Why is Europe warmer than Northern Canada?

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					 Why is Europe warmer
than Northern Canada?
      By Rebecca S.
           Introduction
 Northern Canada and Europe are located on the
 same line of latitude, but they have completely
different climates and weather patterns. Did you
ever wonder why this was? It all has to do with a
     very important current, the Gulf Stream.

                        QuickTime™ and a
               TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
                  are need ed to see this picture.
What is the Gulf Stream?
  The Gulf Stream is the
  second largest current
 system in the world, and
 the largest system in the
    Atlantic Ocean. It is             QuickTime™ an d a

  formed off the coast of    TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
                                are need ed to see this p icture .


    Florida and ends in
  northwest Europe. The
  average temperature of
   the Gulf Stream is 77
degrees Fahrenheit, which
keeps the air temperature
   of the earth warmer in
        some places.
 How does the Gulf Stream
         work?
                                          Winds from the Artic cool the
                                       surface water in the Atlantic. The
                                        cool water becomes denser and
                                         saltier, so it sinks to the ocean
                                      floor. Then, the new surface water
         QuickTime™ and a              begins to warm as it moves to the
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompre ssor
   are neede d to see this picture.    equator. The Gulf Stream moves
                                          the warm water in the Gulf of
                                        Mexico to the Atlantic to replace
                                       the cold water that moved toward
                                        the equator. The Gulf Stream is
                                       classified as a convection current
                                       because the cold water sinks and
                                              the warm water rises.
      What is a Convection
            Current?
                                           Convection currents are
                                       caused by the expansion of a
          Quic kTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompres sed) dec ompress or
                                        liquid (or gas or solid) as its
   are needed to s ee this pic ture.
                                       temperature gets higher. The
                                          less dense, warmer liquid
                                          rises and the denser, cold
                                       liquid sinks. The Gulf Stream
                                            is a convection current.
  Specific Heat Capacity of
            Water
  The quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of a
    substance by one degree Celsius is known as the heat
    capacity of water. Every substance has a different heat
capacity; however, water has a very high heat capacity. Water
 takes a long time to warm in the sun, but it also takes a long
     time to cool during the night. Water resists change in
   temperature because of its high heat capacity. The Gulf
Stream keeps the water warm, which helps the climate in some
                       parts of the world
                                                              Water stays hot for
                                  QuickTime™ and a
                        TIFF (Un compressed) decompre ssor
                           are neede d to see this picture.   a long amount of
                                                                    time.
   How does the Gulf Stream
     impact the Climate in
          Europe?
  The Gulf Stream carries
warm waters to the Atlantic
  near Europe and stays
warm until it starts to cool.
 The Gulf Stream plays a
   major role in warming                 QuickTime™ and a
France, England, and other      TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
                                   are need ed to see this picture.
 European countries. The
 warm waters keep the air
warm in Europe. “This Gulf
   Stream is a huge heat
generator that enables the
  coasts of Europe to be
     decked in eternal
greenery…” – Jules Verne
Why is Europe warmer than
         Canada?
                                                                                 Part of Canada and
                                                                              Europe are on the same
          QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Un compressed) decompressor
   are neede d to se e this picture.                                             line of latitude, but
                                                                               Canada is much colder
                                                                                than Europe. Why is
     Snow covered
      mountains in
                                                                             this? It is because of the
       Canada.                                                                 Gulf Stream. The Gulf
                                                 QuickTime™ and a
                                       TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
                                                                             Stream does not go near
                                          are needed to see this pic ture.


                         Eiffel
                                                                                Canada, so the warm
                        Tower in
                         Paris.
                                                                              waters do not make the
                                                                               air warm, but the Gulf
                                                                              Stream does go towards
                                                                              Europe, which makes it
                                                                                 warmer over there.
The Gulf Stream
 is shown in this
   picture in the
    lighter blue,
  green, yellow,
and red. You can
 see that it goes
up the east coast
 and cuts across
 the Atlantic and
   goes over to
       Europe


                             QuickTime™ and a
                    TIFF (Uncompressed) decompre ssor
                       are neede d to see this picture.
 On the next slide I have my graph. I
asked 20 adults why Europe is warmer
   than Canada, then graphed their
responses as either correct, incorrect,
          or “don’t know”.
                         Why is Europe Warmer than Canada?
                 12
                        11


                 10




                  8
# of Responses




                  6
                                                           5

                                           4
                  4




                  2




                  0

                      Correct           Incorrect      Didn't Know
                                     Adult Responses
         Vocabulary Words
Convection current: caused by the
expansion of a liquid (or gas or solid) as
its temperature gets higher
Temperature: The property of a material
that tells how warm or cold it is relative to
some standard. In an ideal gas, the
molecular kinetic energy per molecule
Specific heat capacity: quantity of heat
required to raise the temperature of a
substance by one degree Celsius
Current: A current is the rate of fluid flow,
especially water in a river or ocean. A
current can be any continuous, directed
movement of a fluid.
  Related Links: The following sites
were used to gather information and images.
NASA Observtory From this website I used a good image of the Gulf Stream
CNES I got some really good information from this site.
The Cooperative for Marine and Atmospheric Studies I got some very useful
information from this site.
 California State University This website had very useful information and it was
 very easy to understand.
  BBC Weather Center This website had very good, through information about the
  Gulf Stream.



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