Soc213(001) Social Deviance Bogart Test01A 02/15/03 Part01: Text (Thio) Ch. 02: Traditional Theories 01a. According to Mertons goals-means gap theory, the societally induced strain that forces people to engage in deviant activities is _____. A. the inability to realize a success goal B. the failure to achieve high status C. not having an illegitimate opportunity for success D. lack of association with people who hold conventional ideas E. the pressures induced by restrictive formal social control. (p. 18) 02a.The central subject of Merton's strain theory is _____, a type of deviant adaptation to the _____. A. innovation, goal-means gap; B. conformity, disjunction meridian; C. retreatism, anomic frustration; D. ethnocentrism, goals-means disjunction; E. Differential Opportunity, shame reintegration gap. (p. 19) 03a. In status frustration theory, Cohen studied lower-class boys, who,frustrated with their inability to achieve at school, would set up their own distinct (best answer) _____A. socialization clubs, B. delinquent subcultures, C. successful subcultures, D. ritual enclaves E. criminal nexus. (p. 21) 04a. One of the greatest contributions of strain theory, originally published in 1938, was to help sociologists seek the causes of deviance in _____ rather than _____. Individual, in society; B. aspirations, within the society; C. upper-classes, lower-classes; D. society, within the individual; E. socio-biology, phrenology. (p. 23) 05a. A valid premise of strain theory, as put forth by Thio, is that: A. if an individual associates more with people who hold deviant ideas,the individual is likely to become deviant, B. lower-class people are more likely to commit deviance, C. once labeled deviant, people tend to see themselves as deviant, D. first time offenders have weak social bonds, E. when there is a significant gap between aspirations and opportunity, deviation is generated, regardless of social class. (p. 23) 06a. Burgess and Akers Social Leaning Theory is also referred to as_____ and is based on _____. A. differential reinforcement, behaviorist theories B. reward contingency, conflict theory, C. prevention contingency, institutional theory, D. opportunity reinforcement, Freudian theory, E. differential application, status denigration theory. (p. 25) 07a. Burgess and Akers argue that before one becomes criminal, a process of _____ must occur where he or she is rewarded for continuing deviant behavior. A. differential reinforcement, B. differential revulsion, C. differential learning, D. differential rejection. (p. 26) 08a. Attachment, commitment, involvement, and belief are four elements of _____ . A. Hirschis social bond and self-control theory; B. Braithwaites reintegrative shaming theory; C. the deterrence doctrine; D. Marxist theory; E. feminist theory. (p. 28) 09a. ______ focuses on formal social control. A. differential identification B. social learning theory C. deterrence doctrine D. reintegrative shaming E. differential reinforcement theory. (p. 29) 10a. Braithwaite's theory about _____ being able to reduce crime in the US may be able to work for first-time offenders but not hardened criminals. A. social bonds B. reintegrative shaming C. deterrence D. differential illegitimate opportunity E. learning theory. (p. 33) Ch. 03: Modern Theories 11a. All but which of the following applies to labeling theory? A. being labeled deviant produces negative consequences for the labeled, B. generally the powerful are more able to label others as deviant, C. deviance is a collective action, D. would assume that a former mental patient would have more difficulty finding a job than someone not so labeled, E. labeling has nothing but negative consequences for society. (p. 38) 12a. The interaction among lawmaking, law enforcement, criminal actions, and ideology combine to produce ______theory. A. social reality B. Marxist C. legal reality D. feminist E. postmodernist. (p. 38) 13a. One negative criticism of labeling theory is that it A. is not a sociological theory. B. does no actually explain the causes of deviance. C. is too deterministic a theory. D. emphasizes the causes of deviance too much. E. Only deals with hidden deviance and powerful deviance. (p. 39) 14a. According to phenomenologist, many traditional sociologists have A. discovered that recognizing deviant behavior raises many problems. B. failed to see that scientific conceptions of deviance are problematic by nature. C. discovered the essence of deviant phenomen. D. used the subjective approach to deviance. E. None of the above. (p. 40) 15a.Harold Garfinkel studied Agnes, who was a person seeking a sex change operation, and discovered that she considered herself A. both a man and a woman at the same time. B. a normal woman with a physical defect (a penis). C. a sexual freak. D. a normal man with several physical defects. E. An abnormal woman who should not be in society. (p. 42) 16a. ________has/have to do with the incompatible interests and needs of diverse groups, such as conservative versus liberal political groups. A. legal definitions B. social conflict C. deviants’ misconceptions D. theorists’ conceptions E. cultural conflict. (p. 44) 17a. All but which of the following is a type of conflict theory? A. legal reality theory B. social reality theory C. Marxist theory D. strain theory E. feminist theory. (p. 44) 18a. The phrase, deviance is traced to the exploitative nature of capitalism, would most likely be attributed to which theory? A. legal reality theory, B. feminist theory, C. Marxist theory, D. Symbolic interactionist theory, E. Power theory. (p. 48) 19a. Marxist theory is to capitalism as _____ theory is to patriarchy. A. patrocentric B. feminist C. relative deprivation D. surplus population E. social conflict. (p. 49) 20a. According to power theory, strong deviant motivation among the powerful stems from ___A. stronger social control B. deconstructionism C. relative deprivation D. coercive control E. organizational imperative. (p. 50) Li: Functional Theory 21a. Erickson: The _____ of the community become defined (and maintained) in the critical transactions between (1) deviants and (2) official agents of the community. A. values B. norms C. mores D. boundaries E. terms of discourse 22a. Kingsley Davis and Emile Durkheim most clearly agreed that prostitution A. has a positive social function, B. threatens marriage, C. corrupts society, D. has no effect on modem society, E. is unnecessary in a healthy marriage. 23a. According to Durkheim which of the following is true? Crime. A. defines the social norms, B. provides the context in which social sentiments can be expressed, C. organizes the social system against perceived threats, D. strengthens the community in the expression of its norms, E. all of the above 24a. The purpose of punishment for a crime is primarily to __________A. act as a deterrent to future crimes B. cure a pathology C. express the sentiments of the community D. encourage dependence in the deviant E. bring dishonor upon the deviant’s family. 25a. According to Durkheim crime is normal in that it is (best answer) A. useful, normal & inevitable B. social, extrinsic & middle-class C. inevitable in social systems D. universal, intrinsic & functional E. C&D Lii: Social Disorganization 26a. What is the replacement of one set of social institutions by another called in The Polish Peasant?. Social reorganization, B. social definition, C. social reconstruction, D. normlessness, E. social reorientation 27a. Park used this metaphor for what he saw as the most problematic elements of society in Chicago:, A. human sewer, B. cesspool of the soul, C. scrap pile of humanity, D. God's darkest alley, E. human junk. 28a. Thomas and Znaniecki studied Polish immigrant teenage girls because_____ A. the study of sex and gender was a dominant theme at the University of Chicago B. huge waves of Polish immigrants were flooding Chicago at that time C. Znaniecki was Polish D. Polish girls were getting pregnant, which was less common back in their home country E. Birthrate and immigration studies indicated that there should not be any Polish teenage girls at that time 29a. The period and circumstances under which Social Disorganization Theory evolved was:____ A. in the 1930s during the economic depression B. during the Roaring Twenties (1920s) before Prohibition was passed C. during the early 1940s after America entered World War II D. after the turn of the century (post-1900) during a period of advanced industrialization and urbanization E. in the 1960s clash between the Vietnam War and the Peace Movement 30a. According to Robert Paris and Warren Dunham, all of the following statements would be true EXCEPT_. A. Zone IV is the zone of transition, B. delinquency decreases with distance from the center of the city, C. the highest rate of suicide is found in the rooming house Area, D. hobohemia is found in the manufacturing district (Zone I), E. working men's houses are typically found in Zone III. Liii: Anomie Theory 31a. According Durkhiem how does poverty protect against suicide? A. poverty introduces a stable condition, B. an individual's suicide threatens the survival of his or her family, C. society is more likely to assist poor individuals than rich individuals, D. organizations are formed to help the poor, E. it is more difficult for the poor to find the means to commit suicide. 32a. In Durkheim’s interpretation, “declassified” means: A. stripped of one’s identity B. regrouped according to a common language C. homogenous social behavior D. morally reprehensible E. loss of means that one once enjoyed. 33a. Cloward argued that Merton (in his anomie model) erred in failing to pay adequate attention to differential A. income B. motivation, C. legitimate opportunities generally, D. illegitimate opportunities generally, E. marginality. 34a. Cultural goals are most closely associated with ______ while institutional means are most closely associated with_____. A. dependence, failure B. means, ends C. success, failure D. values, mores E. social regulation, normlessness 35a. In Merton’s typology of the goal-means disjunction, “ritualism” means:_____ A. acceptance of goals and means B. accept goal but reject means C. reject goal but accept means D. reject both goal and means without replacement E. reject both goal and means with replacement. Liv: Differential Association Theory 36a. The denial of responsibility and the denial of injury are examples of techniques of____ A. rationalization B. neutralization C. assertion D. determinism E. adaptation. 37a. According to Donald R. Cressey in his work, other Peoples Money: A Study in the Social Psychology of Embezzlement, a trust violators thought process included all of the following EXCEPT _____ A. the idea that his/her problem was unshareable B. the idea that it would be difficult to get caught C. the idea that the act itself was the result of a general irresponsibility for which he/she could not be completely responsible D. the idea that the act was essentially non-criminal E. the perception of an opportunity 38a. According to Sykes and Matza, in their 1957 work, Techniques of Neutralization: A Theory of Delinquency, all of the following are considered to be techniques of neutralization EXCEPT _____. A. condemnation of the condemners, B. denial of responsibility, C. appeal to a higher law, D. denial of injury E. denial of the victim. 39a. The role of differential association theorists was that of ____ A. college professor B. naturalist C. government consultant D. business consultant E. criminologists 40a. According to the book, Criminology, the process of logical abstraction involves an analysis of_____. A. different types of criminal acts B. different types of punishment C. what criminals have in common D. criminal outcomes E. criminal images.
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