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									              Political Parties

   No parties at founding of the republic
   Washington cautioned against their
    baneful effects
   Madison warned against factions
   But Federalists and Anti-Federalists
    debated ratification of Constitution
       Origins of Political Parties

   Jefferson created the first party in 1796
   Party created to secure opposition in the
    Electoral College to federalist candidate
    John Adams
   Jefferson called supporters Republicans
   Federalists called them Democratic
    Republicans to emphasize the demos or
    unruly mob
                   Brief History

   1789-1796 Pre-party period
   1796-1820 First Party System
    – 1800 Jefferson elected with support of Democratic
      Republicans
    – election determined in House because Jefferson
      and Burr received equal votes
    – 1804 12th Amendment requires separate
      candidates for President & V.P.
            Brief History continued
    – 1820-28 Democratic Republicans divided
          Andrew Jackson (populist Democrat)
          John Quincy Adams (National Republican)
   1828-1856 Second Party System
    – 1834 National Republicans renamed Whigs
   1856-present Third Party System
    – 1860 First Critical Election (major realignment)
        Republicans nominated Abraham Lincoln

        No. Democrats nominated Stephen Douglas

        So. Democrats nominated John Breckinridge
        Brief History continued
   Republicans   became party of the North
     – strong ties to business
   Democrats    became party of the South
     – Republicans were seen as the party of Lincoln--opposed
       to slavery and the South’s attempt to secede
     – 1894 Severe recession
– 1896 Second Critical Election
             Republican base
   solidified

   Republicans nominated William McKinley (Ohio);
    favored high tariffs & gold standard
   Democrats nominated Wm. Jennings Bryan;
    favored silver coinage
       Brief History continued

    Republicans    won and dominated national
    politics until 1929 and Wall Street crash
– 1932 Third Critical Election
    FDR   elected by landslide
    Democrats control presidency for 36 years

    Republicans control presidency for 28 years

    Democrats control House of Representatives
     for 40 years (1954-1994)
Parties and View of Government

                        Social Issues

                    Freedom   Order

Economic Equality   Liberal   Populist

Issues    Freedom Libertarian Conservative
                  Grass Roots Party Organization

                                                                  National Political Party


                                  State Political Partiy                   Other State Political Parties   Other State Politicf al Parties
                                   State Conv ention
                                    to elec t at-large
                            delegates to national conv ention


         Congressional Distric t                         Legislativ e Caucus
                6 in Iowa
            Elect dis trict-lev el
delegates to national & state c onv entions


          County Conv entions
              99 in Iowa


              Party Prec inc t
               Caucuses
              2166 in Iowa
      Traditional Roles of Parties
   Serve as intermediary between citizens &
    government
   Screen or recruit candidates, including
    president, for public office
   Contest elections, mobilize voters, and
    increasingly fund candidates
   Organize government (e.g. Congress)
   Serve as agents of accountability (to public)
   Manage societal conflict (organize interests)
          Responsible Party Model

   Typical of Parliamentary system
   Strong, competitive parties
   Platform represents promise to people
   Majority party selects government leader (e.g.
    prime minister--no divided government)
   Majority party held accountable for living up to
    promises (party discipline enforced)
               Parties in the U.S.

   Representatives have multiple obligations
    – To self (conscience)
    – To constituents
    – To political party
   Parties operate in multiple domains
    – Organize interests of the electorate
    – Achieve program goals in government
    – Develop loose coalitions in political system
          Minor Political Parties
   Bolter Parties
    – splinter groups within major parties that bolt
    – e.g. Progressive Party (liberal Republicans)
      opposed excesses of economic and political
      power; introduced initiative, referendum, and recall
    – e.g. Reform Party (Ross Perot in 1992 & 1996)
   Ideological Protest (Marxists, Socialists)
   Single Issue Parties; Farm-Labor Coalition
   Take votes from major parties but force
    examination of important issues
     Endurance of Two Party System

   U.S. is unusual relative to other countries;
    most have multi-party systems
    – with multi-member constituencies
    – proportional representation
   U.S. Procedures favor two-party system
    – winner-take-all or first-past-the-post elections
    – single member districts
    – simple plurality
      Decline of the Political Party?
   1960s End of consensus; Vietnam protests
   1968 Democratic National Convention and
    Chicago riots with police brutality
   Democrats reject leadership
    – open party participation to women, minorities;
    – introduce more primaries (direct vote)
   Republicans introduce organizational change
    – RNC adopts business practices
    – automates mailing lists
    – professionalizes fundraising
       Decline of the Political Party?
   Party identification waning; voters are
    increasingly independent
   Fewer citizens involved in party politics;
    decreased issue role of parties
   Media and interest groups assume some
    intermediary roles left vacant by parties
   Media personalizes politics; politicians
    respond with cult of individual
   Interest groups encourage greater diversity of
    interests; society more fragmented
      Decline of the Political Party?

   Interest groups forced to work within two
    party system
   Parties become “big tents” for groups with
    varied interests
   Party conventions no longer determine party
    nominee but try to attract media attention
   Parties harness soft money unavailable to
    candidates
   Parties respond to changing times

								
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