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Supervisory Skills 101 by 8P6711R


									Supervisory Skills 101
Most managers would say that good employee supervision is about results. But will
supervisors who demand immediate and unquestioning compliance with their orders
always obtain the best results? Whether or not you have the official title of "supervisor,"
if you are in a position that requires you to direct the activity of others, a periodic review
of your supervisory skills may bring you better results.

Supervision is about building working relationships with employees. Building a trusting
relationship takes time. But when supervisor and employee trust one another, both of
their thoughts and efforts can be applied to each situation. The likelihood of time-wasting
conflicts is reduced. The supervisor needs to be able to trust the employee to get assigned
tasks done in a satisfactorily manner. The employee needs to be able to trust the
supervisor to support and compensate him fairly. Employees have high expectations for
leadership in the workplace. They want to be treated with dignity and respect. A strong
working relationship builds the necessary commitment to get the work done.

One of the most challenging aspects of supervision is evaluation of employee
performance. Evaluations should be much more in-depth than a simple judgment by a
supervisor about an employee's performance. Evaluations can be a tool to improve
performance by establishing goals for and recognizing outstanding performance.
Conducting formal evaluations of employees on a routine basis ensures that there is
adequate communication between employer and employee. Constructive feedback is a
powerful tool to reinforce desired behavior because everyone likes to receive positive
feedback on work well done.

Good supervisors provide training and development for their employees and are glad to
make the investment in refining employee skills. This can benefit the employer by
retaining employees and meeting future business needs. Many employees want to have
the opportunity to take on new responsibilities and grow with an organization. Providing
training and development opportunities will enable them to do this. They will be less
likely to look elsewhere for work if they are satisfied with the work and future
possibilities. For instance, the work nearly everyone does now involves some interface
with technology. If an organization has kept technology current and has provided training
for employees in using that technology successfully, employees will be more likely to

More and more supervisors are relying on coaching skills for self-directed employees as
opposed to directing employees to perform certain tasks. With all of the demands that fall
to today's managers, delegating work and supporting employees with coaching is a better

Often, a supervisor's work includes resolving conflicts and managing diversity. Conflict
resolution is a critical skill for those who wish to get work accomplished through others.
Maintaining a safe workplace is another primary supervisory responsibility. Setting high
standards for safety communicates to employees that they are important and valued at the
same time it encourages employees to do their part in maintaining a safe work

Concern for regulatory compliance has grown in importance for many employers. For
instance, environmental regulations require the safe disposal of hazardous materials.
Responsible supervisors will ensure their employees are trained on safe handling and
disposal of hazardous waste.

Sharpening your supervisory skills is one of the most effective investments you can make
in your company. It will result in better performance, greater employee satisfaction, a
safer and healthier environment, a positive workplace and, ultimately, an improvement to
the bottom line.

Supervisors are the key link in any organization between upper management and lower-
level employees. Their unique role in the organization's success cannot be overlooked;
supervisors have a large influence on employee behavior, efforts and performance
through the use of effective supervisory skills. New supervisors are held accountable for
positively affecting the growth and development of a company while improving the
bottom line.


   1. Effective supervisors must gain the trust and respect of their workforce by
      displaying the following supervisory skills: leadership, delegation, time
      management, problem-solving skills, sound decision making, desire to train and
      develop employees, effective communication, ability to motivate workforce
      toward desired goals, performance evaluations, knowledge of legal
      responsibilities, and strong values and beliefs.

   2. Effective supervisory skills, when used properly, increase employee productivity,
      result in a higher frequency of goal achievement, lessen workplace stress and
      increase employee morale. Building working relationships with all employees is
      the first step in becoming an effective supervisor; the commitment, trust, support
      and effects of this working relationship can only improve with the correct use of
      supervisory skills.


   3. Leadership is a widely used, broad term that reflects a unique, complex skill set
      that is crucial in any supervisory or managerial position. Leadership is more than
      just motivating a workforce; leadership is leading by example, using power to
      empower others, making informed decisions with others in mind, having strong
     values and beliefs, understanding legal responsibilities and ramifications, and the
     ability and desire to train and develop employees. A true leader shows employees
     firsthand how to manage their time, solve problems, and communicate effectively,
     and demonstrates how to work and live by values and beliefs rather than just
     talking about it. An effective supervisor should use his authority to empower
     employees and give them their own sense of responsibility and accountability
     coupled with recognition and rewards. Lastly, leadership is earned through the
     true desire to train, develop and provide employees with the necessary tools to
     continue to improve and achieve success in the workplace.

  4. Without the skill and ability of motivating a workforce, supervisors have an
     impossible time improving the bottom line. One of the easiest ways to increase
     motivation is by using performance evaluations. Employee evaluations not only
     improve performance and increase motivation by setting goals and rewarding
     performance, but--if done properly--evaluations also improve communication
     between the supervisor and her employees. These improved lines of
     communication go a long way in gaining the trust and respect of the workforce as
     well as building successful working relationships.

  5. Supervisors need to be aware of what not to do just as much as what skills are
     needed and helpful. The following actions and skills should be avoided for all
     supervisory positions: reprimanding employees around other employees, not
     delegating power, providing mediocre or no feedback at all, siding with certain
     employees, and being distant with employees.



  1. A supervisor is team leader, coach, overseer, area manager or facilitator in a
     company or a department of a company they work for. The job of the supervisor
     is to properly instruct the employee on how to perform their work duties. When
     employees' productivity is down, the supervisor will be held accountable by their

     Time Management
  2. The supervisor is responsible for assuring that the employees are using their paid
     work time to do company work. Companies do not like to waste money, and
     wasting time is wasting money. Therefore, the supervisor must monitor the
       employee occasionally, and ensure they are using their time effectively.
       Productivity is what the company pays for, and if an employee is surfing the
       Internet, or taking personal calls all day, they are not using their work time to be

       Controlling The Working Environment
   3. When problems arise with workers, an effective supervisor will rectify the
      situation immediately. When co-workers are in an intense environment, they tend
      not to work well. The supervisor will need to use her skills to come to some type
      of resolution that will not keep productivity of their department down. If a
      supervisor does not have the skills to ease tension, this is can cause higher
      management to question their supervising skills.

       Delegate Tasks
   4. An effective supervisor will delegate jobs and use their authority ethically.
      Everyone knows that the supervisor in their department is their boss, so the
      supervisor does not have to broadcast this daily. If an employee slacks on the job,
      this will be an instance when the supervisor will have to use his authority in a
      positive way, to get the employee to perform, and to perform well. Also, the
      supervisor will know which employees can handle what task, and appropriately
      delegate their tasks if they become overwhelming.

       Motivational Skills
   5. An effective supervisor has good motivational skills. Employees often need to be
      motivated to perform well on the job, especially when they are handed a task they
      believe they will not succeed with. An effective supervisor will boost up their
      confidence, and tell them they can do the task with no problem. Motivation skills
      are also necessary for the supervisor in cases when an employee is facing
      hardships, death, or other personal issues outside of work. The supervisor should
      motivate the employee to continue to work as they have been working, letting
      them know that things will get better with time and patience.


Supervisory skills
Because so many companies have historically relied on the trial-and-error method in this
industry to develop effective supervisory skills, supervisors have made mistakes because
they didn't know any better or simply lacked the training to make better choices. Some of
these supervisors learned from their experiences, improving their leadership skills, while
others continued to struggle.
By examining both successful and unsuccessful supervisors, certain precedents have been
set. Knowing and adopting commonalities or best practices of effective supervisors
provide a more productive work environment, higher morale, less stress, safer work
habits, and a better advancement opportunity for supervisors. Additionally, knowing and
learning from the mistakes of unsuccessful supervisors can assist managers in
overcoming obstacles. Following is a list of the top 10 mistakes most new supervisors

   1. Seizing power and attempting to hold onto it.
   2. Failing to solicit feedback.
   3. Delegating without authorizing.
   4. Reprimanding employees in the presence of others.
   5. Supervising everyone the same way.
   6. Keeping the interesting work for themselves.
   7. Siding with team members.
   8. Distancing themselves from those they supervise.
   9. Promoting an “us-vs.-them” attitude.
   10. Engaging in illegal behaviors.

Identifying mistakes before they happen and knowing competencies of other successful
supervisors will allow for an easier transition into the new supervisor role. With illegal
behavior rounding out the top 10 list, it's especially important to examine the
ramifications of such actions.

Legal issues
Supervisors who are not familiar with legal issues may unknowingly break the law. For
example, working in an environment with a collective bargaining agreement will only
give them guidelines that have been negotiated between the employer and the employee's


                Being a Fine Boss: Traits of a Good Supervisor

Supervisors have a tough job. They are stuck between the work force they are meant to
lead and the superiors above them calling the shots.

It gets even more difficult if they aren’t cut out for the role; some are under-qualified,
others lack the character necessary for the job and still others can’t seem to be more than
a grey blip on a grey screen. Said flatly, they lack the traits of a good supervisor.

Good supervisors aren’t so easy to find. But you know for sure when you’ve found one.
Their qualities are clear simply by comparison. There are two main sets of skills that
indicate the traits of a good supervisor:
      Skilled Traits
      Character Traits

Skilled Traits

The skilled traits of a good supervisor are defined by how the supervisor approaches the
job itself.

A good supervisor is first and foremost knowledgeable about his job—about the work his
charges are meant to accomplish.

But the supervisor doesn’t merely command or preach with this knowledge, he teaches,
and, at times, counsels as well.

He initiates with a can-do attitude. He sets the tone of the work place and the staff. He
sets the pace for the work and the direction towards that goal.

Character Traits

The character traits of a good supervisor have a slightly different focus.

These have more to do with how supervisors care about their people. Thus,
compassionate qualities are an important part of the character traits of a good supervisor.

Supervisors need to be loyal and honest. They need to care about their employees on both
a personal and professional level.

Employees can trust loyal and honest supervisors—especially when it’s time to go to bat
for them. Moreover, honesty and loyalty are key components to a healthy culture in the

Fairness and empathy are also key character traits of a good supervisor.

When either office politics or personal emergencies rise up, employees need to find their
supervisor understanding and empathetic, not hostile or distrustful.

But it has to be genuine. Fraudulent empathy is transparent and neither helpful nor
becoming of a good supervisor. Good Supervisors are genuine themselves, and that
naturally transposes to those around them.

Honing Your Traits

The traits of a good supervisor are both naturally resident and consciously honed.

The traits of a good supervisor manifest in two main ways: through the work itself, and
through the people at the work place.
Leaders are knowledgeable about both their own job and the jobs of those the lead; they
also know how to treat the people around them because they genuinely care for them.

By tapping into these skills a supervisor can improve their role in the office and upper
management can find more suitable people in the first place.

                          Make the Journey Worthwhile

Do you ever worry that you do not have what it takes to be a good supervisor? If you
focus on becoming a better you, then you can acquire the supervisory skills that will give
you a career edge and help reach your goals. You are responsible for your own success
and ultimately the success of your team, so make the journey worthwhile.

Improving your supervisory skills involves a plan of learning and doing, reacting and
progressing - a leadership journey that can inspire your team by example. Try and
implement these positive steps into your supervisory skills and enjoy the benefits during
and afterward.

Create a positive learning environment.

Focus on your people rather than the tasks at hand and find out what makes them tick.
Provide people the opportunity to receive the training they need and you'll find better
supervisory skills in a better environment.

Sometimes creating a positive learning environment can be as simple as keeping offices
at a comfortable temperature, having a water cooler or coffee machine, or letting your
staff decorate their own space. Explore different avenues and implement solutions based
on the needs of your team.

Allow people to make mistakes.

This step is imperative to challenging your supervisory skills to grow, but is often the
biggest hurdle to allow yourself to make. Mistakes can be seen as either obstacles or
opportunities. The decision is up to you on which approach you might take. If you use
these situations wisely you can instill confidence in your employees. Give them a vehicle
to improve and help them not to make the same mistake twice.

By giving employees support when they make mistakes you will build their trust in you.
They will learn that you have their best interest at heart, which can improve employee
morale and increase productivity.

People will naturally work harder for someone who encourages them. When mistakes are
made help your employees provide a solution. This can result in a bond that will not soon
be broken.
Evaluate what increases or decreases performance.

At the end of every week evaluate when performance was great and when performance
was poor. This can be of great benefit because you may begin to identify patterns of
behavior - a great tool for your supervisory skills.

You can then begin implementing strategies to improve the situation. Try to understand
what motivates employee behavior by evaluating your leadership style and adjusting it
accordingly for each employee.

The more time you spend with your employees the better you will understand them, and
their behavioral patterns. This can provide you with the information needed in order to
produce better results. Again, it's a matter of growing your supervisory skills and
enabling your team to produce.

Manage differences between others.

Recognize that people think and act differently. It is important to understand that people
may have differing opinions. However, does not mean that someone is wrong. There can
be two totally different methods of achieving a desired outcome that are both equally

Training your team to understand the concept of different methods can enable them to
begin managing the differences between themselves. This can make your job
incrementally easier. It's tough to master supervisory skills like this when you're dealing
with people, but it makes all the difference in how they respond in kind.

These are some supervisory skills that can improve the success of your team. Be aware of
the rewards that you can gain from a strong group using your improved supervisory skills,
leadership and direction. Creating a stronger team can help make the journey worthwhile.


Supervision Techniques, Steps 1-8

"Set Clear Company Goals"

"Set Realistic Completion Timelines"

"Ensure Proper Training and Tools"

"Firm, Fair and Consistent"

"Encourage Innovative Thinking"

"Trust and Verification"
"Advancement Preparation"


"Set Clear Company Goals"... Every employee must know your essential company
goals. It seems like common sense that everyone know the company's overall goals. But
it's amazing when you talk to co-workers who don't completely grasp it. As a supervisor,
you can't just assume your subordinates are knowledgeable.

I worked for an agency that required every employee to attend mandatory annual training.
These sessions were designed to review agency goals in fine detail. Each employee was
signed off on each training block. The purpose of the training was to make absolutely
sure everyone was on the same sheet of paper when it came to understanding our overall
goals. In addition, the training was updated as required to fine tune any modification to
our company goals. As a supervisor, you can never assume your people know your
company goals. Informed employee's will grasp and appreciate, "The Big Picture" and
stay focus on what is important, and more importantly, limit what is not.

"Set Realistic Completion Timelines"... As a supervisor, it's important to set realistic
timelines to complete tasks. You're the expert who understands what a reasonable time to
complete a given task is. If you set unrealistic goals, it says a lot about your expertise. If
you don't understand this, you may be in the wrong job. But, if you set realistic timelines
for specific tasks, your employees will respect your decisions. And visa versa, you will
lose respect if you don't set realistic completion timelines.

"Ensure Proper Training and Tools"... Having proper training and tools to accomplish
company tasks seem like common sense, but it's often overlooked or underestimated by
managers. It's essential that you understand how to identify skill and tool deficiencies. It's
also critical to keep your own personal skill levels on par with the ever changing world of
technology and trends. Don't underestimate the importance of training the trainer.

You should always encourage your workers to have input on training. You set the
standards, but you should be receptive to new ideas. In addition, you should require your
subordinates maintain accountability for company tools and to identify deficiencies to
you as the supervisor.

"Firm, Fair and Consistent"... Anyone who is in charge should always remember to
always be firm, fair and consistent with all of their subordinates. Being firm with an
employee means they understand that there are firm consequences if they either violate
policy or fail to meet company standards or goals.

Treating someone fairly means to treat every employee without preferential treatment. It's
very difficult to be totally impartial when dealing with a high performer versus a low
performer, but it is one of the most important traits to have as a supervisor. You will lose
valuable respect from your co-workers if you're ever deemed to give anyone preferential
treatment. Once you lose this respect, it's almost impossible to regain.
Being consistent is one area that is often underestimated by managers. Being consistent
on how you act from day to day is critical. As a manager, it's important to be professional
when confronted by an angry employee. When you remain calm and remain consistent
with policy, you will remain professional. I believe being consistent is one of your
greatest assets as a manager.

"Encourage Innovative Thinking"... All managers should encourage innovative
thinking. Every employee is important and will contribute when they feel their inputs are
important to the company. If they perceive a lack of interest from management or no one
is following through, they will cease future input.

When an employee understands that their input is valuable, they will keep a mindset to
look for improvement. Their inputs are very valuable to the success of your company.
You can also encourage creative thinking through a formal or informal reward system.

"Trust and Verification"... Trust and verification is critical for supervisors who are
responsible for employees who are not under direct supervision. Trust can only be earned,
but it's important to verify. This can come in the form of impartial employee customer

When you delegate your authority, you're showing your trust in their ability. Supervisors
who understand trust allow the employee to perform at their peak. And visa versa, those
who micro manage relate an image of mistrust and that is bad. Your high performers
understand the importance of mutual trust and will not threaten it will poor performance.

"Advancement Preparation"... All supervisors should appreciate the importance of
preparing their subordinates to advance professionally. Not all employees want to
become managers, but all employees want some type of advancement. It could be a pay
structured advancement. It could be a promotion in title only. But, it's important they
understand that you're interested and can provide them with information on how to
improve themselves in the company. It's important that you have this information in
written form so there is no ambiguity.

"Appreciation"... I personally feel this is the most often overlooked area of management.
The basic need to feel appreciation for work performed is important. When an employee
feels appreciation, they will work even harder for you. When a subordinate completes a
task and does it well, tell them you appreciate it. You can never assume your workers
understand how you feel about their work. A simple thank you for a job well done goes a
long way and it does not cost a penny.

In conclusion, these techniques are easy to remember and follow. If you understand them
and put them in practice, you will stand out as a good supervisor. I'm confident that this
article will help you in your personal and business life. If you like the article, please pass
it along to your friends.
Key Concepts:

1. An educational assessment in an important tool for supervision, but it is an on-going
process, a work in progress, and should be developed in partnership with the practitioner
and reviewed frequently so that both supervisor and supervisee are clear as to strengths
and areas that need improvement.

2. Techniques are never entities in and of themselves, should be used deliberately, and in
context of worker and client need.

3. Contracts are no good unless they are, in fact, implemented. It is, therefore, a good idea
to include in the supervisory contract the procedures that can be used if either party fails
to meet the conditions of the contract.

4. An often overlooked supervisory technique is to suggest readings to staff.

5. Evaluation is a process that should enhance the supervisee’s learning about practice in
performing the educative function of supervision. Administrative evaluation that discuss
promotions, salary increments, letters of reference, etc may or may not be combined with
educative or professional growth reviews. Worker defensiveness is greatly reduced when
the administrative evaluation processes are removed from learning oriented supervision,
according to Shulman.

6. To be effective and constructive criticism should be used as a tool to promote growth,
and the focus of the criticism is on the work, not the individual involved. It is important
for the supervisor to consider how the criticism can help the practitioner and whether the
criticism can lead to a change in worker performance.

7. Time management is life management.

8. The best teacher and leader is a good role model.

9. A large administrative responsibility in human service organizations is risk
management. Supervisors as well as agencies can be sued for the actions of staff and
supervisees. Documentation and malpractice insurance are imperative in good risk
management. Supervisors must document supervisory sessions and demonstrate they are
sufficiently available to staff as part of good risk management strategy.

Powell’s Twelve Core Functions of Supervisors

An entire course could probably be developed around the topic of tools and techniques
for supervision. The focus in this module will be on clinical or educational supervision,
with a focus on worker development, because that is the function that is usually neglected.
While this is understandable, it is unfortunate. If staff believes the agency is sincerely
interested in their growth as professionals, morale would be good and staff turn over
would be reduced, saving the agency many resources in time and money in the long run.
To decide which tools and techniques are to be used and when requires an assessment of
"where the counselor is" and his/her role context and responsibilities. Considering worker
needs and client needs provides the context for how to approach supervision with any
given staff. Powell, for, example, identifies twelve core functions in the drug and alcohol
field which provides a general framework for looking a counselor competencies. These
include counseling, assessment, case management, crisis intervention, and others. He also
suggests that such things as professional ethics, and working with incest and dual
diagnosis could very well be added to the list.

Powell posits certain qualities that a counselor should possess such as empathy,
unconditional positive regard, ability to be a catalyst for change, congruence, etc. Those
qualities along with certain helping skills such as attending, probing, reflecting feelings,
etc., in the context of the job demands and the worker’s stage of professional
development create the parameters for conscious use of tools and techniques. Just as we
would never suggest that a good therapist or counselor use a technique with a client
without a rationale based on clinical assessment, neither should a supervisor just assume
that an appealing new idea gleaned from an article, this class, or a workshop should be
automatically applied without assessment of the counselor and the job he/she is being
expected to do. So with the above stated as a sort of caveat, this module will present
some basic tools that are available to enhance supervision. Please share other ideas via
the Forum.

Educational and Professional Assessment

Munson presents two very important tools for supervision: educational or professional
assessment and supervisory contracting. He also identifies several questions to help
supervisees think about their sessions with clients. Some of these, I believe, are very
useful. Asking the worker to consider what he/she likes about the client and what he/she
speculators, the client likes about the supervisee can bring up a lot of useful information
that might otherwise be missed. Also asking the supervisee to consider how he/she sees
him/herself in the client can set the stage for looking at possible counter transference
issues. Finally, Munson makes a very important point. I quote:" When supervisors accept
that they cannot be responsible for the practitioner’s performance, but are responsible
only for clarifying the expected standards of performance, the door is opened to
interaction that allows the supervisor and practitioner to engage in a process of genuine
growth and development". Why do you think that is (Forum)? What are the distinctions
between administrative and practice evaluations? How are they related?

Supervisory Contracting

People probably learn more from a supervisor by observing his/her behavior than any
other way. Staff is quick to spot discrepancies between words and behavior so the
importance of a supervisor as role model cannot be over stated. Like it or not, your staff
is watching. If you treat staff the way you expect them to treat clients, and are open and
honest with them as you expect them to be with you, it is much easier for staff to
"partner" with you and respect you as someone they can learn with and from. This is not
to imply that supervisors should strive to be perfect. En contraire! Supervisors make
mistakes just like everyone else. It is the owning of one’s responsibility for them, being
honest about one’s limits, and setting an example for taking care of oneself that are
powerful positive influences on staff. What are the basic ingredients for the supervisory

Time Management

Time management has almost become a cliché in today’s pressure cooker work world,
but supervisors and staff know that time management can make or break a professional in
mental health and/or chemical dependency. What are the ways you find to procrastinate
and with what result? What secondary gain do you have in procrastination and what
problems does it cause you professionally? There are so many demands on all of us, that
to begin to even make sense of things it is incumbent on us to plan and organize our
workload in some kind of reasonable time frame. Some of the frame is dictated or created
by external forces, such as mandated deadlines, but some the frame can be negotiated in
supervision by helping staff set priorities, taking into consideration the holistic work
situation and resources and skills of each staff as well as the agency bottom line. This in
fact constitutes a more specific contract because the process clarifies expectations and
both supervisor and worker are clear as to when specific tasks will be accomplished. It is
important that supervisors be empathic with the demands on staff and help them
recognize that they are doing a lot of things very well.

DiPadova and Faerman make several excellent points regarding time management. They
emphasize that time management is life management or self-management, which includes
"managing schedules, calendars, and everything from paper to attitudes to relationships."
They indicate that time management is a personal responsibility, and means working
smarter, not harder. Another important assumption in their article is that time
management is a learned skill, and we are not born good time managers. In other words,
we can assist our supervisees to develop good time management skills. In this regard, it is
important to individualize staff, because there is no simple "one for all formula" for
managing one’s time proficiently.

In helping others to be organized, supervisors should be very sensitive to the number of
meetings that are required for staff. Keeping the number of meetings to a minimum and
keeping those to a limited amount of productive time presents a big challenge for
supervisors/managers. For some reason, in the "helping professions" there are often far
more required meetings than are really necessary to get the job done efficiently and well.
Communicating clearly and listening carefully are supervisory skills that contribute
significantly to good time management. Pay attention to the myths and the other
suggestions that DiPadova and Faerman offer for your consideration. Some of them may
surprise you. Identify three meeting management techniques and discuss your
experience as a staff member in meetings in your agency and your experience in
chairing meetings. What have your learned that would have made both experiences
more satisfying and productive?
What goals do you have for enabling you to work "smarter not harder"? For your
staff? Please share on the Forum as well.

Supervisory Liability

Now for a word about supervisory liability. None of us really wants to consider the
unhappy possibility that as supervisors we could be sued for the actions or lack thereof of
the staff we are supervising. Paul Kurzman identifies six risks that exist in human service
organizations which, if they are not addressed by agency management, could very well
lead to litigation or claims of unethical practice. These include duty to warn and the duty
to protect confidentiality among others. Reamer points out the importance of the
availability of the supervisor, especially when a supervisee has been assigned a
particularly difficult or intense client situation that calls for closer supervisory support,
counsel, and monitoring. Risk management must be considered one more responsibility
inherent in the role of supervisor. As a part of this reality, supervisors should document
supervisory sessions. Documentation is necessary for performing meaningful and specific
staff evaluations, of course, but it is also crucial as a protection in the event there is
litigation or complaints are officially made against the agency or you as the supervisor.
Malpractice insurance is mandated by most agencies, but if you do not for any reason
carry malpractice insurance or your agency does not protect you with an "umbrella"
policy, you are playing Russian roulette! What recommendations would you make to
your administrative superiors to enhance risk management for you and your agency?

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