                                                    Florida                  8                1.3             1.3           25.9
          Hispanic                          19                3.2                 3.2                97.5           Georgia                 50                8.3             8.3           34.2
          Pacific Islander                  10                1.7                 1.7                99.2           Hawaii                   2                 .3               .3          34.5
                                                                                                                    Idaho                   48                8.0             8.0           42.5
          American Indian                    5                 .8                  .8              100.0
                                                                                                                    Illinois                 6                1.0             1.0           43.4
          Total                            603            100.0                100.0                                Indiana                  2                 .3               .3          43.8
                                                                                                                    Iowa                     2                 .3               .3          44.1
                                                                                                                    Kansas                  66            10.9               10.9           55.1
                                                                                                                    Louisiana               10                1.7             1.7           56.7
                                                 SubRole
                                                                                                                    Maryland                 2                 .3               .3          57.0
                                                                                                                    Massachusetts            6                1.0             1.0           58.0
                                                                                        Cumulative                  Michigan                10                1.7             1.7           59.7
                                        Frequency        Percent       Valid Percent     Percent                    Minnesota               18                3.0             3.0           62.7

  Valid      Special Education                                                                                      Missouri                15                2.5             2.5           65.2
                                                 412          68.3              70.1           70.1                 Montana                  1                 .2               .2          65.3
             Teacher
                                                                                                                    Nebraska                 4                 .7               .7          66.0
             General Education
                                                  23             3.8             3.9           74.0                 Nevada                   1                 .2               .2          66.2
             Teacher
                                                                                                                    New Hampshire           65            10.8               10.8           76.9
             Administrator                        20             3.3             3.4           77.4
                                                                                                                    New Jersey               4                 .7               .7          77.6
             Transition Specialist                77          12.8              13.1           90.5                 New Mexico              26                4.3             4.3           81.9
             Paraprofessiona                      23             3.8             3.9           94.4                 New York                 6                1.0             1.0           82.9
             Vocational Educator                  17             2.8             2.9           97.3                 North Carolina           8                1.3             1.3           84.2
             Other                                16             2.7             2.7          100.0                 Ohio                     3                 .5               .5          84.7

             Total                               588          97.5             100.0                                Oregon                  15                2.5             2.5           87.2
                                                                                                                    Pennsylvania            10                1.7             1.7           88.9
  Missing    System                               15             2.5
                                                                                                                    Rhode Island             5                 .8               .8          89.7
  Total                                          603         100.0
                                                                                                                    South Carolina           5                 .8               .8          90.5
                                                                                                                    South Dakota             1                 .2               .2          90.7
                                                                                                                    Tennessee                2                 .3               .3          91.0
                                                                                                                    Texas                   15                2.5             2.5           93.5
        Demographic Info.
                                          Agelevel
                                                                                                                                             Subplace
                                                                               Cumulative
                              Frequency      Percent         Valid Percent       Percent                                                                                           Cumulative
Valid     Elementary                109          18.1                   18.1           18.1                                              Frequency      Percent    Valid Percent    Percent
          Secondary                 403          66.8                   66.8           84.9          Valid     Resource Room                   113          18.7            27.9          27.9
          Both                       80          13.3                   13.3           98.2                    General Education Class          57           9.5            14.1          42.0
          Some youth,                                                                                          Special Education Class         161          26.7            39.8          81.7
                                     11              1.8                 1.8          100.0
          primarily adults                                                                                     Consulting Service               74          12.3            18.3         100.0
          Total                     603         100.0                  100.0                                   Total                           405          67.2           100.0
                                                                                                     Missing   System                          198          32.8
                                                                                                     Total                                     603         100.0

                                                     Place


                                                                                              Cumulative
                                          Frequency          Percent       Valid Percent       Percent
Valid        Special school                          60           10.0              10.1             10.1
             Regular school                      487              80.8              81.6             91.6
             Vocational/technical
                                                      5             .8                 .8            92.5
             school
             Alternative school                      25            4.1               4.2             96.6
             Community service
                                                     20            3.3               3.4            100.0
             agency
             Total                               597              99.0             100.0
Missing      System                                   6            1.0
Total                                            603            100.0
   Certification, Years Teaching & Transition Preparation
                                                    Certification


                                                                                                        Cumulative      Type of Preparation         FREQ         %
                                              Frequency           Percent       Valid Percent            Percent
                                                                                                                      Inservice trainings on        339    56.2
Valid      Fully certified for current                                                                                transition topics
                                                         353            58.5                     58.5          58.5
           teaching assignment
           Certified in a field other
                                                                                                                      1 college/university course   184    30.5
                                                          85            14.1                     14.1          72.6   in transition
           than what I am teaching
           Certified, not currently                                                                                   2+ college/university         63     10.4
                                                          12              2.0                     2.0          74.6
           teaching/practicing                                                                                        courses in transition
           Provisionally certified                        60            10.0                     10.0          84.6
                                                                                                                      college/university courses    103    17.1
           Emergency certified                            88            14.6                     14.6          99.2
                                                                                                                      that covered some
           Not certified, currently
                                                                                                                      transition content
           working toward                                   5              .8                      .8         100.0
           certification                                                                                              Attend Conference             247    41.0
           Total                                         603           100.0                 100.0                    presentations

                                                                                                                      Subscribe to                  258    42.8
                                                                                                                      Newsletters/articles/
                                                                                                                      books/online resources
                                            Teach Year
                                                                                                                      On the job training, help     319    52.9
                                                                                Cumulative
                                                                                                                      from colleagues
                                      Frequency   Percent       Valid Percent    Percent
                                                                                                                      Professional associations     104    17.2
   Valid     0 or student teaching
                                             16           2.7             2.7              2.7
             experience only
             1-3                            162          26.9            26.9          29.5
             4-6                            113          18.7            18.7          48.3                           None                          41     6.8
             7-9                             63          10.4            10.4          58.7
             10+                            249          41.3            41.3         100.0
                                                                                                                      Do others ask your Advice     428    71
             Total                          603      100.0              100.0
                                               Survey Items: Transition Practices

                                                                            Do you feel prepared to perform this   How often do you perform this
                           Teaching Practice
                                                                                         practice?                           practice?
Work with students and parents to identify specific post-school goals.                    Yes No                      Often Sometimes Never
Identify educational experiences that correspond to the transition IEP.                   Yes No                      Often Sometimes Never
Plan goals and activities that focus on post-school outcomes:

                                                                                          Yes No                      Often Sometimes Never
· community living

                                                                                          Yes No                      Often Sometimes Never
· recreation and leisure

                                                                                          Yes No                      Often Sometimes Never
· community participation

                                                                                          Yes No                      Often Sometimes Never
· employment

                                                                                          Yes No                      Often Sometimes Never
· post-secondary education
Coordinate linkages and referrals to adult service providers.                             Yes No                      Often Sometimes Never
Prepare students to participate in the IEP process.                                       Yes No                      Often Sometimes Never
Teach self-determination such as decision making, goal-setting, or
                                                                                          Yes No                      Often Sometimes Never
self-awareness.
Develop students' career awareness.                                                       Yes No                      Often Sometimes Never
Work with students and parents to identify job opportunities that match
                                                                                          Yes No                      Often Sometimes Never
student interests and skills.
Develop community work-experience programs.                                               Yes No                      Often Sometimes Never
Teach learning strategies such as note-taking, time management, and
                                                                                          Yes No                      Often Sometimes Never
developing mnemonic devices.
Teach independent living skills in the community.                                         Yes No                      Often Sometimes Never
Provide formal and informal assessment information to help determine
                                                                                          Yes No                      Often Sometimes Never
students' skills, preferences and interests related to transition issues.
      Transition Practices: Descriptive Statistics
                                Transition Practice                                             Prepared to Perform      How often do you
                                                                                                   this Practice?      Perform this Practice?
                                                                                                NO          YES       Never Sometimes Often
Work with Students and parents to identify specific post-school goals                           70%        31%        22%     30%      48%
Identify educational experiences that correspond to the transition IEP.                         26%        74%        21%     29%      50%
Plan goals and activities that focus on post-school outcomes:
     Community Living                                                                           40%        57%        33%     35%      32%
      Recreation and Leisure                                                                    36%        645        30%     49%      30%
      Community Participation                                                                   36%        63%        27%     37%      36%
      Employment                                                                                34%        66%        25%     29%      46%
      Postsecondary Education                                                                   35%        65%        28%     35%      37%
Coordinate linkages and referrals to adult service providers                                    50%        50%        38%     31%      31%
Prepare students to participate in the IEP process                                              23%        77%        22%     40%      38%

Teach self-determination such as decision making, goal-setting, or self-                        22%        78%        15%     35%      50%
awareness.
Develop students' career awareness.                                                             25%        75%        19%     36%      45%

Work with students and parents to identify job opportunities that match student interests and   375%       63%        28%     38%      34%
skills
Develop community work-experience programs.                                                     58%        42%        49%     26%      24%

Teach learning strategies such as note-taking, time management, and developing mnemonic         21%        78%        21%     39%      41%
devices
Teach independent living skills in the community.                                               45%        54%        41%     35%      24%

Provide formal and informal assessment information to help determine students' skills,          335        67%        26%     38%      37%
preferences and interests related to transition issues.
        Factor Analysis of Survey Items
                                                                        Scree Plot
                                                                  10
Are certain items on the survey
                                                                    8
  related?                                                          6


• Varimax rotation (assumed                                         4




                                       Eigenvalue
  all factors not related)                                          2



• 2 factors emerged:
                                                                    0
                                                                        1       3       5       7       9        11        13        15
                                                                            2       4       6       8       10        12        14        16

   – Factor 1 (community-based                                          Factor Number

     transition practices) accounted                R o t a t e d F a c t o r M a t r ax
                                                                                      i

     for 42% of variance                                                Fac tor
                                                                     1            2

   – Factor 2 (school-based            Con s ume rB
                                       Experien c eB
                                                                      .721
                                                                      .705
                                                                                   .376
                                                                                   .410
                                       Liv in gB                      .823         .147
     transition practices) accounted   R ec re ation B                .789         .141
                                       P artic ipationB               .831         .205
     for 18% of variance               Employ me ntB                  .825         .326
                                       P os ts ec on dary B           .640         .422
                                       A du lt agen c y B             .714         .246
                                       IEP P roc e ss B               .384         .618
                                       S elf-dete rmina tion B        .212         .726
                                       Care e r A wa ren e ss B       .587         .596
                                       Job Opportu nitie s B          .676         .440
                                       W ork-ex pe rie nc e B         .657         .152
                                       Le a rn ing stra tegies B      .040         .624
                                       Liv in g S k illsB             .558         .188
                                       A ss e ss men tB               .564         .407
                                       Extrac tion Meth od: Prin cipal A xis Fac torin g.
                                       R ota tion Meth od: V arima x with Kaise r Norma liza tion .
                                          a . R ota tion conv e rge d in 3 ite rations .
          Comparisons Across Educator Groups
Differences between Educators Who indicate High vs. Low Levels of
Transition Preparation

                                                                                                        Educators who feel
                   Levene's Test for
                  Equality of Variances             t-test for Equality of Means                        highly prepared have
                                                                                         Mean           obtained more advanced
                     F           Sig.       t           df          Sig. (2-tailed)   Difference

  Diploma
                                                                                                        degrees, are certified in
                      .639         .424    -5.167     551.759                 .000             -.23
                                                                                                        the areas they are
  Certification     90.738         .000    -8.477            579              .000         -1.05
                                                                                                        teaching in, and have
  Teach Year          .132         .716    -6.544     548.239                 .000             -.70     taught for many years.
  PRESUM            74.353         .000   -15.873            579              .000      -5.7592



                                                    Differences between Educators who indicate High vs. Low Levels of
      Educators who indicate                        Implementing Transition Practices
      high levels of                                                      Levene's Test for
                                                                         Equality of Variances                  t-test for Equality of Means
      implementing transition                                                                                                                      Mean
      practices have obtained                                               F           Sig.            t            df         Sig. (2-tailed)
                                                                                                                                                  Differe
                                                                                                                                                   nce
      more advanced degrees,                        Diploma                   .186        .667         -2.147     522.152                 .032      -.10
      are certified in the areas                    Certification          12.656         .000         -3.578             579             .000      -.47
      they are teaching in, and                     Teach Year              1.280         .258         -3.757             579             .000      -.41

      have taught for many                          PRASUM                                                                                             -
                                                                           37.137         .000        -15.734             579             .000    10.269
      years.                                                                                                                                           3
Comparing Elementary Teachers with Secondary Teachers

                                          Sum of
                                            Squares      df       Mean Square            F           Sig.

Diploma               Between
                                            8.410             2         4.205          14.568         .000
                          Groups
Certification         Between
                                          109.713             2        54.856          24.088         .000
                          Groups
Teach Year            Between
                                           65.938             2        32.969          20.043         .000
                          Groups
PRESUM                Between
                                         2869.242             2     1434.621           64.499         .000
                          Groups
PRASUM                Between
                                        19007.169             2     9503.585         178.861          .000
                          Groups

Secondary Educators are more likely to have an advanced degree, be certified in
the field in which they are teaching, have more years of experience, and feel more
prepared and are more likely to implement transition practices

  Post-hoc comparisons
                                                                       Mean Difference
                                              (J) Agelevel                                      Std. Error
 Dependent Variable      (I) Agelevel                                          (I-J)                           Sig.
 Diploma                 Secondary            Elementary                            .25(*)              .058          .000
 Certification           Secondary            Elementary                           1.13(*)              .164          .000
 Teach Year              Secondary            Elementary                            .84(*)              .139          .000
 PRESUM                  Secondary            Elementary                         5.7748(*)           .51170           .000
 PRASUM                  Secondary            Elementary                        14.9581(*)           .79087           .000
What Variables Predict Effective Practices?


• For the Community-based Practices, the
  regression analysis indicated:
   – 4 variables significantly contributed (level of
    preparation; secondary grades; certification
    status & years teaching)
• For the School-based Practices, the
  regression analysis indicated:
   – 3 variables predict 19% of the variance (level
     of preparation; secondary grades; diploma)
               Findings & Conclusions

• High quality teachers possess significantly more advanced
  degrees, are certified in their field in which they are teaching,
  and have many years teaching experience. These teachers
  indicated being well prepared for the majority of transition
  practices, and perform these practices at a higher rate than
  less qualified teachers.
• Overall, teachers felt less prepared in the transition practices
  than their level of performance. This might mean that
  teachers are practicing without the skills and preparation to
  effectively implement transition practices.

				
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