Colonizing North America
Chapter 3, Section 3
I. Setting the Scene
i. August 1497 Giovanni Caboto and his crew of English sailors had
just returned from the 79 day Atlantic voyage. Caboto called John
Caboto by the English had reached a “new-found island” in Asia
where fish was plentiful. Cabot was one of many Europeans who
explored North America between the 1400s and the 1600s.
ii. England, France, and the Netherlands all envied Spain’s new
empire. They wanted American colonies of their own.
II. Search for a Northwest Passage
i. Magellan’s route around South America seemed long and difficult.
Nations wanted to discover a shorter Northwest Passage or water
way through or around North America.
A. Exploring for France
i. Giovanni da Verrazano was in search of a northwest passage.
Verrazano journeyed along the Nothern American coast from the
Carolinas to Canada.
ii. In the 1530’s, Jacques Cartier also sailing for the French traveled
more than halfway up the river now known as the St. Lawrence
B. Henry Hudson
i. In 1609, English explorer Henry Hudson sailed for the Dutch. His
ship the Half Moon entered present-day New York harbor. Hudson
continued to sail some 150 miles up the river that now bears his
ii. Hudson made a voyage into the far north- this time for the English.
After a harsh winter his crew rebelled. They set Hudson, his son,
and several loyal sailors adrift in a small boat. The boat and its
crew were never seen again.
III. Rivalries Among European Nations
A. Religious Divisions
i. In 1517, a German monk named Martin Luther publicly challenged
many practices of the Catholic Church. Soon the church split.
Luther believed the Church had become too worldly.
ii. Luther’s supporters were called Protestants and they started the
Protestant Reformation which divided Europe.
iii. Spain and France were ruled by monarchs that were Catholic while
the English and the Dutch from the Netherlands were ruled by
B. Rivalries in the Americas
i. Protestant England competed with the catholic French, for lands in
IV. New France
i. Samuel de Champlain founded Port Royal, the first permanent
French settlement in North America in 1605.
ii. Three years later 1608, he led another group of settlers along the
route Cartier has pioneered. On a rocky cliff high above the St.
Lawrence River, Champlain built a trading post known as Quebec.
A. Economy of New France
i. New France has little gold and silver. Instead, the French profited
from fishing, trapping, and trading.
ii. French colonists who lived and worked in the woods were known
as coureurs de bois or “runners of the woods”
iii. The French brought knives, kettles, cloth, and other items for trade
with Native Americans.
iv. Coureurs de bois established friendly relations with the Native
American. Unlike the Spanish the French did not attempt to
conquer the Indians and they did not build farms, interfering with
B. Expansion to the Mississippi
i. Indians spoke of a mighty river, which they called Mississippi or
“Father of the Waters”
ii. A French missionary, Father Jacques Marquette and a fur trader,
Louis Joliet set out to reach the Mississippi in 1673. Led by Indian
guides they followed the river for more than 700 miles before
iii. Nine years later 1682, Robert La Salle completed the journey to
the Gulf of Mexico. La Salle named the region Louisiana after the
French king Louis XIV.
iv. To keep Spain and England out of Louisiana the French built forts
in the north along the Great Lakes. Fort Detroit- built by Antoine
Cadillac near Lake Erie. New Orleans built at the mouth of the
river which became a busy trading center.
v. French colonists imported 1000s of Africans to work as slaves on
nearby plantations. Some slaves joined the Natchez Indians in a
revolt against the French. The French put the revolt down in 1729.
The slaves that fought on the side of the French received freedom.
C. Government of New France
i. In New France the French king controlled the government directly,
and people had little freedom. A council appointed by the king
made all decisions.
ii. In the 1660s Louis XIV sent 1000s of farmers to the colony,
including many young women to encourage migration. By 1680
the populations was 10,000.
V. New Netherland
i. In 1626, Peter Minuit led a group of Dutch settlers to the mouth of
the Hudson River. There, he bought Manhattan Island from the
local Indians for 700 dollars. The settlement was called New
ii. Other colonists moved further north the Hudson River that colony
was called New Netherland aka New York today.
iii. The Dutch also built forts one important fort was Fort Orange aka
iv. The Dutch enlarged New Netherland in 1655 by taking New
Sweden colony. The Swedes had established their colony along the
Delaware River some 15 years earlier.
A. Rivalry Over Furs
i. The Dutch and the French became rivals in the fur trade. Both
sought alliances with Native Americans.
ii. The Dutch made friends with the Iroquois. The Hurons helped the
French. Fighting would rage for years among the Europeans and
their Native alliances.