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The Planning Commission of India defines ‘Real estate’ as land, including the air
above it and the ground below it, and any buildings or structures on it. It is also
referred to as realty.

It covers residential housing, commercial offices, trading spaces such as theatres,
hotels and restaurants, retail outlets, industrial buildings such as factories and
government buildings. The activities of the real estate sector encompass the
housing and construction sectors also.

Real estate business involves transaction, such as sale, purchase, and development
of land residential and non residential buildings. Major players in the real estate
markets are land owners, developers, builders, real estate agents, tenants, buyers
etc. real estate plays a critical role in the development of the Indian economy. It is
the second largest employer after agriculture. Over the next decade, the real estate
sector is expected to grow by 30%.

The sector is divided into four subsectors housing, retail, hospitality, and
commercial. The housing sub-sector contributes five-six per cent to the country's
gross domestic product (GDP). Meanwhile, retail, hospitality and commercial real
estate are also growing significantly, catering to India's growing needs of

The construction industry ranks third among the 14 major sectors in terms of
direct, indirect and induced effects in all sectors of the economy, according to a
study done by ICRA. A unit increase in expenditure in this sector has a multiplier
effect and the capacity to generate income as high as five times. The positive
effects of growth in real estate sector are spread over more than 250 ancillary


In the laws of the United States of America, the 'real' in 'real estate' means relating
to a thing (res/'rei', thing, from O.Fr. 'reel', from L.L. 'realis' 'actual', from Latin.
'res', 'matter, thing'), as distinguished from a person. Thus the law broadly
distinguishes between 'real' property (land and anything affixed to it) and 'personal'
property or chattels (everything else, e.g., clothing, furniture, money). The
conceptual difference was between 'immovable property', which would transfer
title along with the land, and 'movable property', which a person could lawfully
take and would retain title to on disposal of the land.

Market Size

The Indian real estate market size is expected to touch US$ 180 billion by 2020.

Recent growth in the Indian economy has stimulated demand for land and
developed real estate across industries. Demand for residential, commercial and
retail real estate is rising throughout India, accompanied by increased demand for
hotel accommodation and improved infrastructure.

India is going to produce an estimated 2 million new graduates from various Indian
universities during this year, creating demand for 100 million square feet of office
and industrial space.

Further, presence of a large number of Fortune 500 and other reputed companies
will attract more companies to initiate their operational bases in India thus, creating
more demand for corporate space.

Apart from IT, ITES and Business Process Outsourcing (BPO), India has shown its
expertise in sectors like auto-components, chemicals, apparels, pharmaceuticals
and jewellery where it can match the best in the world. These positive attributes of
India is definitely going to attract more foreign investors in the near future.


Real estate emerged as the popular sector for private equity (PE) funds investing
around US$ 1,700 million in this sector during 2011. PE in real estate projects will
fetch considerable returns by next year-end or early 2013, Foreign direct
investment (FDI) inflows in real estate in 2011-12 (April-January) stood at Rs
2,750 crore (US$ 492.50 million).

Major investments

      Mahindra Lifespaces, known for its World City projects in Chennai and
       Jaipur, is finalising land parcels in Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. "We have
       got a go-ahead from the management and appointed architects. We are in the
       process of getting the land within the company by next month," said Anita
       Arjundas, Managing Director and Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of the

       Delhi-based real estate player Assotech Realty has said it will take pan-India
        stride by opening serviced residence in 25 major cities across India. The
        company said it will invest Rs 250 crore (US$ 44.69 million) in its
        upcoming project on the Noida Expressway. The project will be funded
        partly through debt and partly through internal accruals .
       Sahara India has set up a construction joint venture with 110-year-old
        American real estate company Turner Construction Co, a subsidiary of
        German construction group Hochtief, and the Acropolis Capital Group, a
        special situation investment and development firm. The JV company, Sahara
        Turner Construction, will build integrated townships called Sahara City
        Homes and other Sahara India projects in India worth US$ 25 billion over
        the next 20 years. Projects worth US$ 2.5 billion will be completed over the
        next five years

Real Estate Types

Real estate consists of the following types.

    Retail:

       These are projects suitable for shopping purposes with modern outfitting,
       appropriate access and visibility and sufficient parking space. The
       occupiers will be tenants. Investors and, more exceptionally occupiers, will
       be purchasers.

 Residential:

 This concerns the development of buildings suitable for family living on a
 long-term basis. The ultimate occupier will be a “resident”; however the
 ultimate investor can vary from owner-occupier to institutional investor.

 Offices:

  Buildings that could be used for market standard office buildings. The
 buildings should normally be fitted for occupancy by multiple tenants.

 Industrial/logistics:

  Industrial real estate building for multi or single-tenant purpose. The
 investors are the ultimate purchasers.

 Mixed-use:

 This concerns projects being a combination of two or more of the above

 Area development:

  This concerns complex long-term mixed-use developments, which are
 often undertaken in joint effort with public bodies.

Automation is the use of machines, control systems and information technologies
to optimize productivity in the production of goods and delivery of services. The
correct incentive for applying automation is to increase productivity, and/or quality
beyond that possible with current human labor levels so as to realize economies of
scale, and/or realize predictable quality levels. The incorrect application of
automation, which occurs most often, is an effort to eliminate or replace human
labor. Simply put, whereas correct application of automation can net as much as 3
to 4 times original output with no increase in current human labor costs. Incorrect
application of automation can only save a fraction of current labor level costs. In
the scope of industrialisation, automation is a step beyond mechanisation. Whereas
mechanisation provides human operators with machinery to assist them with the
muscular requirements of work. Automation greatly decreases the need for human
sensory and mental requirements while increasing load capacity, speed, and
repeatability. Automation plays an increasingly important role in the world
economy and in daily experience.

Automation has had a notable impact in a wide range of industries beyond
manufacturing (where it began). Once-ubiquitous telephone operators have been
replaced largely by automated telephone switchboards and answering machines.
Medical processes such as primary screening in electrocardiography or
radiography and laboratory analysis of human genes, sera, cells, and tissues are
carried out at much greater speed and accuracy by automated systems. Automated
teller machines have reduced the need for bank visits to obtain cash and carry out
transactions. In general, automation has been responsible for the shift in the world
economy from industrial jobs to service jobs in the 20th and 21st centuries.

The term automation, inspired by the earlier word automatic (coming from
automaton), was not widely used before 1947, when General Motors established
the automation department. At that time automation technologies were electrical,
mechanical, hydraulic and pneumatic. Between 1957 and 1964 factory output
nearly doubled while the number of blue collar workers started to decline.


The main advantages of automation are:

    Increased throughput or productivity.
    Improved quality or increased predictability of quality.
    Improved robustness (consistency), of processes or product.
    The following methods are often employed to improve productivity, quality,
      or robustness.
    Install automation in operations to reduce cycle time.
    Install automation where a high degree of accuracy is required.
    Replacing human operators in tasks that involve hard physical or
      monotonous work.
    Replacing humans in tasks done in dangerous environments (i.e. fire, space,
      volcanoes, nuclear facilities, underwater, etc.)
    Performing tasks that are beyond human capabilities of size, weight, speed,
      endurance, etc.
    Economy improvement: Automation may improve in economy of
      enterprises, society or most of humanity. For example, when an enterprise
      invests in automation, technology recovers its investment; or when a state or
      country increases its income due to automation like Germany or Japan in the
      20th Century.

   Reduces operation time and work handling time significantly.
   Frees up workers to take on other roles.
   Provides higher level jobs in the development, deployment, maintenance and
     running of the automated processes.

The main disadvantages of automation are:

   Security Threats/Vulnerability: An automated system may have a limited
     level of intelligence, and is therefore more susceptible to committing an
   Unpredictable development costs: The research and development cost of
    automating a process may exceed the cost saved by the automation itself.
   High initial cost: The automation of a new product or plant requires a huge
    initial investment in comparison with the unit cost of the product, although
    the cost of automation is spread among many products.
   In manufacturing, the purpose of automation has shifted to issues broader
    than productivity, cost, and time.
   Business process automation, or BPA, is the strategy a business uses to
    automate processes in order to contain costs. It consists of integrating
    applications, restructuring labor resources and using software applications
    throughout the organization.


Quosphere Infosolutions is as software consultancy firm that provides software
solutions to its clients. These solutions help in automating the business and makes
the business processes work seamlessly.
QuoSphere is consulted by numerous clients in the areas of Business Intelligence
and building transactional system applications. QuoSphere believes in better, faster
and cost-effective solutions making it a preferred consulting and implementation
partner to many organizations across the globe.

QuoSphere is a trusted partner to many organizations delivering excellence and
extreme quality in the areas of Business Intelligence and Enterprise Application
Development. Their services helps SME and Large Enterprises of the retail,
construction & real estate, manufacturing, education and the hospitality segments
to adapt to the web application and solutions.

Some of the prestigious clients of Quosphere are:

    Aditya Birla Group

    Tata Realty and Infrastructure
    NECO Group of Industries
    Wanbury
    Suzlon
    Allied Blenders and Distelers
    Officer’s Choice
    Paradise Group
    Green Scape
    Haware
    Audit Bureau of Circulations

Quosphere offers software solutions to its clients in the f orm of various packages
these are:

    Click view

    Wireller

    SAP business one

    Kondura :

Quosphere offers a host of services to its clients.

Enterprise Application Services:

   1. Application Development

     Organizations today need applications that enhance and sustain operational
     efficiencies; applications that reduce redundancy and help achieve the
     organizational objectives.

     Enterprise Application Development vertical at QuoSphere caters to the
     business needs of an extensive range of industry verticals focusing on
     providing specific solutions; the end objective being to partner clients and
     help them make the most of the opportunities that their businesses come

     QuoSphere has helped organizations in building Enterprise wide
     Applications in the areas of

   ● Enterprise Resource Planning

   ● Human Resource Automation

   ● Document Management

   ● POS & Inventory Management

   ● Property Management Solution

2. Web Development

 At QuoSphere, Web and Graphics Development team specializes in
 creating simple websites to large scale business application solutions by
 using some of the latest web development tools.

 One of the key aspects in any business is to create your unique brand
 identity to ensure a web presence. Our web development services along
 with Search Engine Optimization capability enable organizations to
 effectively and efficiently communicate with their consumers in a unique
 manner providing insight to their ideas, products and services giving
 organization with a definitive competitive edge and allowing them to focus
 on other core business activities.

3. Mobile Application

 QuoSphere develops applications for mobile and tablet-based platforms.
 We specialize in building specific corporate applications for the Apple
 iPhone, iPad, Andorid, Symbian OS.

Enterprise Performance Management:

  1. Business Inteligence
    QuoSphere believes that one need not spend millions to get the information
   you need on your fingertips. They offer innovative engagement models for
   their clients to build a strong reporting and analysis and a business intelligence
   system. Their cost effective and best-in-class Business Intelligence Solutions
   have helped many organizations reap tangible benefits out of a good
   organizational performance monitoring system

   2. Planning & Budgeting

   Imagine it is the end of the fiscal year. Management is scrutinizing the past
   year's performance as well as planning for next year. If you are involved in
   the planning and budget process you may very well be in "spreadsheet
   hell" trying to collect data from a variety of sources, make sense of it all
   and come up with a budget that will be both achievable and acceptable to
   senior levels of management. QuoSphere understands this process and
   believe that by taking small steps towards automating the cumbersome
   collating processes, one can maximize the value out of the entire budgeting

   Quosphere     implements planning, budgeting and forecasting solutions
   incorporating the industry best practices and help organizations reap the
   following benefits

  ● Greater Visibility to Performance

  ● Stronger Control over the budgeting process

  ● Complete management of: workflow, audit trail, versioning, scenarios and
  approval status processes.

  ● Automatic allocation of changes, to modify data at various levels of
  granularity (e.g. budget by division) and to distribute the change
  automatically to the finest levels of detail (e.g. items and customers)

  ● Excel add-in, with off-line data-entry functionalities

  ● Rolling forecasting and budgeting

  ● Simultaneous write-back, for the purpose of saving budget data to the
  company’s relational databases or data-warehouses.

For companies that use CRM and those that plan to, it is important to
understand that CRM technology has developed evolved and matured over
the years. It is now a reliable process that combines business and
technology to power a customer-focused organization. To create successful
customer-centric organizations, CIOs and even CEOs are asked to repeat
this mantra: “CRM is a business initiative and is not about technology.”

CRM is a management strategy that enables an organization to become
customer-focused and develop stronger relationships with its clientele. It
helps piece together information about customers, sales, marketing
effectiveness, responsiveness and market trends.

    QuoSphere believes, Technology can play a significant role in CRM being
   an enabler, but thinking about CRM solely in technological terms is
   wrong. It is not about solving a technology problem, it is a process that
   aligns your business around your customers’ needs. Software is only one
   component of this process.

   QuoSphere designs and develops training options which are tailored to
   meet specific needs of the organisation. These are based on an in depth
   assessment and analysis of the existing level of performance, and the level
   of performance which the organisation wishes to achieve.

   Training options may be in the following areas:

       IT Training

         ● Data Stage

         ● IBM Cognos Enterprise Business Planning.

         ● IBM Cognos Business Intelligence

         ● IBM Cognos TM1

         ● Micro strategy.

         ● SAP BPC

         ● Qlik View

       Sales

         ● Professional Selling Skills

         ● Sales Management

 Customer Service

  ● Managing Difficult Customers

  ● Telephone Customer Service

  ● Customer Service Standards

 Management

  ● Leadership skills

  ● Goal setting

  ● Managing Non-Performance

  ● Discipline and Dismissal Procedures

  ● Coaching for Performance

  ● Health and Safety

 Communication skills

  ● Telecommunications

  ● Interpersonal Skills

  ● Presentation Skills

 Team Building

  ● Identifying team type styles

  ● Team development


We use a large variety of goods and services in our daily life. These include items
like toothpaste, toothbrush, soap, oil, clothes, food items, telephone, electricity and
many more. How do all these goods and services reach our home? Obviously the
business houses who produce the goods and services have to ensure that these are
to be sold, and so they have to make the consumers/users aware of their products
and place them at points convenient to the consumers. This involves a number of
activities such as product planning, pricing, promotion, use of middlemen
(wholesalers, retailer etc.) for sale, warehousing, transportation etc. All these
activities taken together are termed as Marketing.


We know that the businessman produces goods and services for our use. These are
not necessarily produced at the places where they are consumed or used. Even in
villages, now-a-days you find the products manufactured all over India and in other
countries. This implies that the manufacturers must be making efforts to ensure
that their products are in demand and reach the ultimate consumers all over the
globe. So, when you go to the market to buy a readymade shirt you find that there
are several options available to you in terms of quality of cloth used, design,
colour, price etc. and you can buy what suits you most. This also implies that the
manufactures assess the needs of the consumers, their tastes and preferences and
plan the products accordingly. Not only that, they also ensure that people are aware
about the product and its features. All these activities are said to be part of
marketing function of any organisation. Thus, marketing refers to the process of
ascertaining consumers’ needs and supplying various goods and services to the
final consumers or users to satisfy those needs. Basically, marketing is the

performance of business activities that direct the flow of goods and services from
producers to consumers or users.


The American Marketing Association defines marketing

“as an organisational function and set of processes for creating, communicating
and delivering value to customers and for managing customer relationships in ways
that benefit the organisation and its stakeholders.”


According to the traditional concept, marketing means selling goods and services
that have been produced. Thus, all those activities which are concerned with
persuasion and sale of goods and services are called marketing. This concept of
marketing emphasizes on promotion and sale of goods and services and little
attention is paid to consumer satisfaction.        This concept has the following

(a) The main focus of this concept is on product, i.e., we have a product and it has
to be sold. So, we have to persuade the consumers to buy our product.

(b) All efforts of the marketing people are concentrated on selling the product.
They adopt all means like personal selling and sales promotion to boost the sales.

(c) The ultimate goal of all marketing activity is to earn profit through
maximisation of sales.

Traditional Concept of Marketing

Focus on                                 Product

Means                                    Selling

Ends                                     Profits through maximisation of sales


The modern concept of marketing considers the consumers’ wants and needs as the
guiding spirit and focuses on the delivery of such goods and services that can
satisfy those needs most effectively. Thus, marketing starts with identifying
consumer needs, then plan the production of goods and services accordingly to
provide him the maximum satisfaction. In other words, the products and services
are planned according to the needs of the customers rather than according to the
availability of materials and machinery. Not only is that, all activities
(manufacturing, research and development, quality control, distribution, selling
etc.) directed to satisfy the consumers. Thus, the main implications of the modern
concepts are:

Modern Concept of Marketing

Focus on                                 Customers’ need

Means                                    Coordinated marketing efforts

Ends                                     Profits through customers’ satisfaction



The term marketing mix was coined in an article written by Neil Borden called
“The Concept of the Marketing Mix.” He started teaching the term after he learned
about if from an associate, James Culliton, who in 1948 described the role of the
marketing manager as a "mixer of ingredients"; one who sometimes follows
recipes prepared by others, sometimes prepares his own recipe as he goes along,
sometimes adapts a recipe from immediately available ingredients, and at other
times invents new ingredients no one else has tried.

The marketer, E. Jerome McCarthy, proposed a four Ps classification in 1960,
which has since been used by marketers throughout the world.

Product - A product is seen as an item that satisfies what a consumer needs or
wants. It is a tangible good or an intangible service. Intangible products are service
based like the tourism industry, the hotel industry and the financial industry.
Tangible products are those that have an independent physical existence. Typical
examples of mass-produced, tangible objects are the motor car and the disposable
razor. A less obvious but ubiquitous mass produced service is a computer operating

Every product is subject to a life-cycle including a growth phase followed by a
maturity phase and finally an eventual period of decline as sales falls. Marketers
must do careful research on how long the life cycle of the product they are

marketing is likely to be and focus their attention on different challenges that arise
as the product moves through each stage.

The marketer must also consider the product mix. Marketers can expand the
current product mix by increasing a certain product line's depth or by increasing
the number of product lines. Marketers should consider how to position the
product, how to exploit the brand, how to exploit the company's resources and how
to configure the product mix so that each product complements the other. The
marketer must also consider product development strategies.

Price – The price is the amount a customer pays for the product. The price is very
important as it determines the company's profit and hence, survival. Adjusting the
price has a profound impact on the marketing strategy, and depending on the price
elasticity of the product, often it will affect the demand and sales as well. The
marketer should set a price that complements the other elements of the marketing

When setting a price, the marketer must be aware of the customer perceived value
for the product. Three basic pricing strategies are: market skimming pricing,
market penetration pricing and neutral pricing. The 'reference value' (where the
consumer refers to the prices of competing products) and the 'differential value'
(the consumer's view of this product's attributes versus the attributes of other
products) must be taken into account.

Promotion - represents all of the methods of communication that a marketer may
use to provide information to different parties about the product. Promotion
comprises elements such as: advertising, public relations, personal selling and sales

Advertising covers any communication that is paid for, from cinema commercials,
radio and Internet advertisements through print media and billboards. Public
relations is where the communication is not directly paid for and includes press
releases, sponsorship deals, exhibitions, conferences, seminars or trade fairs and
events. Word-of-mouth is any apparently informal communication about the
product by ordinary individuals, satisfied customers or people specifically engaged
to create word of mouth momentum. Sales staff often plays an important role in
word of mouth and public relations (see 'product' above).[1]

Place - refers to providing the product at a place which is convenient for
consumers to access. Place is synonymous with distribution. Various strategies
such as intensive distribution, selective distribution, exclusive distribution and
franchising can be used by the marketer to complement the other aspects of the
marketing mix.

The 'seven Ps' refers to the already mentioned four Ps, plus 'physical evidence',
'people', and 'process'. 'Physical evidence' refers to elements within the store -- the
store front, the uniforms employees wear, signboards, etc. 'People' refers to the
employees of the organisation with whom customers come into contact with.
'Process' refers to the processes and systems within the organization that affects its
marketing process.

                               ROLE OF 4 P’S



In general, the product is defined as a "thing produced by labor or effort"[or the
"result of an act or a process", and stems from the verb produce, from the Latin
prōdūce(re) '(to) lead or bring forth'. Since 1575, the word "product" has referred to
anything produced.Since 1695, the word has referred to "thing or things produced".

In economics and commerce, products belong to a broader category of goods. The
economic meaning of product was first used by political economist Adam Smith.

In marketing, a product is anything that can be offered to a market that might
satisfy a want or need. In retailing, products are called merchandise. In
manufacturing, products are purchased as raw materials and sold as finished goods.
Commodities are usually raw materials such as metals and agricultural products,
but a commodity can also be anything widely available in the open market. In
project management, products are the formal definition of the project deliverables
that make up or contribute to delivering the objectives of the project. In insurance,
the policies are considered products offered for sale by the insurance company that
created the contract.

A related concept is sub product, a secondary but useful result of a production

Dangerous products, particularly physical ones that cause injuries to consumers or
bystanders may be subject to product liability.

PRODUCT' is an item subject to user control or virtual transfer within the same
visual media program platform. Open Source Code, GNU Linux, or even Android,
may manipulate and/or convert base Virtual Digital Goods ("VDG") into process-
oriented Real Digital Goods ("RDG"), as part of an application process or
manufactured service that may be viewed on Personal Data Assistant ("PDA") or
other hand-held tangible devices or OS computer.can be classified as tangible or
intangible. A tangible product is a physical object that can be perceived by touch
such as a building, vehicle, gadget, or clothing. An intangible product is a product
that can only be perceived indirectly such as an insurance policy.

Intangible Data Products can further be classified into Virtual Digital Goods
("VDG") that are virtually located on a computer OS and accessible to users as
conventional file types, such as JPG and MP3 files, without requiring further
application process or transformational work by programmers, and as such the use
may be subject to license and/or rights of digital transfer, and Real Digital Goods
("RDG") that may exist within the presentational elements of a data program
independent of a conventional file type, commonly viewed as 3-D objects or a


In its online product catalog, retailer Sears, Roebuck and Company divides its
products into "departments", and then presents products to potential shoppers
according to function or brand. Each product has a Sears item-number and a
manufacturer's model-number. Sears uses the departments and product groupings
with the intention of helping customers browse products by function or brand
within a traditional Raj department-store structure.


A product line is "a group of products that are closely related, either because they
function in a similar manner, are sold to the same customer groups, are marketed
through the same types of outlets, or fall within given price ranges." Many
businesses offer a range of product lines which may be unique to a single
organization or may be common across the business's industry. In 2002 the US
Census compiled revenue figures for the finance and insurance industry by various
product lines such as "accident, health and medical insurance premiums" and
"income from secured consumer loans". Within the insurance industry, product
lines are indicated by the type of risk coverage, such as auto insurance, commercial
insurance and life insurance.



Professional real estate software

Professional real estate software is a necessary tool in managing the functions and
business processes of a real estate organization. The real estate software is an end-
to-end, user-friendly solution that can be easily installed at the client system, to
produce optimum results in the shortest time. It is designed to deliver the real
estate processes more effective and hence, the real estate companies, more

An increasing number of real estate companies are weighed down by problems
associated with an expanding portfolio. This includes problems in data

management, timely data retrieval, contact management and a total confusion in
project management. Other common problems include inability of the existing
client system to accept growing amounts of data, lack of security, system rigidity,

A professional real estate software solution is designed to overcome these
handicaps, by being equipped with the features of entire project management, data
and document management, fast calculations and work scheduling, among others.
These features are in addition to the essential requirements of security, scalability,
flexibility and customizability.

It is important that the professional real estate software be adapted, according to
unique client requirements. This is referred to as the customizability of a solution.
The customized software is then implemented, within the stipulated time and with
complete user training.

An expanding real estate company would surely look for a system that can
gracefully accept increasing amounts of data. This makes scalability an important
virtue of the software system. All types of data demands protection and hence, the
need for security is yet another concern.

The above mentioned are the features of a real estate software system. Coming to
the structure of the system, a professionally-designed software system is divided
into modules that take care of different aspects of the construction business in a
comprehensive, yet simple way. The different stages of a project, starting from its
pre-construction to possession, are covered in an effective manner. That is, a
project is managed starting from the stages of land acquisition till and including the
stages of its lease and maintenance management.

Thus, professional real estate management software        is the perfect answer to
problems faced by the construction industry today. This includes problems related
to project management, data management, work scheduling, etc.

The real estate industry is faced by the dilemma of choosing the software that suits
one’s organizational needs and requirements. Not all software may be suitable to
all organizations, since the needs of every organization are different and so are
their expectations from a software product. Hence, real estate organizations need to
be mindful of certain points before they decide on the brand. The first and foremost
step in buying a software is needs assessment by the user, followed by
understanding the features and functionalities of the software available in the
market. A comparison of sorts is made, on the basis of which the one that most
closely meets the requirements of one’s company can be zeroed in on for making a

A real estate organization can find a software solution that is apt and beneficial to
the entire business, if the above mentioned points are kept in mind before making a
purchase. Implementing the right real estate software can optimize the productivity
and profits of a real estate organization.


The product mix of Quosphere Info solutions has been mentioned above in the
company profile. However the product which I was responsible to handle was
KONDURA. Therefore the product details of kondura are mentioned as follows:


KONDURA, as a progressive web based solution for the Real Estate and
Construction community. The software has been developed to cater and report
day to day activities in the sales and marketing department while it can scale up
to serve all departments in an enterprise when required. Monitoring is featured
in a real time environment, which is accessible from anywhere at anytime.

Kondura is a ready to use or on-demand configurable system, which is useful in
quick implementation and provides complete solution for varying requirements
from one to another. It considerably reduces lead-time hence ensuring a quick
ROI for our customers.

Kondura helps our customers to connect all data and processes into a single
unified system resulting in a systematic and efficient work environment in their

Kondura Key Features:

    Manages complete post sales activities for Builders & Developers

    Single/Multiple Project(Towers, Units, etc) Administration.

   Maintains customer’s profile as well as payments.

   Demographic view to capture information on a click.

   Automatic reminders for scheduled payments.

   Scribble through an inbuilt notepad.

   Easy follow up feature for sales and marketing.

   Quick look for your various projects, bookings, payments.

   Create and Manage users and their access rights.

   Schedule & Phasing of projects according to developer’s plan.

   Search and edit any data any time from the system.

   Immediate and past updates to monitor changes.

   Export your reports to Microsoft Excel or PDF format.

   Track affiliated agent’s performance on sales.

Kondura Modules :

   Client management

   Customer registration, payment schedule, customer extra work, client car
   park allotment, client interest generation, interest waiver, customer
   cancellation, & cheque issues.

 Enquiry Management

 Enquiry registration, lead management, Follow up and responses.

 Agents management

 Agent details, Calculate & manages brokerage of the agents according to
 various projects.

 Booking And Status Management

 Understand current booking status immediately. Reduces the time to find
 out exact availability according to the project, tower, unit & status.

 Payment schedule management

 Customer Payment management. Creates schedule for payment details
 such as Installment no., payment percentage, and Date of installment
 according to phase. Updates a schedule according to requirements.

 Document management

 This will help to maintain all document work which is essential for further
 business activities. Some of the documents are Allotment Letter, Progress
 report to client,Phase Completion letter, Payment Reminder, Interest
 payment letters, Possession Letter, Maintenance Letter, NOC letter



  User friendliness of the software.
  Covers all the possible sales and marketing aspects.
  Implementation does not require any special software ie it can be
    implemented on a basic core 2 duo machines with internet explorer 7.
  Does not require any specially trained individual, any person with basic
    knowledge of computer can use it.


  Does not contain any module which takes care of construction activities.
  Lacks mobile alerts .


   Real estate being a very hot and flourishing business this software has a lot
     of opportunities.
   Major area that can be focused is Navi Mumbai and Thane as they are
     comparatively less developed in real estate as compared to Mumbai.


   Its lack of construction management module could be one of its major
   MS-Excel is another threat which is often faced by the sales people.



Pricing is the process of determining what a company will receive in exchange for
its products. Pricing factors are manufacturing cost, market place, competition,
market condition, and quality of product. Pricing is also a key variable in
microeconomic price allocation theory. Pricing is a fundamental aspect of financial
modeling and is one of the four Ps of the marketing mix. The other three aspects
are product, promotion, and place. Price is the only revenue generating element
amongst the four Ps, the rest being cost centers.

Pricing is the manual or automatic process of applying prices to purchase and sales
orders, based on factors such as: a fixed amount, quantity break, promotion or sales
campaign, specific vendor quote, price prevailing on entry, shipment or invoice
date, combination of multiple orders or lines, and many others. Automated systems
require more setup and maintenance but may prevent pricing errors. The needs of
the consumer can be converted into demand only if the consumer has the
willingness and capacity to buy the product. Thus pricing is very important in


    Line Pricing

    Line Pricing is the use of a limited number of prices for all product
    offerings of a vendor. This is a tradition started in the old five and dime
    stores in which everything cost either 5 or 10 cents. Its underlying
    rationale is that these amounts are seen as suitable price points for a whole
    range of products by prospective customers. It has the advantage of ease of

 administering, but the disadvantage of inflexibility, particularly in times of
 inflation or unstable prices.

 Loss leader

 A loss leader is a product that has a price set below the operating margin.
 This results in a loss to the enterprise on that particular item in the hope
 that it will draw customers into the store and that some of those customers
 will buy other, higher margin items.

 Premium pricing

 Premium pricing (also called prestige pricing) is the strategy of
 consistently pricing at, or near, the high end of the possible price range to
 help attract status-conscious consumers. The high pricing of premium
 product is used to enhance and reinforce a product's luxury image.
 Examples of companies which partake in premium pricing in the
 marketplace include Rolex and Bentley. As well as brand, product
 attributes such as eco-labelling and provenance (e.g. 'certified organic' and
 'product of Australia') may add value for consumers and attract premium
 pricing. A component of such premiums may reflect the increased cost of
 production. People will buy a premium priced product because:

     They believe the high price is an indication of good quality;

     They believe it to be a sign of self worth - "They are worth it;" it
       authenticates the buyer's success and status; it is a signal to others
       that the owner is a member of an exclusive group;

        They require flawless performance in this application - The cost of
           product malfunction is too high to buy anything but the best -
           example : heart pacemaker.

    Demand-based pricing

    Demand-based pricing is any pricing method that uses consumer demand -
    based on perceived value - as the central element. These include: price
    skimming, price discrimination and yield management, price points,
    psychological pricing, bundle pricing, penetration pricing, price lining,
    value-based pricing, geo and premium pricing. Pricing factors are
    manufacturing cost, market place, competition, market condition, quality
    of product.

    Multidimensional pricing

    Multidimensional pricing is the pricing of a product or service using
    multiple numbers. In this practice, price no longer consists of a single
    monetary amount (e.g., sticker price of a car), but rather consists of various
    dimensions (e.g., monthly payments, number of payments, and a
    downpayment). Research has shown that this practice can significantly
    influence consumers' ability to understand and process price information

Pricing mistakes

Many companies make common pricing mistakes. Bernstein's article "Supplier
Pricing Mistakes" outlines several which include:

    Weak controls on discounting

    Inadequate systems for tracking competitor selling prices and market share

    Cost-Up pricing

    Price increases poorly executed

    Worldwide price inconsistencies

    Paying sales representatives on dollar volume vs. addition of profitability



Insights On Software Pricing

    Your product is more than just your product. You might think that your
      software product is just the bits and bytes that your customers download (or
      access online), but you’d be wrong. What customers are actually paying you
      for is the entire experience of doing business with you. Everything from
      how you market and sell the product, to how you help people use it and how
      you maintain it going forward. All of it. Your pricing should be based on
      this reality.

    There’s a difference between perceived and objective value. It doesn’t
      matter how much “real” (objective) value you have baked into your product
      if your customers don’t perceive that value, they are not going to pay as
      much for it. Hopefully, their perceived value is a function, to some degree,
      of the objective value. If not, you’re screwing something up.

 Community matters. The group that your customers belong to, or want to
   belong to will impact the price they’re willing to pay. For example, some
   people buy hybrid cars not just because of the environmental benefit or the
   higher mileage but because they want to be part of that community. The
   same reason some people buy a BMW. Determine what kind of community
   you can build (or tap into) around your offering. Help people belong to the
   community they want to belong to.

 As it turns out, people do buy drills (not holes). There’s the reasonably
   famous adage around “people buy holes, not drills”. The point is to focus on
   the benefit to the customer (not the product itself). I generally agree with
   that notion. But, it’s useful to keep in mind that holes can be a commodity,
   but people still sometimes pay $400 for a drill. Benefits are important, but
   the direct benefiit is not the only one that customers value.

 The more differentiated you are, the more you control price. This one
   should be obvious. If you have a product that’s about the same as all of your
   competitors, then you don’t really set your price — the market does. Of
   course, nobody thinks of themselves as being identical to their competition
   (especially software companies).      But, what we often forget is that it’s
   difficult — and very risky, to try and create a completely new category and
   be totally differentiated.     Decide which dimension you’re going to
   differentiate on and make sure it’s reasonable given your particular
   constraints (like cash).

 No battle plan survives contact with the enemy. This quote is not actually in
   the book, but I think it still fits the theme.     When setting pricing, it’s
   important to consider what the “market response” is going to be —

  particularly if you’re in a well-defined category. Just because it doesn’t
  make economic sense for a competitor to get in to a price war with you, it
  doesn’t mean they won’t do it. Particularly if they’re big or well-funded. If
  you’re thinking about competing on price, keep that in mind. Better yet,
  don’t do it at all.

 Remember to be fair. As humans, we often have a sense of what we think
  “fair” pricing is. Even though a particular pricing model is “theoretically
  optimal”, it might not be wise in practice. As software entrepreneurs, we
  often think we can get away with certain types of price segmenting simply
  because it’s enforceable in the software.         Just because you can keep
  customers from doing certain kinds of things (unless they pay up), doesn’t
  necessarily mean it’s the right (optimal) thing to do. In the long term, it
  could actually hurt. Try to put yourself in the customer’s shoes and envision
  if they think the way you price things is fair.

 Pricing complexity has a cost.       One of the things you learn in micro
  economics (and is discussed in the beginning of the book) is the concept of
  supply and demand curves and how you can segment your pricing in order to
  capture the maximum value (i.e. optimize revenues).          This can be a
  wonderful thing. But, it’s critical to remember that this segmentation has a
  price — it’s not free revenue. For example, when HubSpot went from a
  single price ($250/month) to two prices (still pretty simple), life got a lot
  harder. All of a sudden, our marketing, sales and even our operational
  efforts got more complicated. The product got more complicated. All of our
  pretty charts that we used to talk about the business and measure success got
  more complicated. The reality is that when you add a new dimension to
  your pricing structure, you’re adding a new dimension of complexity. Oh,

      and by the way, the *second* price that you add to your product is the most
      expensive. After that (third, fourth, etc.) things get a tad easier because
      you’ve already built some of the infrastructure to support multiple prices.


Quosphere has priced its various products differently as per their usage and
platforms they function on, ranging from Rs 30,000 to Rs 10, 00,000. However I
was responsible for only the product KONDURA. The pricing of which is
mentioned as below:

PRODUCT                                    PRICE

KONDURA(LIMITED VERSION)                   30,000 Rs

KONDURA(UNLIMITED                          1,75,000


    The price mentioned above is negotiable under a given set of conditions.

    Customization is to be provided at 5,000 Rs per man day.

    Price will be modified if the data of the client exceeds the given limit.

    The price mentioned for kondura includes free AMC for the first year and
      after that 20% of the agreed amount.



Promotion is a form of corporate communication that uses various methods to
reach a targeted audience with a certain message in order to achieve specific
organizational objectives. Nearly all organizations, whether for-profit or not-for-
profit, in all types of industries, must engage in some form of promotion. Such
efforts may range from multinational firms spending large sums on securing high-
profile celebrities to serve as corporate spokespersons to the owner of a one-person
enterprise passing out business cards at a local businessperson’s meeting.

Like most marketing decisions, an effective promotional strategy requires the
marketer understand how promotion fits with other pieces of the marketing puzzle
(e.g., product, distribution, pricing, target markets). Consequently, promotion
decisions should be made with an appreciation for how it affects other areas of the
company. For instance, running a major advertising campaign for a new product
without first assuring there will be enough inventory to meet potential demand
generated by the advertising would certainly not go over well with the company’s
production department (not to mention other key company executives). Thus,
marketers should not work in a vacuum when making promotion decisions. Rather,
the overall success of a promotional strategy requires input from others in
impacted functional areas.

In addition to coordinating general promotion decisions with other business areas,
individual promotions must also work together. Under the concept of Integrated
Marketing Communication marketers attempt to develop a unified promotional
strategy involving the coordination of many different types of promotional
techniques. The key idea for the marketer who employs several promotional

options to reach objectives for the product is to employ a consistent message across
all options. For instance, salespeople will discuss the same benefits of a product as
mentioned in television advertisements. In this way no matter how customers are
exposed to a marketer’s promotional efforts they all receive the same information.

Objectives of Marketing Promotions

    The most obvious objective marketers have for promotional activities is to
      convince customers to make a decision that benefits the marketer (of course
      the marketer believes the decision will also benefit the customer). For most
      for-profit marketers this means getting customers to buy an organization’s
      product and, in most cases, to remain a loyal long-term customer. For other
      marketers, such as not-for-profits, it means getting customers to increase
      donations, utilize more services, change attitudes, or change behavior (e.g.,
      stop smoking campaigns).
    However, marketers must understand that getting customers to commit to a
      decision, such as a purchase decision, is only achievable when a customer is
      ready to make the decision. As we saw in the tutorials covering Consumer
      Buying Behavior and Business Buying Behavior, customers often move
      through several stages before a purchase decision is made. Additionally
      before turning into a repeat customer, purchasers analyze their initial
      purchase to see whether they received a good value, and then often repeat
      the purchase process again before deciding to make the same choice.
    The type of customer the marketer is attempting to attract and which stage of
      the purchase process a customer is in will affect the objectives of a particular
      marketing communication effort. And since a marketer often has multiple
      simultaneous promotional campaigns, the objective of each could be
PROMOTION              MIX       WITH         RESPECT           TO      SOFTWARE

Promotion is an essential part of successful software – hearing about something is
an essential first step to trying it. Without promotion your software is the
proverbial tree falling in the forest with no-one to hear it. In this series of articles I
am going to talk about some of the ways you can promote your software, and the
pros and cons of each. I will also discuss how effective these various methods have
been for my own £20/$35 seating planner software. Obviously this is only one data
point and may not be very relevant if you are selling to a completely different

1. Search engine

I use ‘search engine’ in the singular deliberately, because Google is pretty much
the only game in town at present. Some 80% of the search engine traffic to my site
(not including paid ads) is from Google.

A constant stream of targeted prospects for free is (or should be) every marketer’s
dream. All you need to do is get onto that first page of Google for your key search
terms. Except that everyone else is trying to do the same and nobody really knows
how Google ranks pages (except Google). SEO (search engine optimization) is a
whole separate topic. For now it suffices to say:

Google seems to penalize new sites, so get that domain up and registered with
Google ASAP

The key to achieving a good ranking is to provide lots of relevant content

‘Black hat’ techniques may get you penalized or even banned

Don’t believe anyone who guarantees they can get you onto the first page for a fee


Can provide large amounts of highly targeted traffic for free.


There are no guarantees on where you will end up ranked or how much traffic you
will get and it can take quite a while to achieve reasonable volumes of traffic. Even
if you are doing very nicely that could change next time Google change their

2. Pay per click ads

Pay per click ads are the stroke of genius that have made the founders of Google
rich beyond the dreams of avarice. Again Google is nearly the only game in town,
with Yahoo and Microsoft struggling to get any traction.


A very flexible and fast way to get targeted traffic. You can also get an incredible
amount of feedback on what customers respond to. This is marketing gold-dust and
can really help you with SEO and copywriting.

Google Adwords has quite a steep learning curve and requires constant tinkering
to keep profitable. If you aren’t careful you can lose a lot of money quite quickly.
Google also seems to be continually increasing minimum bid values in an attempt
to squeeze more money out of advertisers. Click fraud looms large

3. Banner ads

Banner ads are the large image ads, often animated and usually placed prominently
at the tops of web pages. They are generally used to promote brands, rather than
selling a particular product.


If placed on popular websites they can get seen by a lot of people. More eye
catching than a text ad.


You usually have to pay even if no-one clicks your ad

4. Download sites

Download sites are vast catalogues of (usually low price) software. These were an
important resource for people looking for software in years gone by. However their
usefulness has been gradually eroded by improved search engines and the fact that
even the smallest software company can now afford their own website. The big
names, such as Tucows, seem to be struggling to adapt to changing market forces.

Most download sites now accept a description of your software in PAD format.
This is a blessing in that it allows you to fairly easily submit your software to lots
of download sites. But it is a curse in that lots of sites have appeared using PAD
file content in dubious ways to sell advertising.

If you place your PAD file in the ASP PAD database it will be picked up by many
download sites. There are also services such as Robosoft that can submit your
software to hundreds of download sites for you.

If your software fits into one of the standard categories and appeals to the sort of
people who visit download sites (e.g. young male geeks), then download sites
could be an important source of targeted traffic. Otherwise don’t expect too much.
You can increase your exposure on these sites with various forms of paid
promotions, such as pay per download.

It should be noted that there are a lot less Mac download sites than Windows ones,
but they tend to be of a much higher quality. Some Mac developers seem to use the
Mac download sites as their major form of promotion.


Free (unless you opt for various upgrade options) and all those links to your site
are likely to improve your search engine ranking. As download sites tend to SEO
on terms such as “crack” and “keygen” they can also make it very difficult for
would-be pirates to find any real cracks that are out there.


Download sites make money selling advertising, not selling your software. There
are a lot of very dodgy download sites out there.

5. Press releases

A press release is where you announce something newsworthy related to your
product in the hope that it will be mentioned in the media (online or print). Be
warned that anything along the lines of “XYZ corporation is proud to announce
version 1.23 of Widget ware” is not interesting to anyone apart from you, and will
be filed straight in the bin. You need to come up with something interesting,
original and/or newsworthy.

You can hire a PR company to do this for you, but these people are expensive and
often have the cheek to expect a monthly retainer. But all they are going to do is
call up or write to magazine editors, which you could do yourself. Furthermore
they know nothing about your product and probably very little about your market. I
have been deeply underwhelmed with some of the press releases I have seen
written by professional PR people. A PR company working for a reseller of

PerfectTablePlan even managed to get a valid licence key printed in a wedding
magazine! The sooner we send all the PR people off on a B-Ark to Golgafrincham
the better.


Very cheap, if you are doing it yourself. Readers pay a lot more attention to
reviews and editorials than they do to ads.


Quite hit and miss and it can be hard to come up with something newsworthy.

6. Trade shows

Even the most obscure markets appear to have tradeshows. Its hardly surprising
when you get to charge exhibitors $1000+ per day for a few square metres of
carpet and a trestle table. If there isn’t a tradeshow relevant to your market you had
better start worrying if there really is a market.


A good chance to talk to a lot of prospective customers face-to-face and see what
the competition is doing. Useful for establishing credibility.


Expensive and time consuming to prepare for and requires quite a bit of forward
planning. If you try to hawk your wares at a tradeshow where you haven’t paid for
floor space, you may get thrown out.

7. Email marketing

Only email people if they have given you permission to do so or you have got their
addresses from a legitimate opted-in mailing list. Sending out unsolicited and
untargeted email is spam and can get you on spam blacklists and in trouble with
your ISP. It may also be illegal, depending on where you live. You will also pay
for it by having demons shoving red hot pokers up your bottom for all eternity (if
there is any justice).


Cheap if you don’t have to pay for the mailing list.


Conversion rates are generally very low.

8. Direct mail

Direct mail is sending stuff to people/businesses via the post/mail to entice them to
buy your software. In other words, junk mail. There are list brokers who can sell
you mailing lists and various online services that can mail out letters or post cards
to prospects. I understand that a 1% conversion rate for direct mail is considered
very good.


May allow you to reach people who can’t be easily reached by online
means. Mailing lists are readily available for the right money.


Expensive. Kills trees. People who can’t be reached by online means probably
aren’t great buyers of software..


    Quosphere being a software developing firm uses some of the above
        mentioned promotional strategies with search engine being the most
        preferred medium.

    However during my tenure of internship, I did not notice any eager efforts
        by the firm to promote itself as a brand.

    The firm has lost up its speed in the race due to its near to zero promotional



Product distribution (or place) is one of the four elements of the marketing mix.
Distribution is the process of making a product or service available for use or
consumption by a consumer or business user, using direct means, or using indirect
means with intermediaries.

Distribution of products takes place by means of channels. Channels are sets of
independent organisations (called intermediaries) involved in making the product
available for consumption [1]. Merchants are intermediaries that buy and resell
products. Agents and brokers are intermediaries that act on behalf of the producer
but do not take title to the products.

Channel Design

A firm can design any number of channels. Channels are classified by the number
of intermediaries between producer and consumer . A level zero channel has no
intermediaries. This is typical of direct marketing. A level one channel has a single
intermediary. This flow is typically from manufacturer to retailer to consumer.

Distribution Types

Intensive distribution means the producer's products are stocked in the majority
of outlets. This strategy is common for basic supplies, snack foods, magazines and
soft drink beverages.

Selective distribution means that the producer relies on a few intermediaries to
carry their product This strategy is commonly observed for more specialised goods
that are carried through specialist dealers, for example, brands of craft tools, or
large appliances.

Exclusive distribution means that the producer selects only very few
intermediaries Exclusive distribution is often characterised by exclusive dealing
where the reseller carries only that producer's products to the exclusion of all
others. This strategy is typical of luxury goods retailers such as Gucci.

Channel Mix

In practice, many organisations use a mix of different channels; in particular, they
may complement a direct sales-force, calling on the larger accounts, with agents,
covering the smaller customers and prospects. In addition, online retailing or e-
commerce is leading to disintermediation. Retailing via smartphone or m-
commerce is also a growing area.

Managing Channels

The firm's marketing department needs to design the most suitable channels for the
firm's products, then select appropriate channel members or intermediaries. The
firm needs to train staff of intermediaries and motivate the intermediary to sell the

firm's products. The firm should monitor the channel's performance over time and
modify the channel to enhance performance.

Channel Motivation

To motivate intermediaries the firm can use positive actions, such as offering
higher margins to the intermediary, special deals, premiums and allowances for
advertising or display. [1] On the other hand, negative actions may be necessary,
such as threatening to cut back on margin, or hold back delivery of product.

Channel Conflict

Channel conflict can arise when one intermediary's actions prevent another
intermediary from achieving their objectives.[1] Vertical channel conflict occurs
between the levels within a channel and horizontal channel conflict occurs between
intermediaries at the same level within a channel.


Place refers to the distribution channel of product software. Typically this consists
of either Direct or Indirect distribution. Direct Distribution refers to a customer
having a direct relationship with the producer of the software, with no
intermediaries. Direct product is most often delivered in an intangible digital form
that can be downloaded off the internet such as Adobe Acrobat 7.0 from Indirect Distribution comes in several forms: specialized software
resellers, shrink-wrapped     product   located      in   a store or   value   added
resellers (VARs) who combine software with another service. The end user
customer may have the license or the intermediary may be the licensee in this
structure. Typically, producers offer intermediaries a substantial discount for

volume purchases, which makes the transaction more cost effective for an
individual consumer.


The following points were observed by me during my tenure as an intern in

    Direct distribution is widely followed as I was a sales representative and
      used to directly visit the real estate developers.

    Databases largely constituted of developer’s private offices

    The selling of software directly took place between the firm and the builders.

    There is no scope for any middlemen to enter the distribution process


The following data was collected by me during my tenure with QUOSPHERE with
respect to the product KONDURA. It must be noted that the data so collected was
for the internal data of the company and the figures given below can be


    Total No. of Meetings/Visits:- 68
    No. of leads: - 22

               Builders interested in the software   Builders not interested in the software




The builders were interested in the software for the following reasons:

    The product gave them value addition.
    The product satisfied their needs.
    They were satisfied with the pricing.

The builders were not interested in the software for the following reasons:

    They were using another product.
    They were not in the need of the product.
    The pricing did not suit them.


The above cited analysis of the data cannot be quantified because it was an
observational data that was gathered by me during my visits to the builders.


The findings with respect to 4P’s can be deciphered as below:


   The product plays a very vital role in the software industry (automated
   Many big players in the market (Dudhwala Builders) were very concerned
     with the look of the product.
   It was of great interest to these real estate players that how much the product
     (KONDURA) benefits them.
   Most players were looking for customization.


   Price is by far the most important P in the mix.
   Price of the product was the driving force towards the purchasing of the
   Most real estate players are price sensitive.
   They look for value of their money.


   Promotion of a software and the software company as a brand is essential as
     most builders were brand conscious and brand aware.
   The real estate developers were interested about the profile of the
   Promotion of a software through various channels benefit the software
     company to a large extent.


    Direct distribution channel is widely used by software companies.
    Both real estate developers and the software companies do not prefer
      middlemen in the distribution process as it complicates the process

                 Builders affected by Product mix     Builders affected by Price mix
                 Builders affected by promotion mix   Builders affected by place mix

                             21%                                    32%



The above mentioned data is based on observations and cannot be verified.


        This project has helped me understand the role of marketing mix (4 P’s) in
the software industry which serves the real estate sector. From this project a
conclusion can be drawn that IF FINANCE IS THE LIFEBLOOD OF ANY
SENSES OF AN ORGANIZATION. Marketing helps the organization to see,
hear, feel, analyze and conclude that what are the possibilities are where it should

              I have also understood that real estate is a booming sector in India and
sooner or later the need for automation will become a necessity and in the coming
future new horizons will open up for these software companies as Automation is
considered as the next big evolution.

              As to make a good coffee a perfect mix of the ingredients is
necessary, in the similar way a perfect mix of the 4 P’s is necessary to make a good
software company.


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