0 slave trade by wfFNlc0


    What do YOU know about the Trans-Atlantic
     Slave Trade?

    Essential Question:
    What effect did
    slavery have on
    the development of
    African countries?
            Goree Island

The Door of No Return
"Take up the White Man's Burden-
  Send forth the best ye breed-
   Go blind your sons to exile
 To serve your captives' need..."
    -Joseph Rudyard Kipling
Portuguese Traders
   Age of Exploration
   Europeans were in search of a new route to
   Arrived in the 1400s for gold, cotton, and
   By the 1650s, the slave trade was the most
    lucrative enterprise
   Common in ancient China, Mesopotamia,
    Greece, and Rome
   Arabs, Egyptians, and Kushites all held slaves
   Slave caravans were a common sight in East
    Africa and the Sahara
   NO TRADE in slaves was more extensive or
    more brutal than the TRANS-ATLANTIC
    trade that took place between 1600-1800s.
Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade
    Estimated range
     between 10-20        4,000,000
     million Africans     3,500,000
     were transported                 Brazil
                          2,500,000   Caribbean
     during this period
                          2,000,000   Spanish colonies
                          1,500,000   US and Canada
                          1,000,000   Europe
   Portuguese traders bought slaves in Benin and
    the Niger delta to sell elsewhere.
   Slaves were needed for sugar plantations in
    Latin America and Caribbean at first, then
    others were used in North America
How were the slaves obtained?

    Traders organized and operated their own
     slave raids.
    Traders bought slaves from African kings and
        Some were prisoners of wars between tribes
        Some tribes raided other groups’ villages in order
         to capture slaves to sell
        Some sold their own family members or
Triangular Trade
   Europeans brought goods (usually guns and
    trinkets) to Africa in exchange for slaves
   Slaves were brought to plantations in S.
    America, Caribbean, and U.S.
   Sugar, rum, tobacco, and molasses were
    shipped to Europe to trade for manufactured
 Triangular Trade

 The order of trade
  during the slave trade
 First Leg- Goods from
  Europe to African kings
  for slaves
 Second- Export of
  slaves to western hemisphere
 Third- Return of goods
  from Americas to Europe
The slave trade took
several triangular
routes. Over one
route, ships from
Europe transported
manufactured goods to
the west coast of
Africa. There,
traders exchanged
the goods for slaves.
Next, the slaves were
carried across the
Atlantic Ocean to the
West Indies and sold
for huge profits. This
part of the route was
called the Middle
Passage. The traders
used much of their            The Middle Passage
earnings to buy sugar,
coffee, and tobacco in
the West Indies. The
ships then took these
products to Europe.
                         The Middle Passage
    Trans-Atlantic Exports By Region

   Region             Number of slaves
                        accounted for     %

   Senegambia             479,900        4.7
   Upper Guinea           411,200         4.0
   Windward Coast          183,200        1.8
   Gold Coast              1,035,600      10.1
   Blight of Benin          2,016,200      19.7
   Blight of Biafra          1,463,700      14.3
   West Central             4,179,500      40.8
   South East              470,900        4.6

   Total                   10,240,200    100.0
Trans-Atlantic Imports By Region
   Region                             Number of slaves
                                        accounted for      %

   Brazil                                  4,000,000     35.4
   Spanish Empire                          2,500,000     22.1
   British West Indies                      2,000,000    17.7
   French West Indies                      1,600,000     14.1
   British North America and United States 500,000        4.4
   Dutch West Indies                        500,000       4.4
   Danish West Indies                      28,000         0.2
   Europe (and Islands)                    200,000        1.8

   Total11,328,000100.0
        The Experience
Reflection Questions
   How did you feel physically?
   How did you feel emotionally?
   How do you think the slaves felt on the
    voyage, both physically and emotionally?
   Any comments?
Treatment of Slaves
   1-3 month voyage
   Women, men, children were packed together
    below deck
   Crammed into an 18-inch space
   Shackled together
   Rat-infested
   Many died in vomit and human waste
Slave Ships
   Slave ships—inside
    and out
   Slaves being
    put in the
    ship’s hold
   Diagrams of
    slave ships
What ended the slave trade?
     Opposition based on moral and ethical
     Industrial Revolution manufactured products
      was more profitable than human trade
   Those who profited from the trade fought to keep it
   King Glele of Dahomey stated that slave trading was
    the custom of his ancestors and to eliminate it would
    bring disaster upon his people
   Denmark was the first to abolish slave trade in 1782
   Britain followed in 1807
   US abolished slave trade in 1808 (but not slavery)
   Due to lack of enforcement, the slave trade
    still existed until the abolishment of slavery
       1833-Great Britain
       1848—France
       1863—The Netherlands
       1865—United States
       1889—Brazil and Cuba
       Present day—Sudan and Mauritania
Advantages and Disadvantages of
        the Slave Trade
  African Advantages      European Advantages

 African Disadvantages   European Disadvantages
   Each person has a different reading.
       Excerpts from letters from the King of Kongo
       Excerpt from a European account
       Excerpt from a slave account
   Each person should read his/her information aloud to
    the group.
   Group members should fill in the chart with
    information from the reading.
         African Advantages
   Slavery provided profit for a few African
    traders, which did nothing for Africa’s overall
   In times of famine, some Africans avoided
    starvation by selling themselves into slavery.
       European Advantages
   Slavery was profitable
   Slavery was a bountiful source of cheap labor
    to help run plantations
   Slavery helped build a capital base which
    helped start the Industrial Revolution
        African Disadvantages
   Slavery tore apart communities and families
   Slavery depopulated the labor base
   Slavery hindered African economic development
   Enslaved Africans were transported in brutal
    conditions and many died
   Enslaved Africans were treated as goods and
    “Faith became lost in the greed.” by Dr. Reinhardt
       African Disadvantages
   Africans received only trinkets and guns as
    part of the triangular trade
   Some Africans began to want European
    merchandise and would sell other Africans
    into slavery to obtain these items
   The enslaved Africans were beaten, branded
    with irons, and given very little food and/or
        European Disadvantages
   Slavery was morally repugnant
   Slavery compromised the efforts of Christian
   What were some of the reasons Europeans
    sought to enslave Africans?
   What were some of the reasons why Africans
    sold fellow Africans into slavery?
   How were enslaved Africans treated by the
    traders and their masters?
   How long did the slave trade last?
   Why did the European countries gradually
    abolish the slave trade and eventually slavery?
   What were the overall effects of slavery on
    the development of Africa? On Europe?
Performance Task
   Create a PowerPoint explaining the
    causes/effects of the slave trade.
   Write an illustrated journal of an African King
    during the height of the slave trade.
   Compose a song or poem describing the
    capture and voyage of an African slave.
   Graphics enhance the explanation (20)
   Creatively explains causes and effects (30)
   Vocabulary is used properly (10)
   Correct spelling, grammar, and punctuation
   At least 5 slides (20 points)
   Fully explains the slave trade (10)
Journal of African King
   Appropriate journal format with dates (20)
   Accurate historical facts (30)
   Vocabulary is used properly (10)
   Correct spelling, grammar, and punctuation
   At least 5 full entries (20 points)
   Creativity (10)
Song or Poem
   Social studies related lyrics or words (20)
   Creatively and accurately describes historical
    events (30)
   Vocabulary is used properly (10)
   Correct spelling, grammar, and punctuation
   At least 3 verses (20 points)
   Rhyme and rhythm (10)

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