RESPONSE TO INTERVENTION (RtI)

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					      RESPONSE
         TO
    INTERVENTION
      Information Session
               for
   Elementary Administrators

Delaware Department of Education
  What is Response to Intervention (RTI)?

       Effective Educational Practices for All
• “RTI is the practice of providing high-quality instruction and
  intervention matched to student need, monitoring progress
  frequently to make decisions about change in instruction or
  goals and applying child response data to important
  educational decisions. RTI should be applied to decisions in
  general, remedial and special education, creating a well-
  integrated system of instruction/intervention guided by child
  outcome data.”
                                         (NASDSE, 2005)
Core Principles of RTI

• We can effectively teach all children
• Use research-based, scientifically validated core
  instruction with fidelity
• Use assessment data to inform instructional
  decisions (variety of data including screening and
  progress monitoring)
• Use a problem solving method to make decisions
  within a multi-tier model of service delivery
• Use research-based, scientifically validated
  interventions matched to student need with
  continuous progress monitoring
• Intervene early
• Use data as part of the evaluation process for
  determining eligibility for special services
RTI

First….
• Look at how system addresses student
  needs
  – It is our responsibility to identify the
    curricular, instructional, and environmental
    conditions that enable learning
Before….
• Looking to the individual learner to
  explain why students are struggling
                                                             Tier III:
                                         Students with insufficient progress in
                                          Tier I/Tier II
    Three Tiered Model                   Sustained Intensive Interventions
                                         Possible Special Education Identification
                                          for students with insufficient progress
                                          with Tier III interventions
                               ~5%
                                                         Tier II:
                                              Students with insufficient
                               ~15%            progress in Tier I
         Tier I:                              Group and individual
All Students                                  research-based




                                                                                Increasing Support
Core Class Instruction                        interventions




                                                        Special Services


                          ~80% of Students
Advantages of Multi-tiered Approaches
• Provides instructional assistance in a timely fashion
• Helps ensure a student’s poor academic
  performance is not due to poor instruction or
  inappropriate curriculum
• Informs teacher and improves instruction because
  assessment data are collected and closely linked to
  interventions
• Serves students who require little intervention as
  well as students who require long term intervention
• Matches level of support to student need
• Informs instructional needs for special education
  decisions
• Allows for exit from special education when
  appropriate based on ongoing measurement of
  progress and response to intervention
Why
RTI?
       • Implementation of RTI is predicated on
         effective practices in general education
         classroom
         – Students can not be identified as having a learning
           disability if their difficulty is due to a lack of instruction

         – Programs need to be research-based and implemented as
           designated

         – Prevention-oriented

         – “RTI requires a way of thinking about instruction, academic
           achievement, and individual differences that makes it
           impossible to implement without fully involving general
           education” (Technical Assistance Paper, ODE, p. 2)
 RTI Delaware Regulations

Effective Date: June 11, 2008
   (reflects changes to the
       August 11, 2007
       RTI Regulations)
                RTI Phase-In

•   RTI required for reading in elementary grades
    will begin with 2008-2009 school year
•   RTI required for math in elementary grades will
    begin with a schedule determined by DDOE
•   RTI required for secondary will begin with a
    schedule determined by DDOE



•   Students who are already eligible for special
    education will not have to be evaluated under
    RTI until their next required reevaluation
General requirements

• DOE-approved rubrics must be used to select
  programs of instruction and Tier 2 and Tier 3
  interventions for reading and mathematics

• Most interventions at all Tiers occur in the
  general education classroom

• Fidelity of implementation of instruction and
  interventions and adherence to the core
  curriculum are critical

• 80% rule and school based team review
General Requirements
• All elementary students will be screened at least three
  times per year
   – First screening for at risk students within 2 weeks of
     beginning of school
   – Screening for all students shall be regularly spaced
     throughout the school year

• All students at risk at the secondary level will be
  screened at least three times per year
   – Screening for all students shall be regularly spaced
     throughout the school year

• Screening instruments will be norm referenced or
  curriculum based

• Progress monitoring instruments must be curriculum
  based
TIER 1

• Students not at benchmark on any screening…

   – At or below 25% percentile on norm referenced
     assessment or designated cut point on curriculum
     based measure
      • Provide Tier 2 interventions in addition to core program


   – Between 25% percentile on norm referenced
     assessment or designated cut point on curriculum
     based measure and benchmark
      • School based team reviews program and progress
      • At least 6 weeks of Tier 1 interventions
      • Progress monitor every two weeks
TIER 2

•   Weekly progress monitoring
•   Small group
•   At least 90 minutes per week
•   No less than 2 sessions per week
•   At least 6 weeks of Tier 2 interventions
•   For students identified in need of intervention
    in both reading and math, instructional
    support teams will design intervention for no
    less than 120 minutes
TIER 2 (continued)

• If no progress, or insufficient progress, after 6
  weeks of Tier 2 interventions, then Instructional
  Support Team reviews

   – Additional assessments?
   – Changes in instruction or behavioral interventions?
   – Child requires Tier 3 interventions?


• If no progress, or insufficient progress, after 12
  total weeks of Tier 2 interventions, child moves
  to Tier 3 interventions
TIER 3

•   Weekly progress monitoring continues
•   Smaller group than Tier 2
•   At least 150 minutes per week
•   No less than 4 sessions per week
•   At least 6 weeks of Tier 3 interventions
•   For students identified in need of intervention
    in both reading and math, instructional
    support teams will design intervention for no
    less than 180 minutes
TIER 3 (continued)
• If after 6 weeks of Tier 3 interventions (for a total of 18
  weeks of intervention)…
    – progress is made, but child is not on trajectory to meet
       end-of-year benchmarks, then instructional support
       team reviews
       • Additional assessments?
       • Changes in instruction or behavioral interventions?
       • Refer for special education evaluation?
    – Child has made no progress, then instructional
       support team refers the child for special education
       evaluation
• If after 6 additional weeks of Tier 3 interventions (for a
  total of 24 weeks)…
    – progress is made, but child is not on trajectory to meet
       end-of-year benchmarks, then instructional support
       team refers the child for special education evaluation
FLEXIBILITY BETWEEN TIERS

• System permits students to move
  between tiers of intervention based on
  progress toward benchmarks and
  instructional support team review

• Special education re-evaluations
  available to permit students to move
  between general and special education
Delaware RTI at a Glance
 1. Tier I implementation of scientific,
    research-based core curriculum aligned
    with Delaware Content Standards
 2. Differentiated instruction matched to
    student need
 3. Tiers II and III of increasingly intense
    scientific, research-based interventions
    matched to student need
 4. Instructional intensity addressed
    through duration, frequency and time of
    interventions, group size, and matched
    instructor expertise to student need
Delaware RTI at a Glance
 5. Individual problem-solving model and
    standardized intervention protocol for
    intervention tiers
 6. Screening and progress monitoring to
    assess entire class progress and
    individual student progress
 7. Explicit decision rules for assessing
    learner’s progress
 8. Fidelity measures to assess
    consistency of instructional methods,
    curriculum, interventions, and
    assessment
Putting it                Working as a Team to Maximize Resources
All                               & Outcomes for Students
Together
             • Curriculum (Programs and Materials):
                 – Ensuring comprehensive coverage to essential literacy and math skills
                 – Use of research-based targeted programs (Supplemental and
                   Intervention) for specific students or to fill needs of groups of students

             • Instruction:
                 – Coordinating instructional resources (Title, Special Education, ELL, etc.)
                 – Incorporating differentiated instructional practices
                 – Prioritizing and protecting instructional time (sufficient time for students
                   needing additional support)
                 – Strategic use of grouping to maximize learning

             • Assessment
                 – School-wide Screening & Progress Monitoring
                 – Evaluating benefits for students, classrooms, schools and districts

             • Professional Development:
                 – Instruction: Scheduling, grouping, behavior management
                 – Programs and Materials: understanding the complexities and nuances
                 – Progress Monitoring: Interpreting data at the school, class, and student
                   level
Role of the
Administrator
Administrator’s Role – System Level
• Establish an environment where all staff believe
  all students can learn at high expectations
• Design a master schedule that includes
  equitable distribution of students, uninterrupted
  reading and math blocks, common planning,
  interventions, and specialists’ schedules
• Adopt a school-wide data management system
  for monitoring student assessment data and
  interventions
• Establish a problem-solving team to address
  needs of students
• Share school data regularly
• Budget funds to support RTI
• Monitor RTI system within the school success
  plan
Administrator’s Role – Tier 1
• Adopt scientifically researched-based reading
  and math core curricula
• Ensure teachers receive high quality
  professional development with the core
  programs
• Implement a consistent and on-going fidelity to
  the core monitoring system
• Adopt a universal assessment tool to assess all
  students three times a year
• Adopt a progress monitoring tool to assess all
  students not at benchmark
• Ensure teachers receive high quality
  professional development with assessment
  tools
• Participate in teacher professional development
Administrator’s Role – Tier 2 and Tier 3
• Adopt scientifically researched-based reading
  and math interventions
• Ensure interventionists receive high quality
  professional development with interventions
• Implement a consistent and on-going fidelity to
  the intervention monitoring system
• Ensure students receive specified number of
  minutes in interventions
• Participate in problem-solving team process
    Role of the
Classroom Teacher
Universal Screening for the
Classroom Teacher
• View objectively how your entire class is doing
  on specific skills
• Determine objectively and regularly the deficit
  areas and skill performance in order to match
  interventions
• Set goals in measurable ways
• Track how whole class and individuals are
  progressing throughout the year and not waiting
  until the “big test” to determine how students are
  doing
• Share objective data with parents and other
  professionals on the progress of individual
  students
Tier I Instruction for the
Classroom Teacher
• Screen students three times a year
• Provide high quality instruction using a scientific
  researched core curriculum
• Differentiate instruction
• Progress monitor students every two weeks
  who fall between 25% (or cut point) and
  benchmark
• Provide intervention
• Participate as a member of a collaboration team
  such as a grade level or content area team to
  discuss instructional strategies and review data
                                (LRP Publications, 2006)
Tier II Instruction for the
Classroom Teacher
• Continue to implement the core curriculum
• Present data to instructional support team when
  data supports ineffectiveness of the six week
  Tier I intervention
• May be the primary interventionist of Tier II
  interventions
• May be primarily responsible for weekly
  progress monitoring to determine effectiveness
  of intervention plan
• Participate as member on instructional support
  team/problem-solving team while student is on
  intervention plan
                             (LRP Publications, 2006)
Tier III Instruction for the
Classroom Teacher

• Continue to implement the core curriculum
• Continue to be primary educator responsible for
  student’s education
• Work collaboratively with primary interventionist
• Continue as member on instructional support
  team/problem-solving team while student is on
  intervention plan
                               (LRP Publications, 2006)
Progress Monitoring for the
Classroom Teacher and/or Interventionist
 • Collect data every two weeks at Tier I and
   weekly at Tier II and Tier III
 • Calculate weekly improvement rate by
   determining difference between current baseline
   and end of the year benchmark
 • Graph results
 • Plot progress monitoring points
 • As part of the instructional support
   team/problem-solving team, make decisions
   about progress and intervention plan
 • Mark graph if change in intervention plan
 • Share objective data with parents and other
   professionals on the progress of individual
   students
                               (LRP Publications, 2006)
Role of the
Specialist
Specialists and Support Staff
•   Psychologists
•   Special Education Teachers
•   Reading Specialists
•   Math Specialists
•   Minner Reading Teachers
•   Minner Math Teachers
•   Speech Language Pathologists
•   Title I Teachers
•   Library Media Specialists
•   Paraprofessionals
•   Teacher-to-Teacher Cadre
    Variety of Roles
    for Specialists and Support Staff
    (not exhaustive)

•    RTI Coordinator
•    RTI Coach
•    Administrator of Universal Screening Tool
•    Administrator of Progress Monitoring Tool
•    Tier I, Tier II, and/or Tier III Interventionist
•    Instructional Support Team Lead or Member
•    Data Coach
•    Professional Development Lead/Provider
   Effective
  School-wide
Reading Program
Critical Elements of
Effective Reading Program
1. Consistently implemented, high quality
   initial classroom instruction and follow-
   up small-group instruction that is well-
   differentiated according to student
   needs.
2. Use of student performance data to
   guide instruction and allocate
   instructional resources.
3. Resources to provide interventions for
   struggling readers.
  Fidelity of
Implementation
How will we know we are implementing
with fidelity?

• Standards for Judging High Quality Implementation
   –   Vision stated and shared
   –   Staff member roles defined
   –   Resources provided
   –   Process defined


• Purpose of Fidelity Checks
   – Identify areas of strength on which schools can build
   – Identify areas of deficiency that need to be remediated


                                           Mellard & Johnson, 2008
How will we know we are implementing
with fidelity?
 • Outcomes
   – Fidelity of implementation of the process at the school
     level
   – Consistency of component implementation across
     classrooms and grade levels
   – Degree to which selected primary, secondary and
     tertiary interventions are empirically supported
   – Fidelity of implementation at the interventionist (e.g.
     teacher) level (e.g. training, ability to delivery)


 • Methods
   – Direct Assessment (e.g. observations)
   – Indirect Assessment (e.g. self-reports, interviews)
   – Manualized Treatments (e.g. step-by-step guides,
     checklists)
                                        Mellard & Johnson, 2008
How will we know we are implementing
with fidelity?
• Dimensions
  – Content: how much (e.g. adherence, exposure)
  – Process: how well (e.g. quality of delivery, student
    response)

• Frequency
  – Experience level of interventionist
  – Request for support
  – Class/group performance on screening and progress
    monitoring
  – Outcomes

• Supports
  –   Supportive v. punitive
  –   Professional Development
  –   Partnerships/Collaboration among staff
  –   Resource allocation (e.g. time, materials, social structure,
      role change)                         Mellard & Johnson, 2008
Challenges/Opportunities
 RTI is a collaborative
 and systemic approach
to addressing the needs
     of all students.
Thank you

				
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