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					                                 1                             Introduction
This introduction section includes brief introduction of the Asian Institute of Technology
with its three schools and two satellite centers, a chronology of tracer studies in AIT, and
tracer study of AIT graduates with Norwegian scholarship.

1.1    Asian Institute of Technology

The Asian Institute of Technology (AIT), as an autonomous, international, postgraduate
institution was established in 1959 to help meet the growing need for advanced education
in Asia. Three schools, and the AIT Center in Vietnam, provide advanced education,
training and research in the areas of engineering; environment and development; and
management, to meet the needs of private and public sectors. For more than five decades,
AIT has been an active partner in the promotion of technological change and development
in the Asia-Pacific region. AIT today has graduated more than 16,000 graduates from more
than 80 countries, and currently has an enrollment of over 1,800 full time students tutored
by an international team of faculty and staff drawn from all over the world. English is the
medium of instruction and written work, as well as the official administrative language.
The brief introduction of the three schools and two satellite centers is presented hereunder.

1.1.1 School of Environment, Resources and Development

The School of Environment, Resources, and Development (SERD) is committed to play a
leadership role in the provision of excellent academic, research and outreach programme
that are relevant to the region. Through its academic programmes and outreach units,
SERD, AIT’s largest school, has been working towards capacity building and human
resources development in the areas of environment and resources management, poverty
alleviation and socio-economic/gender development. SERD mission is to respond to
regional needs by mobilizing and enhancing capacities for socially, economically and
environmentally sound development in partnership with the public and private sectors. The
school follows an interdisciplinary approach that integrates the technological, natural and
social sciences. The academic programs of SERD are designed to be responsive to the
regional needs in poverty Reduction, Environmental Protection and Sustainable
Development. They are categorized into three academic thrusts, namely: Bioresources,
Environment and Energy and development studies, and comprising of the following fields
of study:
               1.    Agricultural Systems and Engineering
               2.    Aquaculture and Aquatic Resource Management
               3.    Food Engineering and Bioprocess Technology
               4.    Energy
               5.    Environmental Engineering and Management
               6.    Pulp and Paper Technology
               7.    Gender and Development Studies
               8.    Natural Resources Management
               9.    Regional and Rural Development Planning
               10.   Urban Environmental Management.


                                              1
1.1.2 School of Engineering and Technology

School of Engineering and Technology (SET) is the synergistic integration in November
2005 of the two former Schools, namely, the School of Civil Engineering (SCE) and the
School of Advanced Technologies (SAT). Historically, these two schools came into
existence only in January 1993 when the Institute reorganized the need to reform its
academic structure from smaller-sized units called "Divisions" to larger bodies named
"Schools". The School of Civil Engineering (SCE) represents the legacy of AIT when it
was established with a single field of study in Hydraulics Engineering. Subsequently, other
civil engineering fields of study were launched to assist the recovery from the ravages of
the Second World War. SCE emphasized on a learning process that combines theoretical
problem-solving and real life application of engineering principles. Its research orientation
was outward-looking, addressing the actual and anticipated needs of the built environment.
The School of Advanced Technologies (SAT) consisted of fields of study that were
launched in response to the needs of the regional industrialization in the second and third
decades of AIT's existence. The School was committed to being international,
multidisciplinary centers of excellence in Information, Communications, Industrial
Systems, and Space Technologies through education, research and outreach.

SET amalgamating SCE and SAT is striving to create synergies between the activities of
the two former schools to build up world-class multidisciplinary and cross-disciplinary
education, research and outreach activities across the boundaries of traditional fields of
knowledge. More interdisciplinary programs are being launched so faculty members can
work effectively across the disciplinary walls. The new school is enhancing its academic
portfolio by emphatically injecting the "5I" features namely internationality, innovation,
integration, information technology and industrial partnership. SET is comprised of the
three broad groups and several fields of studies which are listed hereunder.

The Civil and Infrastructure Engineering group includes the following field of studies:

           1.   Construction, Engineering and Infrastructure Management (CEIM)
           2.   Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering (GTE)
           3.   Geosystem Exploration and Petroleum GeoEngineering (GEPG)
           4.   Structural Engineering (STE)
           5.   Transportation Engineering (TRE)
           6.   Water Engineering and Management (WEM)

The Industrial Systems Engineering (ISE) group is comprised of the following field of
studies:

           1. Mechatronics (MEC)
           2. Microelectronics (MIC)
           3. Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering (IME)

The fields in the Information and Communications group are:

           1.   Computer Science (CS)
           2.   Information Management (IM)
           3.   Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems (RS-GIS)
           4.   Telecommunications (TC)




                                              2
1.1.3 School of Management

The School of Management (SOM) has academic programs which are of international
standard and are adapted to the needs and challenges of the economies in an increasingly
competitive region. SOM offers MBA, PhD, Executive MBA and DBA Programs. All
academic programs are conducted in English. The MBA Program encourages participative
learning and use a variety of interactive learning methodologies. Programs are designed for
students to learn latest management concepts, techniques and tools, but more importantly,
to develop skills and attitude of listening and understanding others, holistic thinking,
collective decision making, leading by example, communicating, negotiating, and being
sensitive to societal concerns. SOM provides exceptional individuals with a supportive
environment in which they can develop their skills and aptitudes, helping them to reach
their professional goals and to serve the interests of countries in the Asia-Pacific region.
The curriculum is necessarily interdisciplinary, integrating as it consists elements from
engineering, economics, social psychology and management fields. It is structured in such
a way as to include the integrated components of the school required courses, electives or
focus courses, and/or an MBA Project or Research Study.

There are three distinct Executive MBA Programs - EMBA in Bangkok, EMBA - Human
Resources Management (EMBA-HRM) and International EMBA (iEMBA) in Vietnam.
The three EMBA programs have different segmentation and cater to management context
of each segment. All the EMBA programs are of equal value and quality aiming at
different target groups. SOM offers two distinct doctoral programs - PhD and DBA. The
PhD program focuses on research work embedded in theories from social sciences and
humanities, and prepares students for teaching and research-related jobs. DBA is a
professional doctorate program, where the research is rooted in the context of professional
practice making a significant contribution to management practice, policy or strategy. The
two programs have different segmentation and cater to research context of each segment.
Both programs are of equal value and quality aiming at different target groups. Both
involve the development of substantial standard research work.

1.1.4   AIT Satellite Center in Vietnam and Indonesia

It was in 1993 when AIT Center in Vietnam (AITCV) was established in Hanoi, Vietnam
then it has been gaining appreciation and supports. Now it is well-structured in operation
and is widely recognized. Flexibility and continuous search for innovation and creativity
characterize AITCV. It serves as a bridge between the University, Society and Industry.
And this forms the essence of our vision: to be an international gateway for technology
transfer supporting national development, education and outreach activities to achieve the
best efficiency, responsiveness and quality. AITCV activities can be classified by 3 main
kinds:

           1. Academic programs, including Two-stage Masters, Executive Master, Professional
              Masters; International Masters of Advanced Studies, and Doctoral programs
              (DBA),
           2. Short-term training courses specialized in many fields, including Management and
              Business, Environment and Development, Language and Training, Advanced
              Technologies, etc. and,
           3. Consultancy services.




                                              3
It was in mid 2006 when AIT Center in Indonesia (AIT-CI) was established as a
collaborative institution for Human Resource Development located in Bangdung,
Indonesia to facilitate and work on research and development, consultancy, professional
trainings and higher education program according to Indonesian regulations. AIT-CI was
established based on collaboration between Asian Institute of Technology (AIT) Thailand
and The Government of Indonesia (GOI) represented by Ministry of Public Works (MPW)
Indonesia. AIT-CI has clearly mentioned its vision to be the best education institution in
providing the best human resources in regional and international level. AIT-CI carries out
short term mission, namely (1) Spreading out of science and technology which has been
developed by AIT to support development in Indonesia, especially in the field of
construction industries, (2) Increasing quality of human resources in Indonesia through
professional trainings and higher education programs such as certificate and diploma
programs leading to master's and doctoral programs, (3) Increasing regional partnership
and collaboration in the field of science and technology, information management,
research and development, training and education.

AIT-CI has already started the
                            dual master degree program on transportation engineering
and management. This program is tailor made to meet the need of capacity building for the
Directorate General of Highway. It is in collaboration with the Gadjah Mada University
(GMU), Yogyakarta and this program offers two degrees: a Master of Engineering
(M.Eng.) from GMU and a Master of Science (M.Sc.) from AIT.

1.2    Trace Studies in AIT

The tracer study of AIT graduates has been one of the important research activities in AIT.
The first tracer study was done in 1971. The periodic tracing of AIT alumni focuses on
updating the alumni directory and gathering certain information required for the
improvement of AIT curriculum, teaching, research, extension, and networking. As of
January, 2009, altogether 14 AIT Alumni tracer studies, including this one, Tracer Study of
AIT Graduates with Norwegian Scholarship (2005 to mid 2008) have been conducted.
These all are listed hereunder in chronological order:

           1. Enquiry into the Whereabouts of AIT Graduates (unpublished survey, 1971).
           2. Questionnaire to the AIT Graduates (unpublished survey, 1973).
           3. Alumni Tracer Study and Employer Survey (covering the years of graduation from
               1961 until 1976; published in 1978).
           4. Revised Tracer Study on Alumni from 1976 -1979 and Alumni Directory 1961 -
               1979 (published in 1980).
           5. Tracer Study and Directory of Alumni for the Period 1961 - 1981 (published in
               1982).
           6. Tracer Study 1961 - 1984 Alumni (published in 1985).
           7. AIT Alumni 1961 - 1987 Tracer Study (published in 1990).
           8. 1990 Alumni Tracer Study (published in 1991)
           9. AIT Alumni 1961 - 1990 Employer Study. Interim Report on Preliminary Findings
               (published in 1992).
           10. AIT Women Graduates Tracer Study, 1961 - 1990 (Asian Women and
               Technological Careers, 1992).
           11. AIT Alumni Tracer Study (published 1993).
           12. Tracer Study of AIT Alumnae and Alumni with German Scholarship or
               Fellowship, 1972 - 1999 (published in 2002).




                                             4
           13. Tracer Study: Urban Environmental Management Graduates, 1998 - 2005
               (published in 2006).
           14. Tracer Study of AIT Graduates with Norwegian Scholarship, 2005 - May 2008
               (published in 2009).

1.3    Tracer Study of AIT Graduates with Norwegian Scholarship

Alumni tracer studies are the most important vehicle to build strong bonds between the
Alma Mater and the ever-increasing graduates. This is feasible through two perspectives.
From one perspective, the alumni are the rich source of feedback for improvements in the
course curriculum, teaching, research, extension, and networking. On the other, the tracer
study helps to measure the extent of professional and academic careers pursued by the
graduates after gaining knowledge and skill through academic institutions like Asian
Institute of Technology (AIT).

As of mid-2008, AIT produced 15,981 alumni with 11,983 males and 3,998 females from
82 countries and territories. Starting from 1971 to date altogether 14 tracer studies of AIT
graduates have been done in different formats and with different foci. The latest one was
conducted in 2008/09 for the AIT graduates with Norwegian Scholarship (2003 – May
2008), which is most comprehensive and more scientific since both the parametric and
non-parametric statistical tools are used in data analysis and interpretation. The total
target population was 82 (29 male AIT graduates and 53 female AIT graduates) belonging
to 9 countries of South and Southeast Asia who have graduated from AIT during 2005 to
May 2008. Since female AIT graduates are far more than male graduates, the gender
analyses are made considering one of the most important aspects of this tracer study.

1.3.1 Objectives

       1. To find out the effectiveness and relevance of AIT degree as a resource and credential
          for employment/job placement upon graduation from AIT; employment opportunities
          for graduates – for both men and women.

       2. To find out the relevance of AIT courses/curricula and research to the current job
          function and professional development in respective fields, and furthering
          academic/scientific pursuits.

       3. To find out the professional status and ranks of the AIT graduates in their respective
          employments.

       4. To assess the level of networking among AIT graduates and recommendations to
          strengthen the existing network among them.

       5. To assess the gender awareness of AIT graduates in their respective professions.

       6. To assess the contribution of AIT graduates in the development of their home countries
          and of the region; including contribution to poverty alleviation and to fulfill AIT’s
          mission.




                                               5
1.3.2 Organizational Structure of the Tracer Study

The whole report can be divided into the three major parts: pre-introduction (title page,
foreword, preface, acknowledgement, executive summary, table of contents, list of
abbreviations); appendices (appendix tables, coordination schema, questionnaires, list of
AIT graduates with Norwegian scholarships marked with respondents and non-respondents
with their addresses and contact details); and main body which is comprised of the
following 12 sections:

              1   Introduction
              2   Research Design
              3   AIT Graduates
              4   Graduates before Studying at AIT
              5   Studies at AIT
              6   Feedbacks on Teaching, Research and Services
              7   Career Decision and Employments
              8   Relevancies and Effectiveness
              9   Development Activities and Networking
              10 Partnership and Suggestions
              11 Perspectives of Employers and Peers on AIT Graduates
              12 Key Findings and Recommendations




                                           6
                          2                               Research Design

The research design covered two major aspects: conceptual framework and the entire
research process. The conceptual framework depicts the types and levels of research,
survey organization, followed by data processing and outputs (Figure 2.1). The entire
research process includes different activities to be performed in terms of survey
organization, data collection, data analysis, and report writing.

Fig. 2.1: Conceptual Framework of the Tracer Study of AIT Graduates 2003 - 2008

                                  RESEARCH

                                                                   Level
          Type

                                                     Individual                  Aggregate
    Evaluatory        Exploratory


                              SURVEY
                          ORGANIZATIONON
                                                                  Methods

          Approach
   - Census survey of AIT
     graduates (2003 -2008)
   - Survey of Employers               Mail Questionnaire          Personal Interview by
   - Survey of Peers                   - By post                   - Researcher
                                       - By email                  - Project staff
                                       - Through website           - Focal person
                                                                   - Research assistant



                     DATA PROCESSING AND OUTPUTS



         Data entry                      Data analysis                        Outputs
   - Defining variables       -   Data updating                       -   Tables
   - Defining variable        -   Data validating                     -   Charts and Graphs
     labels                   -   Parametric and non-                 -   Draft report
   - Defining values              parametric statistics               -   Final report
   - SPSS spread sheet        -   Case summaries




                                             7
2.1    Survey Organization

Organization of the survey included activities related to preparing coordination schema
(Appendix-1); questionnaires for the AIT graduates, their employers and peers; and
updating the alumni addresses or the contact details. The questionnaire for the AIT
graduates (2005 – 2008) was developed based on coordination schema (Appendix 1) which
included seven sections, namely, idiographic data; earlier status (before studying at AIT);
feedback on teaching, research, and services at AIT; career decision immediately after
graduation from AIT; relevancy / effectiveness of AIT studies in professional career;
alumni involved in developmental activities and networking; and AIT alumni suggestions
for partnership with AIT. Pre-testing of the questionnaires was followed by a final version
of the questionnaires.

In order to get the work done in time, the researcher was fully assisted by two full time
junior researchers (Research Associate and Research Assistants), two Student Assistants,
and some Focal Persons from the countries with higher number of AIT graduates (2005 –
mid 2008). The junior researchers mainly involved in survey organization, data collection
and data entry. Focal Persons and Student Assistants helped in updating contact details of
the target AIT graduates and also requesting and reminding them to return the completed
questionnaires to AIT.

2.2    Data Collection

The data collection is one of most important features of this tracer study. The population of
this tracer study constituted by the entire AIT graduates between 2005 and mid-2008,
which total 82 (M : F = 29 : 53). These graduates are from 9 countries, namely,
Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and
Vietnam. Considering a census survey, this study aimed at getting completed
questionnaires from all. However, slightly more than 80 percent of the target respondents
returned their completed questionnaire.

Except in the situation where face to face interview was possible, all the questionnaires
developed for AIT graduates (2005- 2008) were sent by post and email or requested for the
online submission and from the AIT website. A few employer and peers were directly met
by the researcher and enquired their impression on AIT graduates and AIT itself. Focal
Persons were mobilized to ensure the receipt of questionnaires by each AIT graduate (2005
- mid 2008) presently living in his or her home country. In addition, they were requested to
send reminders for filling and sending the completed questionnaires to AIT. The field visits
were made to five countries, namely, Cambodia, Loa PDR, Vietnam, Sri Lanka, Nepal and
Myanmar. The intensive use of local and international telephone services were made to
update contact details of the target alumni and to request them to return completed
questionnaires.

2.3    Data Analysis and Report Writing

The commonly used Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS), latest version (16) used
to enter and analyze data. Before venturing into the data analysis, data updating and
validating was done. As per requirements, some intervening variables were developed for
cross-tabulations. Both parametric and non-parametric statistical tools were used for data
analyses. The parametric tools (such as Means, Standard Deviation, Standard Error,


                                             8
Comparing means through t-Test and ANOVA) were used when data have the
characteristics of probability and normal distribution characteristics. The non – parametric
tools (such as Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient, Chi-square test, Correspondence
analysis and Wilcoxon related sample tests) were used when data have ranking but no clear
numerical interpretation. The analyzed data were presented into tabular and graphical
forms when writing the reports. The entire tabular or graphical forms were discussed
under different sub-titles such as Idiographic Information, Earlier Status, Studies at AIT,
Feedback on the Quality Standards, Professional Career, Satisfaction with the AIT Studies,
Gender Issues, Impact, Usefulness, Relevance, Networking, Suggestions for Improvement,
Employers’ Perspective, and Peer’s Viewpoint.

2.4       Scope and Limitation

The study has a wider scope since it covers cross sectional data of nine countries from
South and Southeast Asian regions. The target population consisted of substantial number
of female (53) compared to male (29) AIT graduates which provided sufficient ground for
gender analyses on various aspects of AIT education and Alumni’s professional
advancements. A full attempt was made to get the completed questionnaire from all the
target AIT graduates, however, due to time and budget constraints, it was only possible to
get 80.5 percent response rate.




      Focal Person of Cambodia updating contact details of Target Graduates


.




                                                  9
3.1       AIT Graduates
                                                     3                 AIT Graduates

So far AIT has been able to celebrate 110 graduation ceremonies and to award altogether
16, 201 academic degrees in terms of Diploma, MBA, MBA (E), M. Eng., M. Eng. (P), M.
Sc., M. Sc. (P), D. Eng., D. Tech. Sc. and Ph. D. as presented in Figure 3.1. It is evident
that M. Eng. degree alone has been received by more than 50 percent of the total awardees.
These academic degrees were received by the students of 82 countries of Asia, Europe,
America and Africa.

          Figure 3.1: Total AIT Academic Degrees Awarded as of December 2008

         Ph.D.            191
  D.Tech.Sc.              211

        D.Eng.             427
      M. Sc.(P)       1

        M. Sc.                                          4069
   M.Eng.(P)          52
        M.Eng.                                                                           8603
      MBA (E)             149

          MBA                             2183

      Diploma              315

                  0             1000   2000   3000   4000    5000   6000   7000   8000   9000   10000

Source: AIT Graduation Book, 110th Graduation, 19 December 2008.

3.2      Norwegian Scholarship Recipients: Total and Respondent Graduates

As of May 2008, altogether 82 persons received
Norwegian Scholarships who represent two
Asia regions and 9 Asian countries. A large Figure 3.2: Total Graduates by Region
majority (65%) is from South Asia region and
its countries, namely, Bangladesh, Bhutan,
Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. The remaining
graduates (35%) are from South-east Asia and             -South
                                                        east Asia
its countries, namely, Cambodia, Lao PDR,                 35%
Myanmar, and Vietnam. This means the donor                             South
has been giving more focus in South Asia for                           Asia
                                                                        65%
strengthening     academic      and     research
capabilities required for the sustainable
development of this region. When further
analysis was done from the gender perspective
it was found that priority was given to females.
Therefore the total 82 graduates who received Norwegian scholarships comprised by 53

                                                        10
Females (65%) and 29 males (35%). Out of the total 82 target graduates who received
Norwegian scholarships for their studies in AIT, 66 graduates (80.5%) submitted the filled
questionnaires through email (73%), online (21%), and personal interview (6%).
In    terms       of
percentage, the                Figure 3.3: Target and Respondent Graduates by
overall response                                        Gender
rate was found
lower from South            100                                                   82
Asia         (74%)           80                                                         66
compared          to  Number                                 53
                             60                                    43
South-east Asia              40       29    23
(93%). One of                20
the main reasons               0
is that many
                                        Male                  Female                Total
graduates from
South Asia have                                 Target Alumni Respondent Alumni
limited access to
email internet services in comparison to the graduates from Southeast Asia. Except from
Cambodia, 100 percent target alumni submitted their completed questionnaires from
Southeast Asian countries. There was only one target alumnus from Pakistan and he did
not submit despite lot of requests and reminders. The largest response rate was found from
Nepal comparing to other countries in South Asia. The response rates were also looked
from the gender perspective of responding AIT graduates by their countries. The higher
proportion       of      male
respondents             (80%)            Figure 3.4: Total and Respondent Graduates
compared        to     female                         by Region and Country
respondents (60%) was Region                                          Graduates
                                              Country
found     in     Bangladesh.                                 Total Respondents Percent
Altogether 50% of the                         Bangladesh       15        10             67
males and 33% of the                          Bhutan            5         2             40
females submitted their                       Nepal            22        20             91
questionnaires           from South Asia
                                              Pakistan          1         0               0
Bhutan. Out of 6 target AIT
graduates (5 males and 1                      Sri Lanka        10         7             70
female) in Cambodia from                      Subtotal         53        39             74
where four males (80%)                        Cambodia          6         4             67
submitted their completed                     Lao PDR           2         2            100
questionnaires. There were South-east
                                              Myanmar           1         1            100
only 2 target AIT graduates Asia
in Lao PDR who were                           Vietnam          20        20            100
females and both of them                      Subtotal         29        27             93
submitted                 their Total         Total            82        66             80
questionnaires.      Likewise
there was only one target graduate (female) from Myanmar who also submitted the
completed questionnaire. More proportion of female respondents (93%) compared to
male respondents (86%) was found in Nepal. Similar trend was found in Sri Lanka as 75
percent of the target male graduates and 67 percent of the target female graduates
submitted their questionnaires. There were 5 males and 15 Females as the target AIT
graduates in Vietnam and all of them submitted their questionnaires.



                                            11
          4
                                                  Graduates
                                      Before Studying at AIT
Considering very few but important aspects of the AIT graduates before their studies in
AIT; an small attempt was made to inquire about their last or highest academic degrees,
sources of information on knowing study programs at AIT, job experiences, and main
reason to pursue post graduate studies at AIT.

4.1    Academic Degrees before Studying at AIT
                                                   Figure 4.1: Academic Degrees before AIT
The analyses of the highest or last academic
                                                                  (Total : 66)
degrees of the respondent AIT graduates were
made and it was found that 74 percent of them        Diploma
                                                        2%
had Bachelor degrees followed by Masters’                                      Master
degrees (24%) and Diploma (2%). Majority of                                     24%

the AIT graduates (53%) had the science
background followed by engineering (28%) and              Bachelor
                                                            74%
of humanities and social sciences (20%).

It was found that 61 (92%) of the total 66
respondents had got their highest or last academic degrees from their own countries.
Remaining 5 (8%) respondents had received their last degrees before studying at AIT from
other than their own countries. Among these 5 respondents 3 (60%) were found to be
Nepali Nationals. Among the remaining
2 (40%) respondents, one is Cambodian Figure 4.2: Academic Background before AIT
who had master degree (ME) from                             (Total : 66)
USSR and another one was Bhutanese
with BE from India. Similarly, among                 Humanities and
the three Nepali, one had master degree             Social Science
(M. Sc.) from Bangladesh and two had                     20%
bachelor degrees (one with BE from
India and another with BA from US).                                      Science
                                                                         53%
                                                  Engineering
The target AIT graduates were inquired                27%
about the main institute or university
from where the highest degrees were
obtained. The Khulna University,
Bangladesh Agriculture University,
Dhaka University, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, University of
Chittagong, and University of Rajshahi in Bangladesh; the Royal University of Bhutan in
Bhutan; Royal University of Cambodia in Cambodia; National University of Laos and
Rattana Business Administration College in Lao PDR; Myanmar Institute of Theology in
Myanmar; Tribhuvan University in Nepal; University of Ruhuna, University of Jaffna,
University of Peradeniya, and University of Moratuwa in Sri Lanka; and Hue University
of Agriculture and Forestry, Hue University of Sciences; Danag University, Hanoi
University of Sciences, Hanoi National University, Hanoi University of Technology,
Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi University of Foreign Studies, Hanoi University of
Foreign languages, Nha Trang University of Fisheries, Can Tho University, Transport


                                          12
Development Strategy Institute, and Water Resources University in Vietnam are the
academic institutions where from Norwegian Scholarship recipients had got their highest
degrees from their respective countries.

4.2              Graduation Year and Field of Specialization

The graduation year for the last degrees of the target alumni before studying at AIT ranges
from 1984 to 2007. However, the larger number of respondents indicated that they were
graduated mostly during the period of 1997 to 2005. The one who had graduated in 1984
was come to study in AIT in 2007 at the age of 48 years.
                          Figure 4.3: Respondents by Graduation Year before AIT
                                               (Total : 66)

            10
             9
             8
            7
            6
   Number




            5
            4
            3
            2
            1
            0
                  1984 1990 1991 1992 1994 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2007
                                                                                Graduation Year



The specialization of the earlier studies before enrolling in AIT covered various fields
such as agriculture, animal science, aquaculture, fisheries, botany, biotechnology,
chemistry, environmental science, economics, business administration, finance and
banking, transportation, civil engineering, electrical engineering, environmental
engineering, mechanical engineering, natural resources, forestry, geography, public
administration, public health, leather technology, land management, limnology, and
English language.

4.3              Knowing about Studies at AIT

Based on the multiple                                                                    Figure 4.4: Source of Information about AIT
                                                                                                         (Total : 66)
responses received from
the     respondent     AIT                Parents/Relatives/ Friends

                                                         AIT Alumni                                                                              21
                                                                                                                                                      23



graduates, one can easily                            AIT Homepage                                                             13

                                       Former University Professors                                       9
realize     that   parents,                      Former Classmates                                        9

relatives, and friends are                      Advertisement in TV

                                              Employer / Co-w orker                                   8
                                                                                                          9



the largest sources for the                       AIT Faculty / Staff                          6


studies in AIT. The                      University Placement Office

                                     Advertisement through Radio/FM
                                                                                2

                                                                                2

second largest source is                Advertisement in New spaper             2

                                                 Other (Visit to AIT)       1
constituted by the AIT
                                                                        0                  5                  10                       15   20             25
alumni followed by the                                                                                             Respondent Number

AIT Homepage, former




                                                                                    13
university professors, former classmates, advertisement in television, employer and co-
worker, AIT faculty and staff, university placement office, advertisement through radio
and FM, advertisement in Newspaper and AIT visits.
                                                                           Figure 4.5: Work Experiences before AIT
                                                                                          (Total : 66)
4.4     Work Experiences before Enrolling in AIT
Out of the 66 respondent AIT graduates, eighty-six
                                                                                          No
percent had work experiences ranging from 1 to 23                                        14%
years. This means a large majority of the respondent
graduates had work experiences before coming to
study in AIT. Out of 56 AIT graduates with work
experiences and 55 of them indicated their main                                                        Yes
                                                                                                       86%
employer types.

4.5     Type of Employer before AIT

The Academic and Research Institutions were providing employment for the highest
proportion (40%) of the respondent AIT graduates before enrolling at AIT. Similarly 27%
of them were employed by their
                                           Figure 4.6: Main Employer Type before AIT
respective Central Governments                             (Total : 55)
followed by International Regional
                                        Non-governmental                Regional / local
Organization and Private Sector            organization                  government
(11% each), Non-Governmental                    7%                           4%

Organizations (7%) and Regional or
/and Local Government (4%).              Private sector
                                                      11%                                                Academic / reserch
                                                                                                            insttitutions
4.6   Type of Individual Main                   International / regional
                                                                                                                40%
                                                      organization
Function at Work before AIT                               11%
                                                                                 Central government
                                                                                         27%

As presented in Table 4.1, the highest proportion (48%) of the respondent AIT graduates
who were employed before enrolling in AIT had involved in project implementation as
individual         main
function    at     work        Table 4.1: Type of Individual Main Function at Work
followed by Teaching Main Function (Multiple Response)                   Frequency Percent
(31%),         Research Project Implementation                                       25              48
Analysis / Policy Inputs Teaching                                                    16              31
(29%), Knowledge and Research Analysis / Policy Inputs                               15              29
Information                Knowledge and Information Dissemination                   12              23
Dissemination (23%) Management                                                          8            15
and        Management
function (15%).                                              Figure 4.7: Job Satisfaction Level before AIT
                                                                                                (Total : 54)

4.7     Salary and Level of Job Satisfaction before AIT
                                                                                       Not Satisfied
                                                                                           35%

Sixty-five percent of the respondent AIT graduates who                                                   Satisfied
                                                                                                           65%
were employed before enrolling AIT reported that they
were satisfied with the job they belonged.




                                                   14
Out of the total 56 respondent AIT graduates who were employed before enrolling AIT, 53
of them reported their salary as
requested in range starting from              Table 4.2: Gross Salary Level
less than 100 US $ per month to Salary Range (US$/Month) Frequency Percent
more than 3000 US$ per month. < 100                                 8         15
However, no one was found 100 to 200                               24         44
getting more than 2000 US$ per 201 to 500                          17         31
month before studying at AIT. 501 to 1000                           4          7
Majority (44%) of them was 1001 to 2000                             1          2
receiving 100 to 200 US$ per Total                                 54        100
month followed by more than 200
to 500 by 31 percent, less than 100 US$ per month by 15 percent, more than 500 to 1000
by 7 percent, and more than 1000 to 2000 US$ per month by 2 percent of them (Table 4.2).

The main reasons of pursuing postgraduate studies at AIT were inquired to the target AIT
graduates. The highest proportion of them (63%) indicated to further enhance their
academic career advancements followed by their professional advancement (54%) and to
enter into a new field as indicated by 8 percent of them (Table 4.3).

                        Table 4.3: Main Reason to Study at AIT
          Main Reason (Multiple Response)        Frequency (N=65)   Percent (f/N)
          Academic Career Advancement                   41              63
          Professional Advancement                      35              54
          To Enter into a New Field                      5               8
          Other (New Experience)                         1               2




                                        PICTURE




                                            15
                   5                             Studies at AIT
From the inception AIT has been playing a leading role in Asia by offering lot of
opportunities for postgraduate studies in several fields of studies under three schools,
namely, SERD, SET, and SOM. The                Figure 5.1: Graduates by AIT Schools
contribution of various donors is                            (Total : 82)
enormous in continuously delivering                                  SOM
quality education through AIT. Norway                      SET         1%
is one of such donors who provided 82                       5%
scholarships in the past five years
(2003 to mid 2008). As presented in
Figure 5.1, a vast majority (94%) of the
total Norwegian scholarship recipients                                    SERD
(82) studied in SERD followed by SET                                       94%
(5%) and SOM (1%). The reason is
obvious since Norway has been focusing more on sustainable resource management and
environmental protection targeting poverty and gender issues. This section is designed to
present the academic degrees received by the respondent AIT graduates who are
Norwegian scholarship recipients, their filed of studies where from they completed course
works and thesis research works, and also their response on the lasting impression of AIT.

5.1    Academic Degrees

As of May 2008, all the 82 Norwegian scholarship recipients received masters’ degrees
from AIT. Among them 61 AIT graduates (75%) received Masters’ of Science (M. Sc.),
20 AIT graduates (24%) got Masters’ of
                                                            Figure 5.2: Graduates by AIT
Engineering (M. Eng.), and 1 AIT graduate (1%)
                                                                 Degrees (Total: 82)
obtained Executive Masters’ of Business
                                                               E-MBA                 M. Eng.
Administration as presented in Figure 5.2. The                   1%                   24%
same proportion was also found in case of the
responding AIT graduates. Among the
responding 66 AIT graduates 49 (75%) received
Master of Science (M. Sc.) degrees followed by
16 (24%) graduates who received Master of
Engineering (M. Eng.) and 1 (1%) graduate               M. Sc.
received Executive Master of Business                    75%
Administration (E-MBA). When these degrees
were looked from the gender perspective it was found that females were receiving higher
number of degrees which is evident from the fact that 65 percent of the degrees were
received by females. Specifically, vast majority of females (69%) received M. Sc. degrees
in comparison to males (31%) for the same academic degrees. A slightly more proportion
of females (55%) received M. Eng. degrees as compared to male respondents (45%). The
E-MBA degree was received by only one male AIT graduate from the School of
Management. When the regional comparison in terms of South and Southeast Asia was
made it was found that former region has very high proportion for both M. Eng. and Ms.


                                            16
Sc. degrees by 80 percent and 61 percent, respectively. The E-MBA degree was received
by a person from Southeast Asia.

 Table 5.1: Number of Target and Respondent Graduates by Academic Degree, Region, and Gender
Region and                                            Academic Degree                                      Total
                                        M Eng                 M Sc                  E-MBA
Gender
                                Total   Respondents   Total   Respondents   Total    Respondents   Total   Respondents

South                Male        7          4          12          11                               19         15
Asia                 Female      9          8          25          16                               34         24
                     Subtotal    16         12         37          27                               53         39
Southeast            Male        2          2           7            6        1          1          10         9
Asia                 Female      2          2          17          16         0          0          19         18
                     Subtotal    4          4          24          22         1          1          29         27
Total                Male        9          6          19          17         1          1          29         24
                     Female      11         10         42          32                               53         42
                     Total       20         16         61          49         1          1          82         66

This tracer study covers the AIT graduates from 2003 to May 2008. There were Norwegian
Scholarship recipients in 2003 and 2004 who had been continuing their studies at AIT and
their graduation started from 2005. In all graduation years, the proportion of females
remained always higher than males as it was 68 percent, 63 percent, 73 percent, and 53
percent in 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008, respectively (Table 5.1 and Figure 5.3). This is the
proof that the Norway Government has more focus on gender issues in Asian human
capital generation.

                                Figure 5.3: Graduates by Gender and
                                           Graduation Year
                   22
                   20
                   18
       Graduates




                   16
                   14
                   12
                   10
                    8
                    6
                    4
                    2
                                2005                  2006                  2007                   2008
                                                            Graduation Year
                                                  Male               Female           Total


5.2                Field of Study

Those AIT graduates who received Norwegian scholarship for their master degree studies
had graduated from 11 different field of study, namely, Agricultural Systems and


                                                              17
Engineering, Aquaculture and Aquatic Resource Management, Energy, Environmental
Engineering and Management, Gender and Development Studies, Geotechnical and
Geoenvironmental Engineering, Human Resources Management, Natural Resources
Management, Regional and Rural Development Planning, Urban Environmental
management, and Water Engineering and Management. The target as well as respondent
graduates by these field of studies are presented in the following Table.

              Target and Responding Graduates by Their Respective AIT Field of Study
 Field of Study                                             Target Graduates     Responding Graduates
                                                         Female Male Total       Female Male Total
 1. Agricultural System & Engineering                      6         3       9      5      3      8
 2. Aquaculture and Aquatic Resource Management            5         2       7      4      2      6
 3. Human Resources Management                             0         1       1             1      1
 4. Energy                                                 7         4      11      7      2      9
 5. Environmental Engineering and Management               8         1       9      7      1      8
 6. Gender and Development Studies                         14        2      16      9      2      11
 7. Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering          1         0       1      1      0      1
 8. Natural Resources Management                           5         9      14      5      7      12
 9. Regional and Rural Development Planning                7         2       9      5      2      7
 10. Urban Environmental Management                        0         2       2      0      1      1
 11. Water Engineering and Management                      0         3       3      0      2      2
 Total                                                     53       29      82     43     23      66

The AIT graduates achieved higher knowledge and skills through courses offered by the
respective filed of studies and master thesis research works. An overview of the courses
offered by these 11 filed of studies where from the respondent AIT graduates gained
theoretical knowledge and practical or technical skills is given as hereunder.

Agricultural Systems and Engineering (ASE) Field of Study offers several courses such
as Farm Production Engineering, Agricultural Mechanization and Management,
Agricultural Systems Analysis, Ergonomics, Design and Testing of Agricultural
Equipment, Agricultural Systems, Agricultural Environments, Crop Productivity
Management, Livestock Production Systems, Integrated Watershed Management –
Principles and Concepts, Farm Management Economics, Precision Agriculture,
Agricultural Soil Mechanics, Instrumentation and Measurement Techniques, Aquacultural
Engineering, Controlled Environment Agriculture, Crop Eco-physiology and Modeling,
Integrated Pest Management, Land Husbandry, Agricultural Watershed Systems,
Agricultural Sector and Policy Analysis, and Advanced Agricultural Experimentation.

Aquaculture and Aquatic Resources Management (AARM) Field of Study)
offers Analytical Techniques in Aquaculture, Aquaculture Nutrition and Feed Technology,
Inland Aquaculture, Aquatic Seed Production, Marine and Coastal Ecosystems,
Principles of Integrated Coastal Zone Management, Genetic Resources and
Management,      Coastal Aquaculture and Planning, Coastal and Inland Fisheries
Management, Wetland Ecosystem Management, Remote Sensing and GIS for
Watershed and Coastal Area Planning, Genetic Diversity of Populations in Agricultural
and Aquatic Systems, Molecular Techniques for Genetic Management of Populations
and Ecosystems, Thesis Research Workshop, Aquatic Resource and Environmental
Assessment, Aquatic Ecosystems and Water Quality Management, Aquatic Animal
Diseases, Statistical Application in Agricultural Research, Applied Fish Genetics,
Coastal Physical Processes, Coastal Water Quality Management, Coastal Biodiversity
and Conservation, Seminar on Advanced Topics of Aquatic Resources and
Development, Tools for Integrated Coastal Zone Management, Aquaculture and
Aquatic Resource Systems, and Mangrove Ecosystem Management.


                                                    18
Energy (E) Field of Study has been offering various courses such as Energy Resources
and Technologies, Energy Audit and Thermal Energy Conservation, Rational Use of
Energy in Industry, Organization and Finance of a Power Utility, Demand - Side
Management, Design and Management of Energy Systems, Power System Design and
Operation, Power Distribution Systems, DC and Flexible AC Transmission, Computer
Aided Power System Analysis, Rural Electrification and Distributed Generation, Energy
Statistics and Energy Demand Forecasting, Development and Evaluation of Energy
Projects, Restructuring of Energy Industries, Energy Price Theory and Applications,
Efficient Lighting and Daylighting, Energy Management in Buildings, Advanced
Technologies for Energy Management in Buildings, Biomass Conversion, Workshop on
Energy Issues and Communication, Power System Dynamics and Stability, Power Sector
Management under Deregulation, Optimization and Al Applications in Power System,
Electricity Economics and Planning, Energy-Economic Modeling and Policy Analysis,
Environmental Policy and Management of Energy Systems, Oil and Natural Gas
Economics, Solar Energy, Solar Design Methods and Applications, Energy Environment
and Climate Change: Issues and Strategies, and Electrical Energy Management.

Environmental Engineering and Management (EEM)                  Field of Study offers
Environmental Chemistry and Laboratory, Biological Processes, Physico-Chemical
Processes, Aquatic Chemistry, Waste Reuse and Recycling, Air Pollution and Air Quality
Management, Solid Waste Management, Environmental Quality Management,
Environmental Management and Ethics, Environmental Health and Sanitation, Integrated
Life Science, Principles of Toxicology, Health, Development and Environment, Membrane
Technology in Water and Wastewater Treatment, Design of Water Supply and Wastewater
Systems, Applied Microbiology and Laboratory, Advanced Processes for Wastewater
Treatment, Reuse and Recycle, Toxic Organics and Trace Metals in Ecosystem,
Environmental Impact Assessment, Industrial Waste Abatement and Management, Water
Quality Management, Air Pollution Modeling and Applications, Hazardous Waste
Technology and Management, Design of Air Pollution Control Systems, Principles of
Cleaner Production, Sampling Design, Environmental Toxicology, Health/Environmental
Risk and Impact Assessment, Environmental Microbiology, Molecular Biology of
Environmental Stress, Bioengineering and Environmental Health, Seminar in
Environmental Biotechnology, and Seminar in Toxicology.

Gender and Development Studies (GDS) Field of Study delivering courses, namely,
Gender and Development: Principles and Concepts, Society, Technology and Health,
Gender, Enterprise, and Organizations, Gender, Rural Livelihoods and Sustainable
Development, Gender, Technology and Economic Development, Gender, Culture and
Human Development, Gender Analysis and Gender Responsive Development Planning,
New Technologies, Industrialization and Gender, Transforming Gender Ideologies in
Society, and Gender and Urban Management.

Natural Resources Management (NRM) Field of Study offers Ecological Principles for
Natural Resources Management, Natural Resources Management Issues in Asia, Forestry,
Biodiversity and Conservation, Integrated Land Use Management Systems, Spatial
Information Systems in Natural Resources Management, Research Design for Natural
Resources Management, Land Evaluation and Resource Management, Integrated Natural
Resources Planning and Policy, Land Degradation Monitoring and Management, Natural
Resource Economics, and Integrated Watershed Development Management Planning
Workshop.


                                         19
Regional and Rural Development Planning (RRDP) Field of Study offers Rural and
Regional Development, Social Research Methods in Development Planning, Applied
Statistics for Development Planning, Rural-Urban Relations, Regional Planning
Techniques, Agricultural Development Planning, Project Planning and Management,
Research Design and Methods, Rural Regional Planning Workshop, Community
Development Planning, NGO Management, Policy and Development, Rural Infrastructure
Planning and Management, and Sustainable Development Policies and Practices.

Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Field of Study offers several courses such
as Urban Environmental Management Systems, UEM Research Methods and Techniques,
Urban Planning and the Built-Environment, Environmental Science and Technology for
Decision Makers, Urbanization and Environmental Policy, Environmental Auditing,
Disaster Management in Urban Environmental Planning, Environmental Legislation,
Urban Environmental Design, Urban Environmental Planning and Management Workshop,
UEM Research Design, Management of Urban Housing, Infrastructure and Service,
Strategic Environmental Assessment for Urban Development, Governance and Urban
Management, Urban Economics and Finance, Environmental Conflict Resolution and
Mediation, and Multivariate Analysis for Planning.

Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering (GGE) Field of Study offers
Mechanics of Soils and Laboratory/Field Testing, Rock Mechanics, Geoenvironmental
Engineering I and II, Engineering Geology, Analytical Methods in Geotechnical
Engineering, Numerical Methods in Geotechnical Engineering, Foundation Engineering
and Design, Ground Improvement Techniques and Geosynthetics, Underground
Excavation and Tunneling, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Georisk
Engineering, Reliability-Based and Soil Engineering Design, and Advance Soil Testing.

Water Engineering and Management (WEM) Field of Study has been offering
Watershed Hydrology, Hydrodynamics, Water Resources Systems, Concepts in Water
Modeling, Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, Coastal and Estuarine Processes, Water
Supply and Sanitation, River Engineering and Modeling, Laboratory and Field Practices,
Planning and Development of Hydropower, Geotechniques for Hydropower Projects,
Selected Topic: Research Design and Experimental Methods, Irrigation and Drainage
Systems Management, Coastal Zone Management, Urban Drainage Management,
Groundwater Development and Management, Land and Water Conservation and
Management, Integrated Water Resources Management, Modeling of Water Resources
Systems, Flood Modeling and Management, EIA and GIS Applications in Water
Resources, Design of Hydropower Structures, and Management of Hydropower System.

The Executive MBA in Human Resource Management (HRM) Field of Study has been
launched to strengthen and enhance the human resources and institutional capabilities of
developing countries of Asia by offering courses such as Business Communication,
Organizational behavior and Development, Human Resources Management, Marketing
Management, Managerial Economics, HR Acquisition and Development, Financial
Management, Management of Information System, Strategic Management, Management of
Technology for Competitiveness, Comparative Industrial Relations, Research
Methodology, Management of Change and Leadership, Project Management, Cross-
cultural Management, Governance and Corporate Social Responsibility, and HR
Motivation and Retention



                                          20
5.3    Lasting Impression

Several meetings were conducted in different countries of the target and respondent
graduates during the time of field visits by the researcher. They were inquired about the
lasting impression on AIT. In the gist they were exchanging night with the day because
they were working very hard in the night time which they had neither done before AIT nor
after AIT. The multicultural environment and internationality also reported as one of the
unforgettable aspects of AIT. The different learning environment which is more directed
towards self-confidence building, sport facilities, and location and landscaping of AIT are
other long lasting memories of AIT.




                                      PICTURE




                                            21
                      6                     Feedbacks on Teaching,
                                             Research and Services
This section is all about the feedback of the respondent AIT graduates on the quality of
teaching, supervision and guidance on masters’ thesis research, and overall administrative
management and service delivery of AIT. The value and the quality of the academic,
administrative and other supportive units had tremendous role in the academic standing of
AIT itself. The periodic feedback from the AIT graduates helps in further enhancing the
teaching, research, and administrative standards of AIT.

6.1      Feedbacks on Teaching in AIT
                                                    Figure 6.1: Rating on Teaching Quality of AIT
The target AIT graduates were inquired                          (Total : 66)
on how they would rate the teaching
standard of study at AIT by giving them                                 Excellent
                                                                          15%
five scale ratings such as excellent, very                 Good
good, good, poor, and very poor. When                       32%

the responses were analyzed it was found
that large majority (53%) had an
impression that the teaching quality in
                                                                        Very good
AIT is very good followed by good                                          53%
(32%). Few respondents (15%) had an
impression that the teaching quality in
AIT is excellent (Figure 6.1). The teaching standard as perceived by the respondent AIT
graduates was also analyzed by Asia Region, namely, Southeast Asia and South Asia. The
total number of the respondent AIT graduates is higher in South Asia compared to
Southeast Asia because of the focus of the donor. A large majority (59%) in Southeast Asia
and 49 percent in South Asia rated teaching quality as ‘very good’ and the more or less
similar response was found from both regions for the other rating scales as well. The
Pearson Chi-Square test results support this argument. None of the respondents considered
as poor and very poor teaching quality in AIT although they were given five options
ranging from excellent to very poor to rate the teaching quality at AIT (Table 6.1).

                  Table 6.1: Teaching Standard of AIT by Rating Scales and Asia Regions
                            Excellent                Very Good                            Good
Region                Frequency       Row       Frequency     Row          Frequency             Row
South-east Asia            3           11           16         59              8                  30
South Asia                 7           18           19         49              13                 33
Total                     10           15           35         53              21                 32
Pearson Chi-Square                         Asympotic Significance (2-sided) = 0.639



When the teaching standard of AIT viewed from the gender perspective a wide range of
responses were found when 70 percent of the male respondent indicated as “very good”
compared to 44 percent of the female respondents. Whereas, 42 percent of female
respondents considered AIT study as “good” compared to 13 percent of the male


                                                   22
respondents for the same. The responding AIT graduates also indicated the quality of AIT
teaching as “excellent” by 17 percent males and 14 percent females. The overall results
from the Chi-Square test indicate that there is a significant difference in the rating of AIT
teaching quality by gender (Table 6.2).
              Table 6.2: Teaching Standard of AIT by Rating Scales and Gender of Respondents
                             Excellent                Very Good                          Good
Gender                 Frequency       Row       Frequency     Row           Frequency              Row
Male                        4           17           16         70                3                  13
Female                      6           14           19         44               18                  42
Total                      10           15           35         53               21                  32
Pearson Chi-Square                                Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) = 0.054


The respondent AIT graduates had studied in 11 different fields of studies in AIT and
obtained their postgraduate degrees (Table 6.3). Out of the 10 respondent graduates who
had an impression that AIT teaching standard is “excellent” 4 graduates (40%) were from
Natural Resource Management and each 2 graduates (each 20%) from Aquaculture and
Aquatic Resource Management and Environmental Engineering and Management and each
1 graduate (each 10%) from Agricultural System and Engineering and Gender and
Development field of study.
           Table 6.3: Teaching Standard of AIT by Rating Scales and Field of Study of Respondents
 Field of Study                                                 Excellent      Very        Good       Total
                                                                               Good
 1. Natural Resources Management                                   4            7            1            12
 2. Aquaculture and Aquatic Resource Management                    2            3            1             6
 3. Environmental Engineering and Management                       2            2            4             8
 4. Agricultural System & Engineering                              1            4            3             8
 5. Gender and Development Studies                                 1            6            4            11
 6. Energy                                                         0            5            4             9
 7. Geotechnical and Geo-environmental Engineering                 0            0            1             1
 8. Human Resources Management                                     0            1            0             1
 9. Regional and Rural Development Planning                        0            5            2             7
 10. Urban Environmental Management                                0            1            0             1
 11. Water Engineering and Management                              0            1            1             2
 Total                                                             10           35           21           66



6.2      Feedback on Thesis Research in AIT

An attempt was made to gather information on the level of satisfaction of the target AIT
graduates on the their thesis research works in terms of research supervisor’s contribution,
committee members’ contribution, flexibility of choice in topic selection, research fund
availability, and help received from seniors and own batch mates. The various responses
for the satisfaction level of AIT graduates for their master thesis works were found ranging
from low to very high in case of research supervisor’s contribution and flexibility of choice
in research topic selection. However, in other four instances such as committee members’
contribution, research fund availability and help received from seniors and batch mates the
responses encompass from very low to very high.

As presented in the Figure 6.2, the respondent AIT graduates rated the contribution of their
thesis supervisor as very high (43%) and high (35%) followed by medium (14 %) and low
(8%). In case of committee members’ contribution, 40 percent of them rated as high


                                                    23
followed by medium (26%), very high (18%), low (14%) and very low (2%). The
flexibility of choice in masters’ research topic for the students in AIT is found high enough
since 42 percent reported as very high followed by high (32%), medium (14%) and low
(12%). A large majority (56%) indicated that fund availability was very low to medium.
Fifty-three percent of the respondent graduates reported that they had very low to medium
level of help received from their seniors. In contrast 59 percent of them reported that they
received high to very high level of help from their batch mates.

                         Figure 6.2: Satisfaction Level in Masters' Thesis Research Work


      100%           0                 1                    0                    2
                     5                                                                                3                    3
                                                            8                                                              4
       90%                             9
                                                                                 12                   8
                     9
       80%                                                  9
                                                                                                                           19
       70%                            17
                                                                                                     22
       60%          23                                                           22
                                                           21
       50%

       40%                            26                                                                                   26
       30%                                                                       18                  21

       20%          28                                     27

       10%                            12                                                                                   11
                                                                                 10                   8
        0%
                Research           Comitte           Flexibility of      Reseach fund          Help received Help received
               supervisor's       members'          choice in topic       availability         from seniors from own batch
               contribution      contribution         selection                                                 mates

                 Very high                 High                   Medium                      Low                   Very low



                 Table 6.4: Comments made for rating low and very low by research aspects
Research aspects                                                         Comments
Funding for master thesis     There should be more option for securing research fund if required by the type of research, fund
research                      should be available to attending conference or workshops to enhance the career. Most of the
                              research funds were enough was enough for the plane tickets and not enough to do extensive
                              research in the field. Flat rate is not suitable and therefore allocation should vary with the type of
                              research.
Supervision for thesis        Due to a huge of number of students, advisors do not have enough time to contribute, read and
research                      comment on what student's writing
Help from seniors and         No connection from senior to junior during course work and thesis, or if yes, it is very poor. Help
batch mates for thesis        from batch mates is really because of competition. Sharing experience or knowledge is just a
research                      surface of water. Sometime no senior available. The timing of senior’s presence in the institute
                              and juniors’ studies did not match.

6.3       Rating on AIT Services

The entire target AIT graduates were inquired about their ratings on the quality of
information, advice, and services they received from different service units of AIT (Figure
6.3). A significantly higher proportion of respondent AIT graduates considered as excellent
by 36 percent and very good by 41 percent for the services received from the Field of
Study Administration and Management. Similarly, a large majority of them (40%) reported



                                                                24
as very good followed by good (26%), excellent (20%) and poor and very poor (11%) for
the service received from School Administration and Management.




When an inquiry was made on the quality of the service rendered by the Registry of AIT it
was found as very good by 40 percent respondents followed by excellent (23%), very
good (22%), poor (9%) and very poor by 6 percent. Vast majority (80%) of the
respondents indicated excellent and very good service in AIT Library. The quality of the
service provided by Language Center is rated as excellent by 23 percent, very good by 42
percent, good by 22 percent and poor by 13 percent. Computing Facilities rated as very
good (38%), good (25%), excellent (23%), poor (11%) and very poor (3%). Likewise
Experimental Lab Facilities considered very good by 37 percent, good by 32 percent,
excellent by 18 percent and poor by 13 percent of the respondents. Except 13 percent
respondents who rated very poor and poor the class room facilities were considered good
(16%), very good (38%) and excellent (33%). Sixteen percent of the respondent indicated
that student accommodation as poor and very poor. The service of the Government
Relation Office is found most satisfactory by the respondent graduates since less than 2
percent rated as poor. The quality of the service of the Alumni Relations Office rated as
very good (48%), good (33%), excellent (13%) and poor and very poor (6%). However, the
quality of the service rendered by Student Affairs considered as very good (40%) followed
by good (32%), excellent (14%) and poor and very poor (14%). Eleven percent of the
respondent graduates indicated poor and very poor service of the Student Union and the
Sport Facilities. The assessment on the quality of overall management of AIT by the
respondent graduates made as very good (51%), good (24%), excellent (16%) and poor and
very poor by 10 percent responding AIT graduates.




                                           25
As requested to offer the comments on poor and very poor ratings for the quality of
services rendered different service units of AIT, some of the respondent graduates had
done it and their responses are summarized as below.

        Table 6.5: Comments made for rating low and very low by respondent AIT graduates
Service Unit                                                Comments
Computing facilities          Very slow internet connection with low bandwidth availability really
                              hampers the research study and day to day communication works. Not
                              sufficient number and quality of computers.
Student accommodation /       Staffs at student accommodation are not really helpful though they
housing                       speak very friendly. Accommodation in standard dorm is really a
                              painful matter not only for the room space but also for the facilities,
                              toilet and telephone.
Classroom facilities and      Class room problem in air condition and very small enclosure.
environment
Library                       Most of the books are out dated.

Language center               Not enough qualified English instructors


Experimental lab facilities   No enough lab facility for all subjects/items


                                               PICTURE




                                                26
              7
                                                Career Decision and
                                                      Employments

Career decision and employments section includes whereabouts of AIT graduates,
rejoining the previous job or employer, duration of getting the first job after graduation
from AIT, current job position and employment history, age and current job position,
duration of current job, main employer type, individual main function at work and job
satisfaction, salary level, salary by age group of AIT graduates, current salary level by
graduation year, and job position and salary income by gender.

7.1    Whereabouts of AIT Graduate

The main emphasis of AIT has been constantly remained the same from its inception till
now is on producing capable human resource needed for the sustainable development of
the countries in Asia, in particular, and global context in general. All the graduates are
encouraged as well as insisted to return to their home countries and apply whatever
knowledge and skills learned
from AIT to their own home Figure 7.1: Returnee and Non-returnee Respondents by Country
countries. The respondent
AIT graduates who were                                                          No
Norwegian         Scholarship                                                   23
                                                                                %
recipients inquired about
their     career     decision                                                        Yes
                                                                                      77
immediately after graduation                                                          %
from AIT. It was found that
77 percent were returned to
their respective countries
(Figure 7.1). Remaining 23
percent did not return due to
various reasons such as
continuing study for PhD, continuing research at AIT, having got better paid jobs
compared to the jobs in own country, and also to support spouse who joined AIT for
studies. The country wise analysis indicated that all the AIT graduates from Bhutan,
Cambodia, Lao PDR and Myanmar returned to their own country immediately after their
graduation. The highest proportion of non-returnees (35%) was found from Nepal followed
by Sri Lanka (29%) and Bangladesh and Vietnam (20% each).

7.2   Rejoining the Previous Job or Employer
Out of 66 respondent AIT graduates 9
                                           Table 7.1: Response on Joining the Previous Job
respondents (14%) had no job before
                                           Response               Frequency      Percent
enrolling AIT. Therefore 57 respondent
                                           Yes                        20             35
AIT graduates (86%) had jobs before                                                  60
                                           No                         34
coming AIT. Out of those 57                      No Answer             3              5
respondents 34 (60%) did not return to     Total                      57            100
their previous jobs and only 20 (35%)


                                           27
did so. Three of them (5%) did not answer whether they joined or not (Table 7.1). An
inquiry was made with those who did not rejoin the previous jobs by requesting them to
provide reasons why they did not join. Some of the important reasons given are: job was
temporary as contract basis, immediately gone for further study, the previous job was not
satisfactory, office closed, and the office rules were so strict for granting the study leave so
had to sacrifice job.

7.3     Duration of Getting the First Job after Graduation from AIT

An attempt was made to know the duration of
getting the first job after graduation from Figure 7.2: Career Decision Immediately
AIT to those who did not join the previous                      after Graduation from AIT
                                                                          (Total : 66)
jobs and also did not go for further study for                                               Rejoined
their further academic career advancement.                                                  Previous
Therefore, such information was expected                       Got the                         Job
                                                                                               30%
from 37 respondent AIT graduates. Out of 66                   New Job
total respondents, 20 (30%) had joined their                    44%

previous jobs and 17 (26%) had gone for
                                                                                        Gone for
further study and remaining 29 (44%)                                                     Further
ventured for the jobs in the new job markets                                             Study
(Figure 7.2). Out of the 29 respondent AIT                                                26%
graduates, 10 (34%)
reported that their                Table 7.2: Duration for the First Job after Graduation
                           Duration                                        Gender               Total
jobs were confirmed
                                                                    Male         Female
even             before    Confirmed before Graduation              3 (50.0)       7 (30.4     10 (34.5)
graduation. Similarly,     < 1Month                                 1 (16.7)      4 (17.4)       5 (17.2)
13 graduates (45%)         1 to < 3Months                          1 (16.77)      7 (30.4)       8 (27.6)
said that they got job     3 to < 6Months                           1 (16.7)      3 (13.0)       4 (13.8)
within 3 months after      > 6Months to 1Year                         0 (0.0)      1 (4.3)        1 (3.4)
their graduation from      > 1Year                                    0 (0.0)      1 (4.3)        1 (3.4)
AIT. One respondent         Total                                  6 (100.0) 23 (100.0) 29 (100.0)
                                 Pearson Chi-Square Value = 1.424 and Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) = 0.922
graduate (3%) had to
                           Note: Figure in the parentheses indicates respective percentage .
wait until and even
more than one year to
get job after graduation from AIT (Table 7.2). The time duration taken for the first job was
analyzed by gender and the Pearson Chi-Square test result indicated that there is no
significant difference between male and female graduates.

7.4     Current Job Position and Employment History

Since 17 responding AIT graduates Figure 7.3: Current Job Position of AIT Graduates
went for doctoral studies, and then                          (Total : 51)
remaining 49 respondent graduates                              Senior Management
found to be fully employed. However,   Junior Professional              4%
                                               27%                            Middle Management
some of the respondents studying                                                      28%
doctoral program are also employed,
therefore the actual number of
respondent for the employment related    Middle Professional               Junior Management
                                                 25%                               16%
items is higher than 49 fully employed
respondent graduates. When an inquiry was made on the job position of the respondent


                                                   28
graduates (51), the highest proportion of them (28%) had Middle Management level
followed by Junior Professional (27%), Middle Professional (25%), Junior Management
(16%), and remaining (4%) at the Senior Management level. When looked at the
employment history of the graduates it is found that 20 graduates had the current job as the
second job and 5 had the current job as third one and one person has the current job as the
fifth one. When the job positions were compared between the last job position before AIT
and the current job position the higher mobility from the junior levels to senior levels were
observed. For instance, Table 7.3 clearly shows that 38 percent of the AIT graduates had
middle level of job positions for the last job before coming, which increased to 67 percent
for the same level of position in case of the current job.

      Table 7.3: Job Position of AIT Graduates by Gender and Before and After Studying in AIT
Job Rank              Last Job before AIT                    Current Job Position after AIT
              Gender     Male     Female          Total      Male     Female       Total
Senior       Frequency       1         1              2         1          1           2
             Percent        5.0       2.8            3.6       5.3         2.9        3.7
Middle       Frequency       8        13             21         11         25         36
             Percent       40.0      36.1            37.5      57.9       71.4       66.7
Junior       Frequency      11        22             33         7          9          16
             Percent       55.0      61.1            58.9      36.8       25.7       29.6
Total        Frequency      20        36             56         19         35         54
             Percent      100.0     100.0         100.0       100.0       100.0      100.0

7.5      Age and Current Job Position

Generally, there is a positive correlation
between higher job position and age.
When an attempt is made to see the                          Figure 7.4:
relationship between age and the job
position of the responding AIT
graduates by using correspondence
analysis tool it was found that higher
aged graduates had executive or senior
management level of job positions.
Mostly middle age group had middle or
junior level of job positions (Figure
7.4).

7.6      Duration of Current Job

The duration of current job was
inquired and a wide range was found from one month (0.08 Year) to 8.5 years. Fifty five
percent respondent graduates had less than or equal to one year of job duration on their
current job positions. Ninety-eight percent of them reported with the less than or equal to 3
years of job duration for the current job positions (Figure 7.5).




                                                29
                                                 Figure 7.5: Duration of the Current Position as of December 2008

                           20                                                                                                                       100
                           18                                                                                                                       90
                           16                                                                                                                       80
  Frequecny & Percentage




                                                                                                                                                          Cumulative Percentage
                           14                                                                                                                       70
                           12                                                                                                                       60
                           10                                                                                                                       50
                           8                                                                                                                        40
                           6                                                                                                                        30
                           4                                                                                                                        20
                           2                                                                                                                        10
                           0                                                                                                                        0
                                  0.08    0.16    0.25    0.32     0.33   0.5    0.6      0.8        1     1.4   1.5   2   2.5   2.8    3    8.5

                                                                                 Years of Job Duration

                                                                  Frequency            Percent             Cumilative Percent


7.7                              Main Employer Type

Fifty-four (54) AIT graduates with work experiences indicated their main employer types
(Figure 7.6). The Academic and Research Institutions were providing employments for the
highest proportion (35%) of the respondent AIT graduates for the current job positions.
Similarly, 22 percent of them were employed by their respective Central Governments
followed by Non-Governmental Organizations (15%), International Regional Organization
(13%), Private Sector (7%), and Regional or / and Local Government (4%).
Figure 7.6: Employer Type for the Current Job Position
                      (Total : 54)

                                                                     Central government
                                                                             22%
                                                                                                                                       Figure 7.7
                                Academic / research
                                    institutions
                                       35%
                                                                                International / regional
                                                                                      organization
                                                                                          13%
                                 Other (Consultant)
                                        4%
                                                                                    Regional / local
                                                                                     government
                                         Private sector                                  4%
                                               7%                Non-governmental
                                                                   organization
                                                                       15%


When the association between current job position
and main employer type was seen through the
correspondence analysis tool it was found that
executive position is associated with the central
Government. Similarly, consultant position is more closely related with the private sector
as well as central Government. Likewise, middle and junior professional are more close to
the academic and research institutions whereas senior and middle management are more
close to non-governmental organizations (Figure 7.7).




                                                                                                30
7.8     Individual Main Function at Work and Job Satisfaction

As shown in Table
                                 Table 7.4: Type of Individual Main Function at Work
7.4, a large majority
                            Main Function (Multiple Response)            Frequency Percent
(67%)        of      the
respondent graduates Knowledge and Information Dissemination                         36             67
                            Project Implementation                                   20             37
reported knowledge
                            Research Analysis / Policy Inputs                        20             37
and         information
                            Teaching                                                 19             35
dissemination as main
                            Management                                               15             28
function followed by
project implementation and research analysis/policy inputs (37% each), teaching (35%),
and management (28%). Seventy-six percent of the responding AIT graduates who were
employed before enrolling AIT reported that they were               Figure 7.8: Level of Job Satisfaction
satisfied with the job they belonged. Without job                                (Total : 45)

satisfaction of the employees the employer may not be Not Satisfied
able to meet the objectives or production targets of the          13%

institutions or organizations to a greater extent. The
analysis on the level of job satisfaction indicated that 87
percent of the responding AIT graduates are satisfied                                 Satisfied
with their current jobs. This is good indication but the                                87%
employer should give attention to the remaining 13
percent of the responding AIT graduates who are not
satisfied with their current jobs.
                                                      Table 7.5: Gross Salary Level
7.9      Salary Level                       Salary Range (US$/Month)      Frequency           Percent
                                               < 100                                2            4
Forty-eight respondents provided               100 to 200                          10            21
information on their salary levels for         201 to 500                          16            33
their main current jobs (Table 7.5).           501 to 1000                         13            27
There were seven categories of salary          1001 to 2000                         6            13
ranges starting from less than 100 US          2001 to 3000                         1            2
$ per month to more than 3000 US$              Total                               48           100
per month. However, no one was
found getting more than 3000 US$ per
month. Majority (33) of them were
receiving 201 to 500 US$ per month
followed by 27 percent respondents with
US$ 501 to 1000. Similarly 21 percent                                              Figure 7.9
respondents reported that they were
receiving US$ 100 to 200 per month
followed by 13 percent respondents with
US$ 100 to 200 monthly salaries. Four
percent were receiving less than 100 US$
per month. One respondent graduate (2)
was found getting salary in the range of
2001 to 3000 US$ per month. When the
correspondence analysis is done to see the
relation between current job positions and
gross salary (in terms of mid value of the
sally ranges in US$ per month basis) it


                                                   31
was not so close association between job position and salary (figure 7.9).

7.10    Salary by Age Group of AIT Graduates

Table 7.10 shows that majority of the
respondent graduates (50%) belong to            Table 7.10: Age Group of Graduates
25 to 30 years of age group. Many           Age group           Frequency      Percent
                                            25 to 30 Years             33            50.0
people consider that the salary income
                                            31 to 35 Years             20            30.3
as one of the most important More than 35                              13            19.7
measuring instruments to judge years
whether given activities had any Total                                 66           100.0
impacts or not. In general, the salary income increases with age. A comparative analysis of
means by considering salary income before AIT and After AIT against between and within
the age groups was done through one way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The
significance test indicated that there is no significance difference in the salary income by
age groups (Table 7.11).

                        Table 7.11: ANOVA based on Age Group and Salaries
Variables                             Sum of Squares          df      Mean        F        Sig.
                                                                     Square
Age Group and Salary of the Between Groups        178803.219    2   89401.609              1.647
Last Job before AIT           Within Groups      2767539.374  51    54265.478               .203
                              Total              2946342.593  53
Age Group and Salary of       Between Groups      200415.064    2 100207.532                .536
Current Job after AIT         Within Groups      9158959.936  49 186917.550                 .588
                              Total              9359375.000  51

7.11    Current Salary Level by Graduation Year

The Norwegian scholarship recipients were started to graduate from 2005 and therefore
four graduation Year groups (2005 to 2008) were considered for the statistical analysis,
ANOVA. The salary income of the AIT graduates for the last job before enrolling AIT as
well as the salary of the current job of the AIT graduates were analyzed against graduation
year categories. The result of the analyses indicated that there was a significant difference
in the salary level of AIT graduates before AIT. In contrast, there was not significance
difference in the salary by graduation categories after the studies in AIT. It can be
concluded that AIT degrees help in equality of salary distributions (Table 7.12).
           Table 7.12: ANOVA based on AIT Graduation Year (4 Categories) and Salaries
   Variables                    Sum of Squares         df       Mean        F      Sig.
                                                               Square
   Graduation Year      Between Groups      455366.725   3 151788.908 3.047         .037
   and Salary before    Within Groups      2490975.867  50    49819.517
   AIT                  Total              2946342.593  53
   Graduation Year      Between Groups      927482.143   3 309160.714 1.760         .167
   and Salary of        Within Groups      8431892.857  48 175664.435
   current Job after    Total              9359375.000  51
   AIT




                                              32
7.12    Job Position and Salary Income by Gender
The implication of AIT studies looked from the perspective of changes in job positions
compared to their positions before AIT with the current position which is meant as after
AIT studies. The Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test and Pearson Chi-Square Test were used to
see any significant differences. Both tests indicated that there is a significant difference in
job positron by gender in both cases, before and after studies in AIT (Table 7.13).

                Table 7.13: Job Ranks by Gender and before and after AIT Studies
Rank                          Before AIT                       After AIT
                              Male      Female Total           Male Female Total
Senior                              1         1              2     1         1              2
Middle                              8       13              21    11       25              36
Junior                             11       22              33     7         9             16
Total                              20       36              56    19       35              54
Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test    Z       =     -5.744             Z     =    -4.617
                              Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed) = 0.001   Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed) = 0.001
Pearson Chi-Square Test       Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) = 0.856    Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)= 0.593


The independent t-Test was done to analyze the salary of the AIT graduates by gender and
it was found significantly different in both situations, before and after studies in AIT.
However, it was found that 60 percent salary increment in case of female graduates
compared to 40 percent in males while comparing the average salary of the last job before
studying in AIT with the mean salary of the current job positions (Table 7.14).

                     Table 7.14: Salary Level by Gender and Before and After AIT
Statistics                                            Before AIT            After AIT
                                                    Male      Female     Male         Female
Mean Salary (US$/Month)                            257.89     238.57    436.84         595.45
Standard Deviation                                318.967 180.720      416.614        430.545
Standard Errors                                    73.176     30.547    95.578         74.948
t- Value (equal variances assumed)                        .285                 -1.294
Significance (equal variances assumed)                    .777                  0.202
t- Value (equal variances not assumed)                    .244                 -1.306
Significance (equal variances not assumed)                .810                  0.199




                                                 33
                              8
                                                                 Relevancies and
                                                                   Effectiveness

One of the most important objectives of doing tracer study is to assess the relevancy and
effectiveness of AIT studies in the professional career advancement, usefulness and level
of benefits gained, and impact of AIT studies in educational and scientific pursuits.

8.1     Job Relevancy of AIT Studies

There were 54 respondent AIT graduates who provided their employment history as they
were requested to provide whatever number of jobs they joined after their graduation from
AIT. In addition they were requested to provide information on the job relevancy of AIT
studies (Table 8.1). The analysis of the current job relevancy with AIT studies indicated
that the AIT studies has been exactly related for a large majority (56%), partly related for
41 percent, and not related for 3 percent. Out of the 54 respondent AIT graduates 20 (37%)
had second last jobs with the fact that AIT studies were exactly related for 40 percent,
partly related for 35and not related for 25 percent. Similarly, 5 respondents (9%) had the
current job as the 3rd one. Even, for a respondent graduate, the current job as the 5th one
which is partially related to the AIT degree he obtained.

                    Table 8.1: Employment History and Job Relevancy of AIT Studies
Employment profile                                             Relevancy
                                   Exactly related         Partially related         Not related
                                frequency      percent  frequency       percent frequency      percent
Current job (n=54)                  30          55.6        22            40.7      2             3.7
Second last job (n=20)              8           40.0         7            35.0      5            25.0
Third last job (n=5)                                         2            40.0      3            60.0
Fourth last job (n=1)                                        1           100.0
Fifth last job (n=1)                                         1           100.0
                                                             Figure 8.1: Usefulness of AIT Studies in Current Job
8.2     Usefulness of AIT Studies in                                             (Total : 61)

        Current Job                                   100%

                                                       90%

                                                       80%
The usefulness of the of the AIT studies on
                                                       70%
their current jobs has been viewed from the            60%
perspective of the extent of knowledge/skills          50%

gained from AIT while doing course works;              40%

research; workshops/field visits; staying at           30%

multicultural / international environment;             20%

networking with peers, professors, and staff;          10%

                                                        0%
and by overall program (Figure 8.1).
                                                                                                            Internationality
                                                                Course




                                                                                                                                          Program
                                                                          Research




                                                                                                                               Networks
                                                                                            Workshops /




                                                                                                                                           Overall
                                                                                             Field Visits


                                                                                                              Multicultural
                                                                                                               Learning /




Eighty-three percent of the respondents
indicated that knowledge and skills gained
from the course works has been highly and                                        Sources of Knowledge/Skills
very highly useful. Similarly, the knowledge
                                                         Very high                   High                      Medium                     Low
and skills gained from the AIT research,


                                                 34
workshops/field visits; staying at multicultural / international environment; networking
with peers, professors, and staff; and by overall program has been reported as highly and
very highly useful by 79 percent, 74 percent, 84 percent, 73 percent, and 76 percent,
respectively.

8.3     Overall Benefit Gained from the AIT Studies

The overall benefits gained by           Figure 8.2: Level of Benefits Gained from AIT Studies (Total : 65)
                                    100%
the target AIT graduates from
                                     90%
the     AIT    studies    were
measured     in     terms    of      80%

technical / practical skills,        70%

theoretical         knowledge,       60%
gaining higher status /              50%
recognition, gaining self-
                                     40%
confidence, gaining higher
                                     30%
income, higher progression /
promotion in the same job,           20%

and higher mobility across the       10%

job (Figure 8.2). Eighty              0%




                                                                                                                                                   Higher mobility
                                                 practical skills




                                                                                                   Gaining self-




                                                                                                                                    Promotion in
                                                                                  Gaining higher




                                                                                                                   Gaining higher
                                                                    Theoretical




                                                                                                                                    the same job
                                                                    knowledge


percent of the respondent AIT




                                                                                                                                                   across the job
                                                                                                   confidence
                                                   Technical /




                                                                                   recognition
                                                                                     status /




                                                                                                                      income
graduates     reported     that
whatever technical / practical
skills they had learnt from
                                          Very high                      Medium
                                                            High Aspects of Benefits    Low         Very low
AIT has high or very high
levels and 14 percent of them said as medium and reaming 6 percent indicated as low
levels. However, 95 percent of them reported that they have been benefited highly and very
highly from the theoretical knowledge they gained from AIT. Likewise, 85 percent for
gaining higher status / recognition, 92 percent for gaining self-confidence, 60 percent for
gaining higher income, 70 percent for gaining higher progression / promotion in the same
job, and 68 for higher mobility across the job were reported under high and very high
levels of benefits gained after AIT studies. From these responses one can easily conclude
that the AIT studies have significant contributions in terms of benefits enjoying by AIT
graduates.

8.4     Impact of AIT Studies in Scientific and Educational Fields

Out of the total 66 respondent AIT graduates, 17 (26%) had chosen to go for further
studies upon the completion of master degree studies from AIT. Out of these 17
respondents 15 have gone for doctoral studies and remaining 2 for masters’ studies again.
Their expected year of graduation has been reported as 2008 for 2 persons, 2009 for 3
persons, 2010 for 5 persons, 2011 for 3 persons, 2012 for 2 persons and for 2013 and 2015
by 1 person each. Four people continued doctoral studies in AIT and remaining 13 had
gone to USA, Japan, New Zealand, Taiwan, and Germany. Among these 17 further
studying respondents 15 (88%) reported that their current studies are also related to their
studies in AIT. The overall scenario of the contribution of the AIT graduates in the
scientific, educational and professional fields is encouraging particularly in research and
publication, membership in the professional organizations, consulting works, participation
and paper presentations in the international conferences and seminars (Figure 8.3).



                                                             35
                              Figure 8.3: Scientific and Educational Pursuits

                           Aw ards/recognition received         21        20    9


                                        Books published         14 8 11


                            Research reports produced                     63                      21          56


                               Journal articles published            39         15                37


               Membership in prof essional organizations        21    12            33


                            Consultancy w orks ongoing          20    14            30


                         Consultancy w orks completed           20    6        31

        International seminars /w orkshops/conf erences
                                                                     45                      38                    75
                           participated

 Papers presented in international seminars/conf erences        20    13            36


   Papers presented in national seminars / conf erences               54                 4         41


                                                            0        20        40        60        80   100    120      140   160   180
                                                                                                   Number
       Before AIT         During AIT          After AIT



8.5      Relevancy and Effectiveness by Gender

The relevancy and effectiveness of different knowledge and skills learnt through courses,
research, workshop/field visits, multicultural environment, networks, and overall AIT
programs were analyzed by gender of the responding AIT graduates. Both genders were
more or less equally responding the effectiveness and relevancy since the significance
values for all sources of knowledge and skills obtained from Chi-Square tests are found not
significantly different (Table 8.2). Similar test results were also found in various aspects of
benefits of AIT studies obtained by responding AIT graduates (Table 8.3).

     Table 8.2: Significance Test Results for Various Sources of Knowledge and Skills by Gender
Sources of Knowledge / Skill                                 Pearson Chi-Square
                                                 Value         df       Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)
Courses                                             2.984          3                       .394
Research                                            5.832          3                       .120
Workshop/field visits                               2.418          3                       .490
Multicultural learning / internationality           1.706          3                       .636
Networks (peers, professors, staff)                 2.207          3                       .530
Overall Program                                       .414         3                       .937


             Table 8.3: Significance Test Results for Various Aspects of Benefits by Gender
Aspects of Benefits                                             Pearson Chi-Square
                                                     Value      df        Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)
Technical /practical skills                           1.088         3                        .780
Theoretical knowledge                                 1.870         2                        .393
Gaining higher status / recognition                   1.687         2                        .430
Gaining self-confidence                               1.446         2                        .485
Gaining higher income                                 2.481         4                        .648
Higher progression /promotion in the same job         2.008         3                        .571
Higher mobility across the job                        3.308         3                        .346



                                                                36
            9                    Development Activities and
                                              Networking
The main objective of the Norwegian scholarship support is to provide high level
education and professional training and applied research to nationals from MFA-AIT
program countries in South and Southeast Asia (Afghanistan, Bangladesh, East Timor,
Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Vietnam), the Mekong region low-income countries (Lao
PDR and Cambodia), as well as other less developed countries in Asia in the fields relevant
to sustainable environment, human rights and gender, and poverty alleviation. Considering
these broad fields an attempt was made to inquire AIT graduates (Norwegian scholarship
recipients) on their extent of involvement in various developmental activities and
networking.

9.1     Involvement of AIT Graduates in Development Activities

An inquiry was made on the extent of involvement of AIT graduates in developmental
activities such as poverty alleviation, renewable and sustainable energy, environment,
natural resource management, raising gender awareness and application, HIV/AIDS,
human rights and peace building, agriculture development, information technology,
infrastructure development, and business management / entrepreneurship (Figure 9.1).
Majority (36%) of the AIT graduates reported their high involvement followed by medium
(30%), very high (19%),
                                        Figure 9.1: Development Contribution by AIT Graduates
very low (11%) and low                                         (Total : 53)
(4%) in poverty alleviation        100%

programs and activities.
                                    80%
Their contribution in the
renewable and sustainable
                                    60%
energy related activities
was found as very high              40%
(7%), high (30%), medium
(20%), low (25%) and very           20%
low (18%). In case of
environment              and         0%
development             their
                                                                                                   t
                                                                                                gy



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contribution was said to be
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very high (26%), high
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Their level of contribution
                                              es
                                             ng




                                          sin
                                         isi




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                                      Ra




for      natural    resource
                                                              Development Activities
management was indicated
as very high (29%), high                   Very high     High        Medium      Low       Very low

(41%), medium (12%), low (10%) and very low (8%). Similarly the extent of contribution
on gender awareness and application was reported as very high (21%), high (43%),
medium (17%), low (7%) and very low (12%). The contribution in working against HIV /


                                                  37
AIDS was found relatively lower as stated by only 8 percent as very high involvement, 18
percent for high, 22 percent each for medium and low and 30 percent for very low.
Likewise, more than 70 percent of the AIT graduates reported their involvement as
medium, low and very low for human rights and peace building activities. Sixty-four
percent of the respondent AIT graduates indicated their very high and high level of
contributions in agriculture development. Low level of contributions were seen in the field
of information and technology, infrastructure development, and business management and
entrepreneurship as 67 percent, 84 percent, and 93 percent of the respondent AIT graduates
indicated very low to medium level of contribution in these fields, respectively.


9.2    Significantly Contributed Development Projects / Research Studies

Amongst the target AIT
graduates, 37 (56%)            Table 9.1: Major Focus of the Significantly Contributed Projects
provided the list of Project Focus                                    Frequency       Percent
development      projects    Natural resource management                  17            22.1
                             Environment                                  13            16.9
and research studies to
                             Poverty alleviation                          11            14.3
which      they      have Capacity development                             7             9.1
significantly contributed Economics and marketing                          7             9.1
after graduation from Gender awareness and application                     7             9.1
AIT.       Out of 37 Energy                                                5             6.5
respondents, 20 have Policy analysis                                       4             5.2
contributed for two Agriculture                                            3             3.9
projects, 12 for three Infrastructure and transport                        2             2.6
projects, 5 for four HIV / AIDS                                            1             1.3
projects       and      3                      Total                      77           100.0
respondents have even
contributed for five projects (Table 9.1). A large majority (22%) of the projects to which
AIT graduates have significantly contributed were related to natural resource management
followed by environment (17%), poverty alleviation (14%).                    The respondent AIT
graduates were also inquired for their types of contribution to projects or research studies
in terms of design, implementation, supervision, and monitoring and evaluation. Multiple
responses were received since same person could contribute in only one type or more than
one types (Figure 9.2). The highest contribution (75%) was found for project
implementation followed by project supervision (66%), monitoring and evaluation (64%)
and project design (60%).




                                              38
                            Figure 9.2: Type of Contribution in Projects
                                            (Total : 58)



                100
      Percent




                50           75             66                  64           60

                 0
                      Implementation   Supervison        Monitoring and   Design
                                                          evaluation

                                        Contribution Type


9.3             Involvement of AIT Graduates in Professional and Social Networks

The target AIT graduates were requested to list professional and social networks including
AITAA to which they have been involved after graduation from AIT. The type of network
was specified as national, regional and global.
                                                       Figure 9.3: Type of Network
Similarly, the membership also requested to
                                                                (Total : 42)
specify as general or executive types.
Alongside additional information was                                     Global
requested on the degree of involvement in Regional   19%
                                                                           5%
terms of very high, high, medium, low and
very low for the involved professional and
social networks. There were 38 different                                             National
                                                                                       76%
professional and social networks in which
respondent AIT graduates were involved or
affiliated (Table 9.2). As Figure 9.3 shows, a
large majority of the respondent AIT
                                      graduates (76%) has networks in the national level
    Figure 9.4: Membership Types
                                      followed by regional level (19%) and global level
               (Total : 64)
                                      (5%).     Eighty-one percent indicated that their
 Executive                             membership        Figure 9.5: Degree of Involvement
   19%                                type in the                     (Total : 64)
                                       professional
                                      or       social          Very high       Very low
                                      networks     is             9%             6%
                         General                                                        Low
                                      general      as                                   15%
                          81%
                                      against     19
percent reported as executive types (Figure 9.4).            High
The higher proportion (42%) indicated their high             42%
degree of involvement in the in various professional
and social networks followed by medium (28%),                                            Medium
low (15%), very high (9%) and very low (6%)                                               28%

which is evident from Figure 9.5.




                                                    39
         Table 9.2: Professional / Social Networks by Number of AIT Graduates Involved
S. No.     Professional and Social Networks                                       Frequency
     1     AIT Alumni National Chapter                                                   22
     2     Nepal Engineering Council                                                      3
     3     Technical working group (TWG) for GEF (UNDP), Bhutan                           2
     4     Nepal Engineers Association                                                    2
     5     IEEE                                                                           2
     6     Agriculture Extension Society                                                  1
     7     Air & Waste Association (A&WMA)                                                1
     8     AIT Nepal Society                                                              1
     9     Asian Association of Social Workers                                            1
    10     Association of Social Work Educators in Bangladesh                             1
    11     CCA                                                                            1
    12     Civic Activist Net (CAN)                                                       1
    13     Development Partner Offices based in Cambodia                                  1
    14     EFN Alumni network                                                             1
    15     Greater Mekong Sub region Business Forum                                       1
    16     GWA membership                                                                 1
    17     I Love Korea Club                                                              1
    18     IPoS                                                                           1
    19     Leather Technologist Association, Bangladesh                                   1
    20     Mekong Migration Network                                                       1
    21     Myanmar NGOs Network                                                           1
    22     Nepal Agriculture Association                                                  1
    23     Nepal Animal Science Association (NASA-Nepal)                                  1
    24     Nepal Fisheries Society (NEFIS)                                                1
    25     Nepal Foresters' Association                                                   1
    26     Nepal Geographic Society                                                       1
    27     Nepal GIS Society                                                              1
    28     Nepalese Student Association at Iowa State University                          1
    29     OECD/DAC                                                                       1
    30     Royal Society for Protection of Nature as the Gender focal person              1
    31     Sagun, a Nepali NGO                                                            1
    32     Scientist Association, BCSIR                                                   1
    33     Society of Scientists, Nepal (SAS-Nepal)                                       1
    34     Swedish Institute Alumni Association                                           1
    35     Thai International Cooperation Agency                                          1
    36     University of Yamanashi network                                                1
    37     World Aquaculture Society                                                      1
    38     World Bank Alumni Network                                                      1



                                           PICTURE




                                             40
                                10                              Partnership and
                                                                   Suggestions
There always remains tremendous scope of alumni in strengthening any academic
institutions for which they belong. They always love their institutions; think about the
progress and possibilities of their contributions for the further enhancement of academic
and research activities. For this section, the target AIT graduates were requested to provide
information on their influential position to develop partnership with AIT or to support AIT
as well as to get their views on how can AIT generate more resources for its financial
viability, how AIT should move forward to meet the regional education and development
needs, and to get their suggestions on what AIT should do to strengthen
relations/partnerships with its alumni.

10.1    Partnership to Support AIT

An attempt was made to get the information from the target AIT graduates on possible
partnership or their current positions to support AIT through providing scholarships,
research funds, training participants and funds, student internship/exchange program, job
placement for AIT graduates, and collaborative research and academic programs with AIT
(Table 10.1).

           Table 10.1: Response on possible partnership and support from AIT graduates
Partnership / Support                      Yes                  No                Missing
                                     Frequency   Percent   Frequency   Percent   Frequency   Percent
Providing scholarships                  2          3.0        38        57.6        26        39.4
Providing research funds                5          7.6        36        54.5        25        37.9
Providing training participants         3          4.5        38        57.6        25        37.9
and funds
Facilitating student internship         13        19.7        29        43.9        24        36.4
/exchange program
Facilitating job placement for AIT      7         10.6        34        51.5        25        37.9
graduates
Initiating collaborative research       15        22.7        25        37.9        26        39.4
and academic programs with AIT


Three percent of the target AIT graduates reported that they are in a position to provide
scholarships to AIT. Eight percent of them reported that they can provide research funds to
AIT and five percent told that they can send training participants with funding. Twenty
percent of them were found interested on student internship or exchange program. About
eleven percent indicated that they could offer jobs for AIT graduates. Twenty-three percent
of them were found interested on initiating collaborative research and academic programs
with AIT.




                                                 41
10.2     Suggestions for Strengthening AIT

All the target AIT graduates were requested to provide suggestions on financial viability
and sustainability of AIT and its future move to meet the regional educational and
developmental needs and strengthening relationships with AIT alumni. Several suggestions
were received and summarized as here under.

10.2.1       Suggestions for Generating More Resources by AIT
             Increasing the number of students,
             Increasing the quality of education and other facilities so that self financing students attracted,
             Organizing more trainings and workshops covering large number of areas by utilizing its
              internal experts,
             Implementing applied research for companies or countries in Asia,
             Taking advantage of support of NGOs and companies for some burning fields such as "climate
              change" and environmental services,
             Signing agreements with developed countries having programs to support developing countries
              in the region,
             Initiating collaborative research projects with high-tech companies who need to
              generate/develop new and advanced technologies,
             Revising/ reducing the fee for the courses to attract the middle class students who can pay for
              quality education,
             Outsourcing some facilities which are currently not in satisfactory level,
             Building more trust with concerned development partners/supporters in the aspect of financial
              management,
             Building network and lobbying on behalf of poor countries as to generate more resources,
             Coordinating with donor agencies and government,
             Establishing capitation or donation system,
             Focusing to secure more research in collaboration with companies, universities, organization
              located in west and recruiting more renowned professors from abroad as visiting professor to
              increase the credibility of the institute which will eventually bring more funds as collaborative
              research in future, and
             Increasing consulting services and networking using local own alumni in various countries.


10.2.2 Suggestions for the Future Direction of AIT

             Establish and strengthen the AIT centers in potential countries in close supervision of AIT
             Deliver need based quality education. Conduct a research or a survey to identify the
              development needs of the region and revise its teaching pattern, methods, and courses
              accordingly.
             Add more new subjects related to R & D
             Build self-reputation through students alumni
             Develop more networks with other key institutions and donors for updating of course
              curriculum which responds to regional development job market.
             Improve or strengthening of existing network for providing more active role to support AIT
              mission
             Library should be updated with new editions and recent publications
             Suitable fund raising strategies should be developed
             Cooperate with more oversea universities
             Develop exchange programs with the regional countries and provide more scholarships to
              candidates from remote and poor areas in the region
             Provide scholarships to the relatively young students,
             Diversity of teachers’ nationality that would be good for grading of course and research works
             Improving and or investing higher technology labs,
             Offer more full scholarship and enroll outstanding students of the region
             Secure more funds from developing organizations and providing lucrative scholarship to
              students from developing countries to pursue higher studies as many brilliant students can't get
              change for that due to financial problem,


                                                       42
             Establishing collaborative exchange program with as many as possible developing country
              universities
             Offer quality guidance for the thesis and dissertation research works to produce the best
              researchers in the region.

10.2.3 Suggestions for Strengthening Relation / Partnerships with AIT Alumni

             Communication between advisers and advisees should be strengthened,
             Organize meetings for alumni at AIT once five years,
             Update the contacts, send the President’s weekly letter to every alumnus, and inform AIT
              Alumni the new events and information through email and newsletter,
             Organize some AIT related events in various countries for marketing purpose,
             Collect some funds from AIT alumni members and conduct research symposium and produce
              Journal annually or quarterly and provide awards to more contributing alumni,
             Deliver yearly plans to chapter or sub-chapter and organize workshops / conferences through
              them,
             Mobilize and activate AITAA not only for formalities. It should take responsibility to be in line
              with AITAA country chapters to mobilize them effectively,
             More thematic meetings / conference should be initiated to attract alumni to experience and
              information sharing.
             Seek for research partnership with its alumni,
             Develop new strategy for strengthening relationships / partnerships with alumni.

10.2.4 Suggestions for Strengthening AIT Targeting its Future Graduates

All the target AIT graduates were requested to provide their views on what must be
strengthened at AIT targeting its future graduates. As Figure 10.1 reveals, a vast majority
(82%) indicated own views for targeting teaching quality followed by practical application
for problem solving skills (73%), content and coverage of courses (15%), adding new
courses (9%) and other suggestions (9%). The new courses to be added were suggested as
the Aquaculture Business Management (in AARM); Domestic Violence, Human Rights
and Trafficking (in Gender and Development), Communication and Public Speaking Skills
(Institute level course), and Forest Management (in NRM). Some major points under the
suggestions      for
other categories                  Figure 10.1: Strengthening AIT by Targeting Future Graduates
are: equip more
                          90        82
skills       needed       80                            73
while                     70
                          60
participating     in
                             Percent




                          50
the       meetings,       40
                          30
international             20                                                 15
                                                                                               9                8
seminar,                  10
                           0
workshops                     Teaching quality Practical application Content & coverage Add new courses Other suggestions
concentrating on                               for problem solving
                                                       skills
                                                                         of courses

public speaking                                                        Suggestions
and presentation
skills; increasing field exposures and practical experiences; enhancing international
studying environment, and refreshing and updating with new/advanced technology and
new/applied concepts.




                                                          43
              11
                                   Perspective of Employers
                                 and Peers on AIT Graduates
The information on how the employers (immediate supervisors) and peers of AIT
graduates have been marking the AIT graduates is very important from the perspective of
knowing the impact of knowledge and skills learned from AIT and their performances in
the real professional and academic fields. In order to get the unbiased information from the
employers and peers, an attempt was made, to the possible extent, to get response from
those who had not getting any AIT degrees or who had not studied in AIT were requested
to fill the questionnaires designed exclusively for them. Out of 49 AIT graduates having
full time jobs, their 11 employers (22%) and 14 peers (28%) kindly submitted the
completed questionnaires.

11.1    Perspective of Employers

The background information of employers were requested in terms of their age, gender,
nationality, and current job position before getting into their perceptions on the
performance of AIT graduates.

11.1.1 Background Information of Employers

Some of the personal information of the immediate
                                                                Figure 11.1 : Age Group of Employers
supervisor as employers inquired was about age,                                (Total : 11)
gender, nationality, current job title or position and          51 to 60 Years
                                                                     18%
since how long they have been supervising the AIT
graduates as their subordinates. Majority (55%) of
                                                                                         31 to 40 Years
the employers were found in the age group of 31 to                                            55%
40 followed by 27 percent in 41 to 50 years of age 41 to 27%      50 Years

group and remaining 18 percent in 51 to 60 years of
age group (Figure 11.1). Majority (64%) percent of the employers were males compared to
 Figure 11.2: Gender of Employers 36 percent of females (Figure 11.2). A large proportion of
                (Total : 11)
                                  employers were from Nepal (46%) and others were from
         F e m a le
                                  Bangladesh, Bhutan, Japan, Myanmar, Sri Lanka and Vietnam
           36%
                       M a le
                                  constituted by 9 percent each. Three employers reported their
                       64%
                                  job positions as Coordinator and two as Manager and rest each
                                  of one as Assistant Professor, Professor, Director of Research,
Chief Forestry Officer, President of the Organization, and Treasurer.
                                                            Table 11.1: Duration of Supervision
11.1.2 Duration of Supervision                         Duration            Frequency     Percent
                                                       6 to <12 Months               3          27
A large proportion (46%) has been 1 to <2 Years                                     2           18
supervising AIT graduates for the period of 2 2 to <5 Years                         5           46
to less than 5 years followed by 27 percent ≥ 5 Years                               1            9
for 6 to less 1 to less than 12 months, 18 Total                                   11        100.0
percent and 9 percent for 1 to less than 2
years and more than or equals to 5 years, respectively (Table 11.1).


                                                  44
11.1.3 Priority in Recruiting AIT Graduates                                                                                 Figure 11.3: Priority in Recruiting AIT Graduates
                                                                                                                                               (Total : 11)


The most important information requested to provide                                                                                  Medium
                                                                                                                                       9%
was on the priority in recruiting AIT graduates in the                                                                                                                                                                               Very high
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       18%
future job vacancies in their respective organization. As
presented in Figure 11.3, seventy-three percent of the
employers indicated as high priority followed by very                                                                                                                                     High
                                                                                                                                                                                          73%

high (18%) and medium (9%).

11.1.4 Rating on Job Performance of AIT Graduates

Similarly, equally important information received from them was on their rating of AIT
graduates’ job performance in terms of knowledge and technical skills on given task,
positive attitude towards sustainable development, English proficiency, team work, ability
to interact with expatriate /
international              team,             Figure 11.4: Rating on Job Performance of AIT Graduates
commitments/dedication to the        100%
                                                                    (Total : 11)
                                           1     1                      2        1
work, work efficiency, work                              2       2                   2       2      2
competency,       and     gender      80%
                                                                        7
awareness and applications.           60%
                                                 6               4
                                                                                 7
                                           8                                         6       6
The rating scales were ranging                           8
                                                                                                    7
from very high to very low but        40%

none of the employers were            20%        4
                                                                 5      9
found low and very low                                                           3   3       3
                                           2                                                        2
                                                         1
performance of the AIT                 0%
                                                                                                    English proficiency
                                              Knowledge and technical




                                                                                                                                                                                                 Work efficiency
                                                                                                                          Teamwork




                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Work competency
                                                                                                                                     expatriate /international


                                                                                                                                                                 Commitments/dedication
                                                                        Positive attitude towards
                                                                        sustainable development




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Gender awareness and
                                                                                                                                      Ability to interact with




graduates. Ninety-one percent
                                                 skill on given task




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          applications
of them rated as very high and
                                                                                                                                                                      to the work
                                                                                                                                                team




high level of performance on
knowledge and technical skills
and commitment/dedication to
the given task and positive
                                                            Very high High Medium
attitude towards sustainable
development. Eighty-two percent considered as very high and high on English
proficiency, team work, ability to interact with expatriate, work efficiency, work
competency, and gender awareness and application (Figure 11.4).

11.1.5 Strength and Weakness of AIT Graduates

The immediate supervisors as employers were requested to provide their opinion on the
strength and weakness of AIT graduates. The main strong points reported were the ability
to work in a multicultural environment, confidence in assigned responsibility, having good
knowledge and skills, self-motivated, having related work experience, research ability, and
ability to work in a team. They have pointed out some weaknesses as well which can be
listed as low level of leadership quality, lack of attention to details, over smart, over
confidence and inability to cope with stress.

11.1.6 Prospects of AIT Graduates in Job Markets

The employers’ perspective on the prospects of AIT graduates in the job markets is felt one
of the most important information for AIT and its graduates and therefore they were


                                                              45
requested to give their opinion considering the quality               Figure 11.5: Prospects of AIT Graduates in Job Markets
standards of AIT graduates and availability of jobs in the                                  (Total : 11)


job markets. They were given five scales of the prospects
to be rated such as very high, high, medium, low, and                               Medium
                                                                                     27%            Very high
very low. Seventy-three percent of the responding                                                     27%

employers considered that there is a very high and high                                      High
                                                                                             46%
and remaining 27 percent reported as medium level of job
prospects in the job markets for AIT graduates (Figure
11.5).

11.1.7 Prospects of Supporting AIT and Suggestions

The immediate supervisors or employers were inquired about the possibility of their
organization to send or planning to send their staff to study or training program in AIT.
Thirty-seven percent of the responding employers
                                                      Figure 11.6: Prospects of Supporting AIT
indicated that they could send their staff in AIT for                 (Total : 11)
graduate study and 27 percent for training (Figure
11.6). Their opinion were requested on what should None
                                                      36%                             For graduate study
AIT target in its teaching and research for its study                                        37%

programs to be more relevant in professional
works. They had given lot of suggestions such as
focus on management of skills, identification of the
current development needs at regional level,
                                                                         For training
improvement in teaching quality, placement or                               27%
internship in relevant organization, focusing on technical expertise and sustainable
development, more and team work or workshops, recruitment of outstanding students, in-
house management in AIT, research skill development exercise, and setting up more
professional environment for trainees.

11.2    Perspective of Peers

The closest persons to know every aspects of strength and weakness of the AIT graduates
are their peers. Therefore their rating on the AIT graduates felt necessary. Altogether 14
peers (28%) of the full time job holding AIT graduates submitted their completed
questionnaires.

11.2.1 Background Information of Peers

The questionnaire was designed to get some personal information of peer and their
perception on AIT and its graduates. The personal information requested were on their age,
gender, nationality, current job position, duration of working      Figure 11.7: Age Group of Peers
together with AIT graduates, academic qualification and their                  (Total : 14)
                                                                                            21 to 30 Years
interest on studying in AIT. The age of the peer ranges from 24 31 to64%Years
                                                                       40                        36%


to 50 years. The number of male and female was equal
constituted by 7 each. The highest proportion of peers (37%) was
from Nepal followed by Vietnam (21%) and Bangladesh (14%)
and each 7 percent from China, Bhutan, Indonesia, and
Myanmar. Except Project Associate as current job position of 2 peers, all other individual
have different job positions such as Assistant Programmed Officer, Chief Accountant,
Environmental Education Officer, Environmental Researcher, GIS and M & E Officer,


                                                   46
International Volunteer, Ph D Candidate, Program Officer, Project Associate, Project
Associate, and Technical Support Manager. One of the information inquired with the peers
was whether they have applied or intended to apply to study Figure 11.9: Interest of Peers to Study at AIT
                                                                              (Total : 14)
at AIT. A large majority (71%) reported their interest to study
at AIT (Figure 11.9). Thos who did not show there interest to
                                                                               No
study in AIT (29%) had given two important reasons are:                      29%

different academic background and already done master’s                                Yes
                                                                                       71%
degree from elsewhere.

11.2.2 Duration of Working with AIT Graduates

The highest proportion (47%) of the respondent peers indicated that they have been
working with the AIT graduates 6 to less than 12          Figure 11.8: Working Duration w ith AIT Graduates
                                                                             (Total : 13)
months. However, 23 percent indicated that they were         > 5 Years
                                                                23%
working together for more than five years (Figure 11.8).                                  ≥6 to < 12Months
                                                                                                 47%
Regarding their academic qualification (last degree) it
was found that 82 percent of them had masters’ degree ≥2 to <5 Years
                                                           15%
and remaining 18 percent had bachelor degrees.
                                                                                                                                                                                               ≥1 to <2 Years
                                                                                                                                                                                                    15%

11.2.3 Rating on Job Performance of AIT Graduates

In order to get the information about the judgment of peers on the job performance of AIT
graduates, a request was made to rate by considering five scales rating from very high to
very low. Hundred percent peers indicated very high and high level of job performance on
team work, ability to interact with expatriate, commitments dedication to the work, work
efficiency and
work                               Figure 11.9: Rating AIT Graduates' Job Performance
competency.                                             (Total : 14)
Ninety-three          100%
                               1       1        1        1                                1
percent peers          90%
                                                                          4               1
indicated very         80%             4
                       70%
                                                         5                                4
high and high                  8                                   9              9     9
                       60%
level of job           50%                     11
performance            40%
                                       9                                 10
on          AIT        30%                               8                                8
graduates’             20%     5                                   5              5     5
                       10%
knowledge                                       2
                        0%
and technical
                                                                                                                                                                             Work efficiency
                                                                                                                        expatriate /international




                                                                                                                                                                                                   Work competency
                                                                                       English proficiency
                                Knowledge and technical




                                                                                                             Teamwork
                                                          sustainable development




                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Gender awareness and
                                                           Positive attitude towards




                                                                                                                                                    Commitments/dedication
                                                                                                                         Ability to interact with




skills, English
                                   skill on given task




                                                                                                                                                                                                                         applications




proficiency,
                                                                                                                                                         to the work
                                                                                                                                  team




team      work
and positive
attitudes
towards
sustainable
development.             Very high              High                Medium            Low
Eighty-six
percent indicated very high and high and remaining 14 percent as medium and low level of
rating for the job performance related to gender awareness and application (Figure 11.9).



                                                                                               47
11.2.4 Strength and Weakness of AIT Graduates

Several points indicating the strength of the AIT graduates were made such as,
commitments / dedication to the community transformation, comprehensive knowledge,
positive thinking, reliable and sincere, higher research ability, self-confidence, seriousness
in works, ability to teamwork, communication skills and interactive, eager to learn more,
and straight forward.

The weaknesses of the AIT graduates were also pointed out by the respondent peers such
as low English proficiency, giving little time to family and family matters, put high
pressure on works and colleagues, more sensitive, too emotional, sometimes stubborn,
aggressive, and lacks in critical thinking.

11.2.5 Suggestion to AIT

The opinion of the peers was inquired on what AIT should target in its teaching and
research for its study programs to be more relevant in professional works. They had given
some valid suggestions such as course should be interdisciplinary, direct collaboration with
regional GOs, and NGOs should be established, enroll students giving priority to needy
countries, developing practical field based curriculum, run such programs that promote
technical aspects as well as attitude and behavior changes, international exchange of
academic ideas, start internship programs, follow strict rules for selection procedure while
allocating full scholarships, and research focus on practical need or issues of the country.




                                             48
                    12
12.1`Trace Studies in AIT
                                                  Key Findings
                                          and Recommendations

The tracer study of AIT graduates has been one of the important research activities in AIT.
The first tracer study was done in 1971. The periodic tracing of AIT alumni focuses on
updating the alumni directory and gathering certain information required for the
improvement of AIT curriculum, teaching, research, extension, and networking. As of
January, 2009, altogether 14 AIT Alumni tracer studies, including this one, Tracer Study of
AIT Graduates with Norwegian Scholarship (2005 to mid 2008) have been conducted.
Altogether 16201 academic degrees are awarded as of December, 2008 by AIT. These
degrees were obtained by the people from more than 80 countries. So far tracer studies are
done by targeting some period or some graduates or some donors. AIT alumni are the
resources for strengthening AIT in its teaching, research, and extension aspects. The
degree contribution may vary with the current resourceful position of the AIT alumni. For
this reason, identification of more resourceful alumni will be other important issues for the
tracer studies in futures.

 RECOMMENDATION
 A most comprehensive tracer study by targeting all the AIT graduates from the first
 graduated batch to recent one will be very useful. A two step survey will be more
 appropriate. In the first step a census survey based on one page questionnaire for the
 current contact details and current job profile and based on this the second step a sample
 survey of the most representative and potential for the partnerships with AIT is
 recommended.

12.2   Tracer Study of AIT Graduates with Norwegian Scholarships

As of May 2008, altogether 82 persons received Norwegian Scholarships and graduated
from AIT. These 82 Norwegian scholarship recipient AIT graduates represent two Asia
regions and 9 countries. A large majority (65%) is from South Asia region and its
countries, namely, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. The remaining
graduates (35%) are from South-east Asia and its countries, namely, Cambodia, Lao PDR,
Myanmar, and Vietnam. This means the donor has been giving more focus in South Asia
for strengthening academic and research capabilities required for the sustainable
development of this region. Out of the total 82 target graduates, 66 graduates (80.5%)
submitted the filled questionnaires through email (80%), online (17%), and personal
interview (3%). Since female AIT graduates are far more than male graduates, the gender
analyses are made considering one of the most important aspects of this tracer study.

 RECOMMENDATION
 The more scholarships are provided to South Asia and females which have positive
 impacts in poverty alleviation and gender empowerment in this least developing region.
 Since these human resource are not enough to address such problems more scholarships
 for addition human resource production is recommended .
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12.3   Research Methodology

The research method followed a kind of census survey targeting all the AIT graduates with
Norwegian scholarships (82) and heavily dependent on mailing questionnaire survey
through email and postal services and online submissions. Altogether 66 AIT graduates
(80.5%) returned their completed questionnaires through email (73%), online submission
(21%) and personal interview (6%). The quality of response is better in the questionnaires
received from the personal interview. The researcher tried to reach target alumni through
the respective AITAA National Chapters. The target group was recent past five years’ one
(2005 to mid 2008), however, the respective AIT Alumni National Chapters were mainly
constituted by the most senior ones and there was a gap between seniors and juniors which
posed some difficulties in approaching recent ones through seniors.

 RECOMMENDATION
 The quality of response found better in personal interview methods and therefore at least
 25 percent of the response should be constituted by the personal interview in futures
 while doing similar research. The response rate also higher in countries where visits
 were made by the researcher. Therefore more number of visits with more time in the
 fields will increase response rate as well as quality of the responses.
 The recent contact details should be readily available to the researcher which would
 help to get better rate of response and also save the time as well cost of the research.
 Therefore, AIT should update contact details before inviting researcher to submit
 proposal for the tracer study in futures.


12.4   Effectiveness and Relevance of AIT Degree for Job Placements and Salary

Out of 66 total respondents, 20 (30%) had joined their previous jobs and 17 (26%) had
gone for further study and remaining 29 (44%) ventured for the jobs in the new job
markets. Out of the 29 respondent AIT graduates 10 (34%) reported that their jobs were
confirmed even before graduation. The higher mobility from the junior levels to senior
levels were observed. The salary level of the current job positions were found significantly
higher compared to the salary of the last job positions of AIT graduates before enrolling
AIT. The independent t-Test was done to analyze the salary of the AIT graduates by
gender and it was found significantly different in both situations, before and after studies in
AIT. The comparative analysis of mean salary differences was made in terms of before and
after AIT situations by gender. The salary of the current job positions is higher by 60
percent for female graduates and 40 percent for male graduates. The analysis of the current
job relevancy with AIT studies indicated that the AIT studies has been exactly related for a
large majority (56%) and partly related for 41 percent of AIT graduates.
 RECOMMENDATION
 The AIT studies have contributed significantly in getting new jobs with higher ranks
 and higher salaries. Furthermore, female graduates found in better salaried positions
 compared to male graduates. Therefore, the Norwegian scholarships have been found
 more productive for both gender but even much more on female graduates. Looking at
 the demand of such graduates in the Asian region more scholarships will have even
 further positive of AIT towards enhancement of natural to Current Profession
12.5 Relevance impacts Courses/Curricula and Researchresources and environment,
 gender awareness and applications, and planning and policy making for the sustainable
 development of the Asia region and its countries.

                                              50
Eighty-three percent of the respondents indicated that knowledge and skills gained from
the course works has been highly and very highly useful. Similarly, the knowledge and
skills gained from the AIT research, workshops/field visits; staying at multicultural /
international environment; networking with peers, professors, and staff; and by overall
program has been reported as highly and very highly useful by more than 70 percent
respondent graduates. Eighty percent of them reported that whatever technical / practical
skills they had learnt from AIT has been useful with high or very high levels. Ninety-five
percent of them reported that they have been benefited highly and very highly from the
theoretical knowledge they gained from AIT. Likewise, 85 percent for gaining higher
status / recognition, 92 percent for gaining self-confidence, 60 percent for gaining higher
income, 70 percent for gaining higher progression / promotion in the same job, and 68 for
higher mobility across the job were reported under high and very high levels of benefits
gained after AIT studies. From these responses one can easily conclude that the AIT
studies have significant contributions in the current profession of the AIT graduates.

 RECOMMENDATION

 During the field visits and meetings with the AIT graduates it was observed that the AIT
 graduates with Norwegian scholarships have been serving in their own countries since
 the knowledge and skills they learned from AIT were mainly related to natural resource
 management, regional and rural development planning, gender and development,
 aquaculture and aquatic resources and environmental protection for sustainable
 development. These represent areas of most important in the developing countries
 where AIT graduates are in high demand. Therefore, the related field study coordinator
 should consult such people to get more feedback to further strengthening course
 curricula and research in AIT.


12.6   Networking

The target AIT graduates were requested to list professional and social networks including
AITAA. The type of network was specified as national, regional and global. Membership
also requested to specify as general or executive types. Alongside additional information
was requested on the degree of involvement in terms of very high, high, medium, low and
very low for the involved professional and social networks. A large majority of the
respondent AIT graduates (76%) has networks in the national level followed by regional
level (19%) and global level (5%). Eighty-one percent indicated that their membership
type in the professional or social networks is general as against 19 percent reported as
executive types. Majority (42%) indicated their high degree of involvement followed by
medium (28%), low (15%), very high (9%) and very low (6%).

 RECOMMENDATION

 AIT should take an initiative to strengthen the AITAA National Chapters so that all
 the AIT graduates belonging to the respective national chapter could take the
 membership and participate in any activities related to them.




                                            51
12.7   Gender Awareness and Application

The relevancy and effectiveness of different knowledge and skills learnt through courses,
research, workshop/field visits, multicultural environment, networks, and overall AIT
programs were analyzed by gender of the responding AIT graduates. Both genders were
more or less equally responding the effectiveness and relevancy since the significance
values for all sources of knowledge and skills obtained from Chi-Square tests are found not
significantly different. Similar test results were also found in various aspects of benefits of
AIT studies obtained by responding AIT graduates. The extent of contribution on gender
awareness and application was reported by AIT graduates as very high (21%), high (43%),
medium (17%), low (7%) and very low (12%). Seventy-one percent of employer and
seventy-three percent of the peers have reported that AIT graduates have been involved in
gender awareness and applications.

 RECOMMENDATION

 At least one course related to gender awareness and application should be studied by
 the students with Norwegian scholarships and also they should consider gender issue
 to be included in the thesis/dissertation research so that AIT graduates can make more
 contribution on gender and development in the Asia region.

12.8   Development Contribution

Majority (55%) of the AIT graduates reported their high and very high involvement in
poverty alleviation programs and activities. Same level of involvement was reported by 37
percent for renewable and sustainable energy related activities, by 66 percent for
environment and development, by 70 percent for natural resource management, by 64
percent for gender awareness and application and agriculture development, by 26 percent
for HIV / AIDS, by 30 percent for human rights and peace building activities. Low level of
contributions were seen in the field of information and technology, infrastructure
development, and business management and entrepreneurship as 67 percent, 84 percent,
and 93 percent of the respondent AIT graduates indicated very low to medium level of
contribution in these fields, respectively. A large majority (22%) of the projects to which
AIT graduates have significantly contributed were related to natural resource management
followed by environment, and poverty alleviation. The highest contribution (75%) was
found for project implementation followed by project supervision (66%), monitoring and
evaluation (64%) and project design (60%).

   RECOMMENDATION

   The importance of information technology, infrastructure development, and business
   management is as high as natural resources, poverty alleviation, agriculture
   development, and gender awareness and applications. Therefore more scholarships
   should be allocated in the former three fields in futures.




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