The States of Matter by bac0A150

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									The States of Matter
And the UNIT Essential Question is…


   How does matter
    respond to its
    environment?
 Today’s Essential Question

What are the phases
    of matter?
I. The 5 phases of matter
   A. Bose-Einstein condensate
   (BEC)


   B. solid         C. liquid
  Has a definite       Has no definite
   shape & a          shape, but has a
 definite volume      definite volume



   D. gas            E. plasma
Has no definite
  shape & no
definite volume    Essential question: What are the phases of matter?
 What causes matter
to behave in a certain
        way?
At room temperature; why
is Copper a solid, Mercury
   a liquid, and Helium a
             gas?
II. The Kinetic Theory of
           Matter
 A. Moving particles have
    energy, Kinetic Energy

 B. All particles of matter
    are in constant motion
   1. The motion determines the state or phase of matter

   2. The motion gives matter certain properties




                     Essential question: What causes matter to behave a certain way?
    What are the
  characteristics of
each phase of matter?
III. The Common States of
           Matter
 A. Solids
  1. Have a definite shape and volume
  2. Particles are packed very close together and have order
  3. Particles are fixed but can vibrate




                                          Like you guys in
                                            the cafeteria.


               Essential question: What are the characteristics of each phase of matter?
B. Liquids
 1. Particles are close together but they are free to
    move around
 2. They have no definite shape
    (match the shape of its container)
 3. They have a set volume due to the attraction
    among particles

                                                        Like you guys in
                                                          the hallways!




              Essential question: What are the characteristics of each phase of matter?
C. Gases
 1. They have no definite shape or volume
 2. Energy is too high for particle attraction
 3. Particles are far apart and move rapidly



                                                       Like you guys,
                                                      June 7th at 10:38!




              Essential question: What are the characteristics of each phase of matter?
D. Plasma
 1. Particles have high energy (HOT) and glow
 2. Is the most common phase of matter in the universe
   * 99% of observable matter in the universe is plasma.
 3. Examples:




                Essential question: What are the characteristics of each phase of matter?
Today you will need two
    colored pencils

    One that is REDish
    One that is BLUEish
        For matter to
        change phase….
Energy is put in (matter heats), this is an
Endothermic change.
Energy is taken out (matter cools), this is
an Exothermic change.

There are 6 phase changes you’ll need to
know.

1. Freezing           4.   Melting
2. Condensation       5.   Vaporization
3. Sublimation        6.   Deposition
                   The 6 Phase Changes


                       5. Sublimation




               1.Melting               2.Vaporization
Heat                                                    Gas
       Solid
                              Liquid

               3.Freezing              4.Condensation




                           6. Deposition
                Heating Curve
  When a substance moves from one phase to another,
  the temperature remains constant until the change is
                      complete.


                                          STEAM


Temp ºC
                         WATER                    Boiling
                                                   Point
                                                  100°C
          ICE
                                       Melting
                        Heat added      Point
                                         0°C
         6 Before The Door!
• What are the 5 phases of matter?
• All particles of matter are in _________ motion.
• Which phase of matter has no definite shape or
  volume?
• Which phase of matter has a definite volume but
  no definite shape?
• Which phase of matter is like you guys at a
  typical pep-rally?
• Which phase change occurs when you change
  from a gas to a liquid?
Focus: The Gas phase

 How do gasses react
 to changes in their
   environment ?
IV. The Behavior of Gases
 A. Pressure
  1. Particles colliding into a surface causes pressure
  2. Pressure is affected by three factors
   a. Temperature- raising the temperature increases the
      speed of the molecules. This increases the pressure of
      the gas.




                                                                           Click
                                                                            to
                                                                          Try me




               Essential question: How do gases react to changes to their environment?
b. Volume- reducing the volume of a gas increases
   the pressure




                              Notice how the
                              particles collide
                              more as the volume
                              decreases.
c. Number of particles- the more particles there are, the
   more collisions occur causing more pressure




                                         Gas Properties
B. Charles’s Law (TV)
 1. As the temperature of a gas increases,
 so will the volume




 2. Temperature and
    volume will have a
    direct relationship

   V1         V2
          =
   T1         T2
   C. Boyle’s Law (VP)
      1. As the volume of a gas decreases, the pressure
         of the gas increases




2. Volume and pressure will
have an inverse relationship.
As volume decreases,
pressure increases.


        P1 V1 = P2 V2
D. Combined Gas Law (PTV)

      P1 V1     P2 V2
       T1   =    T2
Units used to calculate Pressure
• Pressure = Pascals (Pa)
  – 1 Pa = 1 Newton of force over 1 m2   1N   1m2

• Temperature = oC or oK                 1 Pa
  – oK = -273 oC
• Volume = liters or m3

• Pressure and Volume can use metric prefixes:
                KPa    cm3     ml
Fill in the Venn Diagram below
     Definite Volume                  Definite Shape
     Variable Volume                  Variable Shape

            Solid            Liquid           Gas




          Def.      Def.              Var.    Var.
          Shape     Volume            Shape   Volume
Fill in the Venn Diagram below
    Pressure            Temperature              Volume



               Charles’ Law       Boyle’s Law


                                                  Combined Gas
          Temperature         x       Pressure        Law

                         Volume
Index Card Pressure Tool
              On the Back


                               Combined Gas
                Charles’ Law       Law
Boyle’s Law
                 V1       V2   P1 V1   P2 V2
P1 V1 = P2 V2         =              =
                 T1       T2    T1      T2
 Now try it, and answer the
   following questions.
1. With constant Temperature, what
  happens to the pressure when the volume
  increases?
2. With constant Volume, what happens to
  the pressure when the temperature
  increases?
3. With constant Pressure, what happens to
  the temperature when the volume
  increases?
Complete the following gas problems:

1. A gas has a volume of 5L, at a pressure of
   50KPa. What happens to the volume when
   the pressure is increased to 125KPa? The
   temperature doesn’t change.



P1 = 50 KPa       P1 V1 = P2 V2        (Boyle’s Law)
V1 = 5L
P2 = 125 KPa       P1 V1 =     V2 =      50 x 5

V2 = ?               P2                   125

T1 =
                          2 L = V2
T2 =
2. At 10 oC, the gas in a cylinder has a
volume of 0.250 L. The gas volume is
allowed to expand to 0.285 L. To keep the
pressure the same, the temperature is
adjusted to what, after expansion?



                                            T2 = 11.4 oC
3. Gas stored in a 100 liter tank at 273K (0oC),
has a pressure of 388 KPa. The safe limit for
the pressure is 825 KPa. At what temperature
(in oC) will the gas reach this pressure?




                                                   T2 = 307.5 oC

								
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