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					                                        RHETORICAL DEVICES

   RHETORIC: THE ART OF EFFECTIVE SPEAKING OR WRITING.
   PURPOSE: TO ALLOW AUTHORS TO EXPRESS THEMSELVES AND THEIR WRITING IN A CLEAR, MORE
    COHERENT EMPHATIC AND CREATIVE MANNER.


       DEVICE                      DEFINITION                                   EXAMPLE
ALLEGORY                THE REPRESENTATION OF ABSTRACT           THE BLINDFOLDED FIGURE WITH SCALES IS
                         IDEAS OR PRINCIPLES IN NARRATIVE,         AN ALLEGORY OF JUSTICE.
                         DRAMATIC, OR PICTORIAL FORM.
ALLITERATION            THE REPETITION OF THE SAME               HE CLASPS THE CRAG WITH CROOKED HANDS.
                         CONSONANT SOUNDS.
ALLUSION                AN INDIRECT OR DIRECT REFERENCE TO       HER ROLES IN E.T. AND IRRECONCILABLE
                         SOMETHING YOU ASSUME YOUR                 DIFFERENCES MADE DREW BARRYMORE THE
                         AUDIENCE WILL UNDERSTAND AND              SHIRLEY TEMPLE OF THE 1980S.
                         APPRECIATE.
ANACHRONISM             THE REPRESENTATION OF SOMEONE OR         "A NEW AGE HAD PLAINLY DAWNED, AN AGE
                         SOMETHING AS EXISTING OR                  THAT MADE THE INSTITUTION OF A
                         HAPPENING IN A TIME OUSTIDE OF            SEGREGATED PICNIC SEEM AN
                         THEIR PROPER, OR HISTORICAL ORDER.        ANACHRONISM" HENRY    LOUIS GATES, JR.
ANALOGY                 A SITUATION THAT IS SIMILAR,             JUST AS THE ROMANS DID NOT BUILD ROME
                         COMPARABLE; A LIKENESS IN SOME            IN A DAY, SO WE NEED A LONG TIME TO
                         RESPECTS.                                 LEARN ABOUT THE METHODS OF ESSAY
                                                                   DEVELOPMENT.
ANAPHORA                REPETITION OF THE SAME WORD OR           LET US MARCH TO THE REALIZATION OF THE
                         GROUP OF WORDS AT THE BEGINNING OF        AMERICAN DREAM. LET US MARCH ON
                         SUCCESSIVE CLAUSES.                       SEGREGATED HOUSING. LET US MARCH ON
                                                                   SEGREGATED SCHOOLS.
ANASTROPHE              DELIBERATE INVERSION OF THE              TO MARKET WENT SHE.
                         NORMAL SYNTACTIC ORDER OF WORDS.
ANECDOTE                A BRIEF STORY THAT SHARES AN             IN THE FALL OF 1989, THERE WAS A
                         INTERESTING OR AMUSING EVENT              TERRIBLE EARTHQUAKE IN SAN FRANCISCO.
                         DEALING WITH ONE INCIDENT.                THE BAY AREA WAS ESPECIALLY HIT WITH
                                                                   MANY CASUALITIES.
APHORISM                A BRIEF SAYING EMBODYING A MORAL,        HIPPOCRATES: LIFE IS SHORT; ART IS LONG,
                         A CONCISE STATEMENT OF A PRINCIPLE        OPPORTUNITY FLEETING.
                         OR PRECEPT GIVEN IN POINTED WORDS.
APOPHASIS               WHEN A WRITER ASSERTS OR                 WE WILL NOT BRING UP THE MATTER OF THE
                         EMPHASIZES SOMETHING BY SEEMING           BUDGET DEFICIT HERE, OR HOW PROGRAMS
                         TO PASS OVER, IGNORE, OR DENY IT. A       LIKE THE ONE UNDER CONSIDERATION HAVE
                         WRITER USES IT TO CALL ATTENTION          NEARLY PUSHED US INTO BANKRUPTCY,
                         TO SENSITIVE OR INFLAMMATORY              BECAUSE OTHER REASONS CLEARLY ENOUGH
                         FACTS OR STATEMENTS WHILE HE              SHOW…
                         REMAINS APPARENTLY DETACHED FROM
                         THEM.
APOSIOPESIS             STOPPING ABRUPTLY AND LEAVING A          IF THEY USE THAT SECTION OF THE DESERT
                         STATEMENT UNFINISHED.                     FOR BOMBING PRACTICE, THE ROCK HUNTERS
                                                                   WILL--.
                                                                  I'VE GOT TO MAKE THE TEAM OR I'LL--.
APPOSITION        PROXIMITY, A WORD OR PHRASE NEXT         DENIS, A BRIGHT STUDENT, WON AN
                   TO A WORD WITH A SIMILAR                  ENTRANCE SCHOLARSHIP AT THE
                   GRAMMATICAL PART OF SPEECH.               UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO
                                                            MY BROTHER THE RESEARCH ASSOCIATE
                                                             WORKS AT A LARGE POLLING FIRM.
ASSONANCE         ASSONANCE IS THE REPETITION OF           FLEET FEET SWEEP BY SLEEPING GEEKS.
                   VOWEL SOUNDS BUT NOT CONSONANT
                   SOUNDS.
BALANCE           SIMILAR GRAMMATICAL STRUCTURES           GIVE ME YOUR TIRED AND YOUR HELPLESS.
                   PLACED IN PARALLEL.
CHIASMUS          THE CRISSCROSSING OF SUCCESSIVE          FAIR IS FOUL, FOUL IS FAIR.
                   PHARASE OR CLAUSES.
CLIFF-HANGER      THE WRITER BREAKS OFF THE STORY AT       IRENE KNEW WHO THE THIEF WAS. THE
                   AN EXCITING POINT AND LEAVES THE          QUESTION NOW WAS HOW TO PROVE IT.
                   READER GUESSING ABOUT WHAT IS
                   GOING TO HAPPEN NEXT.
CONNOTATION       AN IDEA OR MEANING SUGGESTED/            HOLLYWOOD HOLDS CONNOTATIONS OF
                   IMPLIED BY OR ASSOCIATED WITH A           ROMANCE AND GLITTERING SUCCESS.
                   WORD OR THING IN ADDITION TO ITS
                   LITERAL MEANING.
COUPLET           A UNIT OF VERSE CONSISTING OF TWO        "IF THE PHONE RINGS,
                   SUCCESSIVE LINES, USUALLY RHYMING          HOPE THEN STILL CLINGS."
                   AND HAVING THE SAME METER AND
                   OFTEN FORMING A COMPLETE THOUGHT
                   OR SYNTACTIC UNIT.
DICTION           THE CHOICE AND USE OF WORDS.             IMAGERY, POETIC DEVICES, LOADED WORDS.
ENUMERATION       THE LISTING, IN NUMERICAL ORDER, OF      FIRSTLY, I WOULD LIKE TO SAY THAT …
                   POINTS OR IDEAS.                          SECONDLY, IT SHOULD ... AND THIRDLY.
EPONYM            WHEN YOU SUBSTITUTE FOR A                YOU THINK YOUR BOYFRIEND IS TIGHT. I
                   PARTICULAR ATTRIBUTE THE NAME OF A        HAD A DATE WITH SCROOGE HIMSELF LAST
                   FAMOUS PERSON RECOGNIZED FOR THAT         NIGHT.
                   ATTRIBUTE.                               WE ALL MUST REALIZE THAT UNCLE SAM IS
                                                             NOT SUPPOSED TO BE SANTA CLAUS.
ETHOS             ETHOS IS APPEAL BASED ON THE             OUR SPOKESPERSON, MR. COYOTE SAYS "I'M
                   CHARACTER OF THE SPEAKER. AN              NOT REALLY A COYOTE, BUT I PLAY ONE ON
                   ETHOS-DRIVEN DOCUMENT RELIES ON           TV. I'VE USED ACME PRODUCTS FOR YEARS.
                   THE REPUTATION OF THE AUTHOR.             THEIR SLINGSHOTS, ROCKET LAUNCHERS,
                                                             CROWBARS, POGO STICKS, AND POWER PILLS
                                                             ARE THE BEST AROUND. AND DON'T FORGET
                                                             THEIR HIGH-POWERED DYNAMITE! I BUY
                                                             EVERYTHING FROM ACME. THEY ARE THE
                                                             COMPANY THAT I TRUST THE MOST."
EUPHEMISM         THE SUBSTITUTION OF A MORE               IT’S NOT REVERSE RACISM, IT’S
                   DELICATE OR LESS OFFENSIVE WORD OR        AFFIRMATIVE ACTION.
                   PHRASE FOR ANOTHER - BOTH OF WHICH
                   TEND TO MEAN THE SAME THING.
EXAGGERATION      A STATEMENT THAT STRETCHES THE           I FEEL LIKE A THOUSAND POUNDS.
                   TRUTH TO ADD EMPHASIS AND                HE WAS TEN FEET TALL.
                   ENTERTAINMENT VALUE   (ALSO CALLED
                   HYPERBOLE).
FLASHBACK          THE WRITER DESCRIBES AN EARLIER          A CHARACTER RECALLING A PREVIOUS EVENT.
                    TIME IN THE STORY THAT WILL HELP
                    THE READER UNDERSTAND THE PLOT
                    AND THE CHARACTERS BETTER.
FORESHADOWING      A CLUE OR HINT ABOUT A SIGNIFICANT       OFTEN IN BOOKS AND MOVIES (E.G. THE
                    EVENT OR REVELATION THAT WILL             SIX SENCE).
                    HAPPEN LATER IN THE STORY.
HYPOPHORA          RAISING ONE OR MORE QUESTION AND         THERE IS A STRIKING AND BASIC
                    THEN PROCEEDING TO ANSWER THEM. A         DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A MAN'S ABILITY TO
                    COMMON USAGE IS TO ASK THE                IMAGINE SOMETHING AND AN ANIMAL'S
                    QUESTION AT THE BEGINNING OF A            FAILURE. . . . WHERE IS IT THAT THE ANIMAL
                    PARAGRAPH AND THEN USE THAT               FALLS SHORT? WE GET A CLUE TO THE
                    PARAGRAPH TO ANSWER IT.                   ANSWER, I THINK, WHEN HUNTER TELLS US .
                                                              . . . --JACOB BRONOWSKI
IDIOM              A COMMON PHRASE OR EXPRESSION            SHE GOT COLD FEET (SHE CHANGED HER
                    THAT MEANS SOMETHING DIFFERENT            MIND).
                    FROM WHAT THE WORDS ACTUALLY SAY.        IT WAS RAINING CATS AND DOGS (IT WAS
                                                              RAINING HEAVILY).
IMAGERY            A TECHNIQUE A WRITER USES TO             MY TOBOGGAN AND I CARVE WINTER. WE
                    CREATE PICTURES IN THE READER’S           CRUNCH OVER THE POWDERY SNOW, THE ONE
                    MIND AND TO APPEAL TO THE SENSES          BY ONE GLISTENING GRAINS THEY SIGH AND
                    OF TOUCH, TASTE, SMELL, OR HEARING.       SQUEAK.
IRONY              A CLASH BETWEEN WHAT MIGHT BE            WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE PLAY, ROMEO AND
                    EXPECTED AND WHAT ACTUALLY OCCURS         JULIET WHEN ROMEO FINDS JULIET IN A
                   DRAMATIC IRONY – THE READER OR            DRUGGED DEATH-LIKE SLEEP, HE ASSUMES
                    AUDIENCE KNOWS ABOUT AN EVENT OR          HER TO BE DEAD AND KILLS HIMSELF. UPON
                    SITUATION THAT THE CHARACTER DOES         AWAKENING TO FIND HER DEAD LOVER
                    NOT.                                      BESIDE HER,   JULIET KILLS HERSELF WITH
                   VERBAL IRONY – THE SPEAKER SAYS           HIS KNIFE.
                    ONE THING BUT MEANS SOMETHING            IF SOMEONE WHERE TO SAY “WHAT LOVELY
                    ELSE.                                     WEATHER WE ARE HAVING!” AS THEY LOOK
                   SITUATIONAL IRONY – THE OPPOSITE          OUT AT A RAINSTORM.
                    OF WHAT IS EXPECTED OCCURS, OR AN        A FIRE STATION BURNING DOWN. A CAR
                    APPARENTLY STRAIGHTFORWARD                BEING STOLEN OUTSIDE OF A POLICE
                    STATEMENT IS ALTERED BY THE               STATION.
                    CONTEXT IN WHICH IT IS SPOKEN.
JARGON/            SPECIALIZED WORDS OR TERMINOLOGY         “COP”.
COLLOQUIALISM       USED IN CERTAIN SITUATION AND
                    OCCUPATIONS.
JUXTAPOSITION      PLACE TWO IDEAS TOGETHER SO THAT         IN A SHAMPOO COMMERCIAL PUTTING SIDE-
                    THEIR CLOSENESS AND COMPARISON            BY-SIDE PICTURES OF THE SAME PERSON,
                    CREATE A SHARP CONTRAST OR A NEW,         ONE WITH THEM HAVING DANDRUFF.
                    SOMETIMES IRONIC, MEANING.
LIOTES             THE USE OF DOWNPLAYED TERMS FOR          HARRISON FORD’S MOST FAMOUS
                    THE PUSPOSE OF EMPHASIS.                  CHARACTER, INDIANA JONES, HAS
                                                              OCCASSIONALLY FOUND HIMSELF IN A BIT
                                                              OF A JAM.
LOGOS                   AN APPEAL BASED ON LOGIC OR REASON.      BY COMBINING CESIUM AND DIHYDRO-OXIDE
                         DOCUMENTS DISTRIBUTED BY                  IN LABORATORY CONDITIONS, AND
                         COMPANIES OR CORPORATIONS ARE             CAPTURING THE RELEASED ENERGY, ACME
                         LOGOS-DRIVEN. SCHOLARLY                   HAS PROMISED TO LEAD THE WAY INTO THE
                         DOCUMENTS ARE ALSO OFTEN LOGOS-           FUTURE. OUR ENERGY SOURCE IS CLEAN,
                         DRIVEN.                                   SAFE, AND POWERFUL. NO POLLUTANTS ARE
                                                                   RELEASED INTO THE ATMOSPHERE. THE
                                                                   WORLD WILL SOON HAVE AN EXCELLENT
                                                                   SOURCE OF CLEAN ENERGY.
METAPHOR                AN EXPRESSION THAT DESCRIBES OR          THE SKY WAS A BLUE SEA.
                         IMPLIES A COMPARARISON BETWEEN A
                         PERSON, PLACE OR THING.
METONYMY                REFERENCE TO SOMETHING OR                THE PEN IS MIGHTIER THAN THE SWORD.
                         SOMEONE BY NAMING ONE OF ITS
                         ATTRIBUTES.
ONOMATOPOEIA            WORDS WHOSE SOUND MAKES YOU              CRASH, SLAM, HUSH, CLICK, BANG, BUZZ.
                         THINK OF THEIR MEANING.
OXYMORON                THE JOINING OF TWO CONTRADICTORY         HER CRUEL KINDNESS.
                         WORDS IN A PHRASE.
PARADOX                 AN APPARENTLY CONTRADICTORY              HE IS REALLY GUILTY OF BEING INNOCENT.
                         STATEMENT THAT NEVERTHELESS              I DWELL IN A HOUSE THAT VANISHED.
                         CONTAINS AN ELEMENT OF TRUTH.
PARALLEL STRUCTURE      THE REPETITION OF A GRAMMATICAL          MANY PEOPLE USE DRUGS AS A SOCIALIZING
                         STRUCTURE IN A SENTENCE.                  TOOL, AS A WAY OF MEETING NEW PEOPLE,
                                                                   AND AS A WAY OF BECOMING POPULAR.
PARODY                  A FORM OF SATIRE THAT IMITATES           AUSTIN POWERS AS A PARODY OF THE
                         ANOTHER WORK OF ART IN ORDER TO           JAMES BOND MOVIES.
                         RIDICULE IT.
PATHOS                  AN ARGUMENTED BASED ON EVOKING           ACME GIZMOTRONICS IS SUPPORTING A
                         THE FEELING OF SYMPATHY OR PITY,          DIHYDRO-CESIUM REACTOR, TRYING, IN
                         AND CAUSES US TO BECOME MORE              THEIR ANTHROCENTRISM, TO SQUEEZE
                         CLOSELY IDENTIFIED WITH THE               ENERGY OUT OF SUCH DESTRUCTIVE
                         CHARACTERS IN THE STORY.                  EXPLOSIONS. AND, THEY ARE DUMPING
                                                                   WASTE CESIUM ONTO THE SHORES OF THEIR
                                                                   ISLAND, THREATENING THE ENVIRONMENT.
                                                                   STUDIES HAVE SHOWN THAT THE DIHYDRO-
                                                                   CESIUM REACTOR WILL DESTROY THE
                                                                   ISLAND'S ECOSPHERE IN LESS THAN FOUR
                                                                   MONTHS!
PERSONIFICATION         WHEN THE WRITER DESCRIBES AN             THE WIND WHISTELED THROUGH THE TREES.
                         ANIMAL, AN OBJECT OR THING AS IF IT      THE DRY GROUND THIRSTS FOR RAIN.
                         WERE A PERSON.
PORTMANTEAU             COMBINATION OF TWO OR MORE WORDS         SMOG IS THE COMBINATION OF SMOKE AND
                         TO CREATE A NEW WORD .                    FOG.
PROCATALEPSIS            ANTICIPATING AN OBJECTION AND            OCCASIONALLY A PERSON OF RASH
                          ANSWERING IT. THIS PERMITS AN             JUDGMENT WILL ARGUE HERE THAT THE
                          ARGUMENT TO CONTINUE MOVING               HIGH-SPEED MOTOR IS BETTER THAN THE
                          FORWARD WHILE TAKING INTO                 LOW-SPEED ONE, BECAUSE FOR THE SAME
                          ACCOUNT POINTS OR REASONS                 OUTPUT, HIGH SPEED MOTORS ARE LIGHTER,
                          OPPOSING EITHER THE TRAIN OF              SMALLER, AND CHEAPER. BUT THEY ARE ALSO
                          THOUGHT OR ITS FINAL CONCLUSIONS.         NOISIER AND LESS EFFICIENT, AND HAVE
                                                                    MUCH GREATER WEAR AND SHORTER LIFE; SO
                                                                    THAT OVERALL THEY ARE NOT BETTER.
PUN                      A WORD OR PHRASE WITH MORE THAN          A SHOEMAKER IS A MENDER OF OLD “SOULS”
                          ONE POSSIBLE MEANING USED TO              (VS. SOLES).
                          CREATE COMIC EFFECT.
REPETITION               REPEATING OF A WORD, PHRASE, OR          IT WAS A QUIET NIGHT AND A NIGHT FULL
                          LINE TO ADD RHYTHM OR TO EMPHASIZE        OF PROMISE. THE STARS ILLUMINATED THE
                          AN IDEA.                                  NIGHT LIKE NEVER BEFORE.
RHETORICAL QUESTION      A QUESTION WHOSE ANSWER IS               IT’S ELEVEN O’CLOCK. DO YOU KNOW WHERE
                          ALREADY KNOWN OR IMPLIED.                 YOUR CHILDREN ARE?
RHYME                    WORDS THAT SOUND ALIKE.                  “LAST” AND “PAST”.
RHYTHM                   THE OCCURRENCE OF A BEAT OR A            TWIN KLE, TWIN KLE, LIT TLE
                          SOUND IN THE WORDS OF A POEM.             STAR.
SATIRE                   A LITERARY TONE USED TO RIDICULE OR      THE SIMPSONS, FAMILY GUY, THIS HOURS
                          MAKE FUN OF HUMAN VICE OR                 HAS 22 MINUTES.
                          WEAKNESS, OFTEN WITH THE INTENT
                          OF CORRECTING, OR CHANGING, THE
                          SUBJECT OF THE SATIRIC ATTACK.
SIMILE                   AN EXPRESSION THAT DESCRIBES OR          THE SKY WAS LIKE A BLUE SEA.
                          DIRECTLY COMPARES A PERSON, PLACE        THE SKY WAS AS BLUE AS THE SEA.
                          OR THING BY COMPARING IT TO
                          SOMETHING ELSE USING THE WORDS
                          “LIKE” OR “AS”.
SLOGAN                   A SHORT, CATCHY PHRASE USED TO           REACH OUT AND TOUCH SOMEONE (BELL).
                          ATTRACT THE AUDIENCE’S ATTENTION.        JUST DO IT! (NIKE).
STARTLING STATEMENT      A SENTENCE OF EXPRESSION THAT            OFTEN BASED ON THE LEVEL OR USAGE,
                          SEEMS SURPRISINGLY OUT OF PLACE.          SPOKEN, WRITTEN.
SUSPENSE                 THE FEELING OF UNCERTAINTY OR            OFTEN FELT AT THE END OF SEASON
                          CURIOSITY CREATED BY THE WRITER.          TELEVISION SHOWS CLIFF-HANGERS.
SYMBOL                   A PERSON, PLACE OR THING OR EVENT        WHITE FLAG = SURRENDER.
                          THAT IS USED TO REPRESENT
                          SOMETHING ELSE.
SYNECDOCHE               A FIGURE OF SPEECH IN WHICH A PART       LISTEN, YOU'VE GOT TO COME TAKE A LOOK
                          STANDS FOR THE WHOLE.                     AT MY NEW SET OF WHEELS.

				
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