Democracy and Reform
tenements - crowded and often unsanitary
city dwellings in which many of the poorest
immigrants lived during the 19th century.
property qualifications - early voting laws
that required people to own land or
property in order to vote.
Whig Party - an American political party,
named after the English Whig Party, formed
to oppose Andrew Jackson and to promote
economic development and national
Temperance Societies - organizations of
reformers who believed that alcohol was
the cause of many of society's problems in
the 19th century, and campaigned to ban
the drinking of all alcoholic beverages.
Second Great Awakening - the second of a
series of religious revivals in the U.S., during
which religious leaders taught that people
could be saved by their own actions.
abolition - the act of abolishing or ending
something. The name of the political
movement, begun in the north, for the
purpose of ending slavery. An anti-slavery
advocate is called an abolitionist.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Henry David Thoreau
lynching - the practice of mob execution,
usually by hanging, of a person suspected of
a crime, in total disregard of the law.
Thousands of African Americans were the
victims of lynching by white mobs, mainly in
"Demon Rum" - the negative term used by
Temperance Societies to describe the
destructive effects of alcoholic drinks.
teetotalers - people who abstain from
drinking alcoholic beverages.
Declaration of Sentiments - a statement
made by Elizabeth Cady Stanton at the first
Women's Rights Conference in 1848 that
promoted the social, economic and political
rights of women.
penology - the study and policies of how to
manage prisons and how to treat criminal
offenders, the improvement of which
became a goal of 19th-century reformers.
Utopia - a perfect community
where people try to live
according to such ideals as
peace, justice and harmony.
Transcendentalist - a person
who was a part of a 19th-
movement active in promoting
the reform of American society.
civil disobedience - the act of
resisting government laws that
one believes are unfair or
American Colonization Society -
an organization that was
developed in the early 19th
century to support the return
and resettlement of free blacks
and enslaved Africans to West
Africa and other places outside
of the U.S.
The Liberator - an influential
weekly newspaper published by
William Lloyd Garrison
beginning in 1831 that
promoted the abolitionist
Underground Railroad - the system
whereby anti-slavery reformers secretly
helped fugitive slaves to escape from
southern slave states.
Harriet Tubman as "Conductor" with escaped
slaves at an Underground Railroad location.