Thinking and Communication Skills Course

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					                    GXEX1406
Thinking and Communication Skills


                  Decision
                   Making
Decision Making

          Definition:
                “The process for arriving at a decision.”
                Decision making  an everyday task!
          Focus on:
                What is the process/procedure that makes a
                 good decision making?
                What are the tools/techniques to aid decision
                 making process?

GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 13 Decision Making   2
Decision Making Process
    1. What is the problem/decision to be made?
          Problem definition?
          Objectives to be fulfilled?
          Problem boundaries?
          Example: Decide whether extra work hour should
           be encouraged?




GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 13 Decision Making   3
Cont.
                2. What are the possible options/
                 alternatives?
                     Look for new alternatives/options/ideas or
                      courses of action.
                     Available technique:
                          PMI (Edward De Bono)
                          It is a powerful thinking tool for the generation of
                           alternatives, options or courses of actions.
                          P = Plus or Good Points
                          M = Minus or the Bad Points
                          I = Interesting or the Interesting Points
GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 13 Decision Making              4
Cont.
                 PMI technique – begins with the ‘Plus’ followed
                  by the ‘Minus’ and finally the ‘Interesting’ points
                  (attention directing tool)
                 The ‘interesting’ point consists of neither positive
                  nor negative reasons/ideas etc. It explore
                  possibilities that may be outside the usual realm
                  of pro or con.
                 Example:
                      P : What if extra work hour is encouraged..?
                      M : What if extra work hour is discouraged..?
                      I : What if extra work hour is normal?
GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 13 Decision Making   5
Cont.
          3. What options/alternatives are best?
                Using generated options/ alternatives, do:
                a) consequences of each option/ alternative
                    Make predictions as to the consequences of each
                     option or course of action, i.e. what if extra work hour
                     was encouraged or discouraged?
                    Support each prediction with credible evidence, i.e.
                     what evidence do I have that extra work hour should
                     be encouraged or discouraged?
                         Support with statistic, survey, expert opinion etc

GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 13 Decision Making           6
Cont.
          Available technique:
              The ALU (Scott and Donald)
              It is a technique for idea finding.
              A = Advantages
              L = Limitations
              U = Unique Connections




GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 13 Decision Making   7
Cont.
                 ALU technique:
                      Advantages: From the list of possibilities ask what
                       advantages does each alternative offer? What are its
                       strongest points? What makes it attractive or
                       appealing?
                      Limitations: Next ask, what limitations are there? Are
                       there obvious flaws or weaknesses to be overcome if
                       we work with this alternative/ course of action? Are
                       there possible trouble spots?
                      Unique Connections: Finally, ask yourself. “Does this
                       alternative/idea suggest any new or unusual
                       connections I was not aware of before? Are there
                       any “hidden potentials” here?
GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 13 Decision Making      8
Cont.
          b) value of each consequence
              Rank each consequence according to priority based
               on a value system.

    4. Selection of best option
          Compare the various options/ alternatives based
           on their consequences.
          Decide which is the best option/ alternative.



GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 13 Decision Making   9
Cont.
    5. How to implement the decision?
          Establish what is need to implement the decision
           (resources allocation).
          List action steps for implementation (including
           people involved)
          If possible, include contingency plans for known
           risks.




GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 13 Decision Making   10
Summary

             Decision making process:
                  1. What is the problem/decision to be made?
                  2. What are the possible options/ alternatives?
                  3. What options/alternatives are best?
                  4. Selection of best option.
                  5. How to implement the decision?



GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 13 Decision Making   11

				
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