Search for the Electron Electric Dipole Moment Using PbO by VdQibx5i

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									Fundamental physics with diatomic molecules:
     from particle physics to quantum computation....!

• electron electric dipole moment search (CP, “new” physics)
• sources of ultracold molecules for wide range of
applications:
       --large-scale quantum computation
       --time variation of fundamental “constants”
       --etc.
• parity violation: Z0 couplings & nuclear anapole moments
                             D. DeMille
                           Yale University
                         Physics Department
               Funding: NSF, Keck Foundation, ARO, DOE
(Packard Foundation, Sloan Foundation, Research Corporation, CRDF, NIST)
           Structure of molecules 0:



“A diatomic molecule has one atom too many.”
              --Art Schawlow
        (and most atomic physicists)



              ....or maybe not?

 “new” internal degrees of freedom in molecules
            useable as a resource…?
         Structure of molecules I: electronic states
                                                     States of
                           Electron                 separated
                            clouds                    atoms
                          “merge” in
                           potential
                             well                       S+P
Energy




                  Ve(R)


                                                       S+S


              Vg(R)


                          Internuclear distance R
         Structure of molecules II: vibration




                                                V(R)
Energy




                  Internuclear distance R
     Structure of molecules III: rotation
                               •     Angular
Moment of intertia             •    momentum
                               •
   I = MR2;                            J/

Angular momentum
                                        3-
     J = n;




                     Energy
Energy of rotation
    E = J2/2I

                                            2+
        R
                                            1-
                                            0+
                    Molecular electric dipoles
                    Wavefunctions of polar molecules
                                With E-field:                  polarized
  No E-field: no dipole!                                   molecules act like
                               induced dipole
                                                           permanent dipoles
J = 1, mJ = 0                z, E
   “=“ |p>
                +                       ++
                                                  |>                 -
                                    +        +
                                                 |s>+|p>
                -                                                     +

                +
                                                                      +
   J=0      +        +              +        +    |> 
  “=“ |s>                                        |s>-|p>
                +                       ++                             -

 Small splitting (~10-4 eV) between states of opposite parity (rotation)
           leads to large polarizability (vs. atoms, ~ few eV)
                                                                    Purcell
 A permanent EDM Violates T and P                                   Ramsey
                                                                    Landau
                                                                    
H Magnetic dipole     B  -  B   H Electric dipole  - d  E  - d  E

                                  d     S


                          P                      T




          CPT theorem  T-violation = CP-violation
Q. How does an electron EDM arise?
 A. From cloud of accompanying “virtual” particles


             Standard Model
              Supersymmetry
                          
                          
                     t
                 W d
          ~
          e      t s              ~
                                  e
         W                         W
                              b
e e                      
                         ~                ee
 Searching for new physics with the electron EDM
                    Berkeley    Yale I
                               Yale I     Yale II
                             (projected)
                     (2002) (projected) (projected)

                                  Multi-
                                  Multi -
                                  Higgs
                                  Higgs

                         Left- Right                 Extended
                         Left -Right                 Extended
                                                    Technicolor
                         Symmetric
                         Symmetric                  Technicolor                                                             Standard
                                                                                                                            Standard
                                                                                                                             Model
                         Lepton Flavor-                         Alignment                                                    Model
                         Lepton Flavor -
                           Changing                             Alignment
                           Changing

                                   Split SUSY
                                   Split SUSY

                                 SO(10) GUT
                                 SO(10) GUT

                                                           Seesaw Neutrino Yukawa Couplings
                                                           Seesaw Neutrino Yukawa Couplings

                          Accidental          Approx.       Approx.                                                          Exact
                          Accidental          Approx.       Approx.                                                          Exact
                                                                                                                           Universality
                         Cancellations          CP         Universality                                                    Universality
                         Cancellations          CP         Universality
                                           Heavy



                                                                                                                          ~~
           Naï ve SUSY                     Heavy
           Na ï ve SUSY                  sFermions
                                         sFermions

     -25           -26           -27          -28         -29           -30        -31        -32        -33        -34         -39        -40
10            10            10           10          10            10         10         10         10         10          10         10
                                                                         de (e cm)
                                                                              ×
        General method to detect an EDM

                                  +2dE
                                        -2dE
                                          B E




                  Energy level picture:
                                                         S

                               +2dE
                                     -2dE
                                                                         

Figure of    shift                dE
                                                     E  coh  N  Tint
                         1/  coh  S / N 
                                                1
 merit:   resolution
Amplifying the electric field E with a polar molecule


           Pb+                 Eext    Electrical polarization
                                            of molecule
                                     subjects valence electrons
                                       to huge internal field
                        Eint              Eint > 1010 V/cm
                                    with modest polarizing field
            O–                            Eext ~ 10 V/cm


Explicit calculations indicate valence electron feels
 Eint ~ 2Z3 e/a02 ~ 2.1 - 4.0  1010 V/cm in PbO*
        semiempirical: M. Kozlov & D.D., PRL 89, 133001 (2002);
ab initio: Petrov, Titov, Isaev, Mosyagin, D.D., PRA 72, 022505 (2005).
Spin alignment & molecular polarization in PbO (no EDM)


           n   -                                        n   -
                              S
               +              +         -                   +
                                  -
                              -Brf  z+
a(1)    J=1-
[3+]   J=1+
                   m = -1 S       m=0        m = +1 S   B E
                              -         +
                               +||-z
                              + 
           n   +                                        n   +

               -                                            -
                                            X, J=0+
EDM measurement
    in PbO*


                Sn   -   Sn   -

                     +        +

    “Internal
co-magnetometer”:
 most systematics
 cancel in up/down       B E
    comparison!


                Sn   +   Sn   +

                     -        -
     The central dogma
of physics (c.f. S. Freedman)


Theorist :: Experimentalist :: Fact
                
                
 Farmer ::      Pig   :: Truffle
PbO vapor cell and oven

                            Sapphire
                            windows
                       bonded to ceramic
                        frame with gold
                           foil “glue”

                          Gold foil
                       electrodes and
                       “feedthroughs”




         quartz oven body
          800 C capability
         wide optical access
       w/non-inductive heater
         for fast switching
         Present Experimental Setup (top view)

                                                       Larmor
                                                       Precession
                                                        ~ 100 kHz
                        PMT         E      B


                          solid                  Vacuum chamber
                          quartz
                          light                 quartz oven structure
                          pipes PbO
           Data                          Pulsed Laser Beam
         Processing              vapor
                                  cell   5-40 mJ @ 100 Hz
                                          ~ 1 GHz
                                         B
Signal




                        Vapor cell technology allows high count rate
            Frequency
                               (but reduced coherence time)
        Zeeman quantum beats in PbO




Excellent fit to Monte Carlo w/PbO motion, known lifetime
     Shot noise-limited S/N in frequency extraction
          (Laser-induced spin alignment only here)
        Current status: a proof of principle
              [D. Kawall et al., PRL 92, 133007 (2004)]

              •PbO vapor cell technology in place
•Collisional cross-sections as expected anticipated density OK
      •Signal sizes large, consistent with expectation;
improvements under way should reach target count rate: 1011/s.
          •Shot-noise limited frequency measurement
             using quantum beats in fluorescence
         •g-factors of -doublet states match precisely
           co-magnetometer will be very effective
 •E-fields of required size applied in cell; no apparent problems

        First useful EDM data ~early 2006;
       de ~ 310-29 ecm within ~2 years...?
       Applications of ultracold polar molecules
• Precision measurements/symmetry tests: narrow lines improve sensitivity
  & molecular structure enhances effects (small energy splittings)
   Time-reversal violating electric dipole moments (103 vs. atoms)
   Parity violation: properties of Z0 boson & nuclear anapole moments (1011 !!)
   New tests of time-variation of fundamental constants? (103 vs. atoms)

• Coherent/quantum molecular dynamics
   Novel collisional phenomena (e.g. ultra-long range dimers)
   ultracold chemical reactions (e.g. tunneling through reaction barriers)

• Electrically polarized molecules have tunable interactions
  that are extremely strong, long-range, and anisotropic--a new regime
   Models of strongly-correlated systems (quantum Hall effect, etc.)
   Finite temperature quantum phase transitions
   New, exotic quantum phases (supersolid, checkerboard, etc.)
   novel BCS pairing mechanisms (models for exotic superconductivity)
   Large-scale quantum computation      D. DeMille, Phys. Rev. Lett 88, 067901 (2002)
Quantum computation with ultracold polar molecules

                                    E-field due to each                          Weak
    Strong                           dipole influences                           E-field
                                                                   +V
    E-field                            its neighbors




      Standing-wave trap
      laser beam                                                                -V

• bits = electric dipole moments of polarized diatomic molecules
• register = regular array of bits in “optical lattice” trap (weak trap low temp needed!)
• processor = rf resonance w/spectroscopic addressing (robust, like NMR)
• interaction = electric dipole-dipole (CNOT gate speed ~ 1-100 kHz)
• decoherence = scattering from trap laser (T ~ 5 s  Nop ~ 104-106 !)
• readout = laser ionization or cycling fluorescence + imaging (fairly standard)
• scaling up? (104- 107 bits looks reasonable: one/site via Mott insulator transition)
     CNOT requires bit-bit interactions

                        With interaction H' = aSaSb
           Without interactions
|1>a|1>b                                Desired:
|0>a|1>b                             a flips if b=1
|1>a|0>b
                                     Undesired:
|0>a|0>b                            a flips if b=0


        Size of interaction term “a”
     determines maximum gate speed:
                -1 ~  ~ a
                Quantum computation
             with trapped polar molecules
• Quantum computer based on ultracold polar molecules
  in an optical lattice trap can plausibly reach
  >104 bits and >104 operations in ~5 s decoherence time

• Based heavily on existing work & likely progress:
  Main requirement is sample of ultracold (T  10 K) polar molecules
  with phase space density ~10-3

• Anticipated performance is above
  some very significant technological thresholds:

            Nop > 104  robust error correction OK?
                        Crude scaling 
        300 bits, 104 ops/s  teraflop classical computer
  Cold molecules from cold atoms: photoassociation


                                                      •very weak free-bound (but
                            |Ye(R)|2                  excited) transition driven by laser
                                                      for long times (trapped atoms)
energy




                                           S+P        • electronically excited molecules
                                                      decay to hot free atoms
                                                      or to ground-state molecules
                                         laser
                       Ve(R)                          • Production of polar molecules
                                                      requires assembly from
                                         |Yf(R)|2     two different atomic species

                                                      • molecules can be formed in
         |Yg(R)|2                                     single rotational state, at
                                                      translational temperature of atoms
                                                 EK   (100 K routine, 1 K possible)
                                         S+S          BUT molecules are formed in
                                                      range of high vibrational states

            Vg(R)

               Internuclear distance R
      MOT trap loss photoassociation spectra
                             RbCs* and Cs2* formation (Ω = 0)




                                    RbCs



•up to 70% depletion of trap for RbCs  near 100% atom-molecule conversion
•spectroscopically selective production of individual low-J rotational states


             A.J. Kerman et al., Phys Rev. Lett. 92, 033004 (2004)
         Verification of polar molecules:
                behavior in E-field




Fitted electric dipole moment for this (=0+) state:  = 1.3 Debye
Detection of vibrationally excited RbCs
                                     Cs,Rb    channeltron
                       electrode                   -2 kV
                         +2 kV

                       670-745 nm            532 nm
                         0.5 mJ               5 mJ
                                         10 ns
                              time
Vibrationally excited RbCs @T = 100 K


                              PA
                                                delay

                                           decay time
                                         consistent with
                                       translational temp.
                                           T ~ 100 K
                                          as expected
                                      from atomic temps.

                   Decay due to ballistic
                 flight of RbCs molecules
                     from ~2 mm diam.
                      detection region
 Cold molecules from cold atoms: stopping the vibration
                                                      •free-bound (but excited)
                                                      transition driven by laser
                                                      •excited molecules can decay to
                            |Ye(R)|2                  molecular ground state
energy




                                           S+P        • molecules can be formed in
                                                      single rotational state, at
                                                      translational temperature of atoms
                                         laser        (100 K routine, 1 K possible)
                       Ve(R)
                                                      BUT molecules are formed in
                                                      range of high vibrational states
                                         |Yf(R)|2
                                                      •High vibrational states are
                                                      UNSTABLE to collisions and have
         |Yg(R)|2                                     NEGLIGIBLE POLARITY
                                                      need vibrational ground state!
                                                 EK
                                         S+S          • Laser pulses should be able to
                                                      transfer one excited state to
                                                      vibrational ground state:
            Vg(R)
                                                      TRULY ultracold molecules
               Internuclear distance R                (translation, rotation, vibration)
          Production of absolute ground state molecules




                 Epump= 9786.1 cm-1


Edump =
13622.0
 cm-1

                                      •Raman transfer verified on
                                      ~6 separate transitions
           v=0                        •Estimated efficiency ~8%, limited by
3.5          5.5     R [Å]    7.5      poor pulsed laser spectral profiles
      Coming next: “distilled” sample of polar, absolute
               ground-state RbCs molecules

                  Lattice                        Dipole
                                                               Anticipated:
Photoassociation CO2                              CO2
                                                               pure, trapped
  in optical trap  Trap        v = 0, J = 0       Trap
                                                                  sample
      allows                  polar molecules                   of >3104
   accumulation                  levitated                      RbCs(v=0)
 of vibrationally             by electrostatic                 @n>1011/cm3
excited molecules                potential                       T  15 K




                                          +V              -V



    STIRAP
                                                          other species
    transfer
                                                              (atoms,
   to X(v=0)
                                                        excited molecules)
 w/transform-
                                                          fall from trap
 limited lasers
                                                 Gravity
  Status & Outlook: ultracold polar molecules

• Optical production of ultracold polar molecules now in hand!
  [J.Sage et al., PRL 94, 203001 (2005)]
  T ~ 100 K now, but obvious route to lower temperatures
• Formation rates of up to ~107 mol/s/level in high vibrational states
  AND
  efficient transfer to v=0 ground state (~5% observed, 100% possible)
   Large samples of stable, ultracold polar molecules in reach
• molecule trapping (CO2 lattice/FORT),
  collisions & manipulation (E-fields, rotational transitions, etc.)
  are next
• Ultracold polar molecules are set to open new frontiers in
  many-body physics, precision measurements, & chemical physics
                                                         Ph.D. Students
                                                         S. Sainis, J. Sage, (F.
             DeMille Group                                   Bay), Y. Jiang,
                                                               J. Petricka,
                                                              S. Bickman,
                                                         D. Rahmlow,         N.
                                                                  Gilfoy,
                                                          D. Glenn, A. Vutha,
                                                             D. Murphree,
                                                              P. Hamilton
                                                           Undergrads
                                                             (J. Thompson,
                                                              M. Nicholas,
                                                         D. Farkas, J. Waks,
                                                            J. Brittingham,
                                                        Y. Gurevich, Y. Huh,
                                                       A. Garvan, C. Cheung,
                                                         C. Yerino, D. Price)
                Collaborators
(L. Hunter [Amherst]), A. Titov, M. Kozlov [PNPI],     Postdocs/Staff:
  T. Bergeman [Stony Brook], E. Tiesinga [NIST],        S. Cahn, (V. Prasad,
      R. Paolino [USCGA], J. Doyle [Harvard]         D. Kawall, A. J. Kerman)

								
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