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1998 Abstracts - Pacific Coast Shellfish Growers Association

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1998 Abstracts - Pacific Coast Shellfish Growers Association Powered By Docstoc
					The Future of Shellfish Aquaculture in the Pacific Northwest
    INTENSIFICATION, DIVERSIFICATION,
      POLITICS AND THE ENVIRONMENT

                      OCTOBER 1998




        Joint Annual Conference
                ABSTRACTS




      Pacific Coast Oyster Growers Association
   British Columbia Shellfish Growers Association
  National Shellfish Association/Pacific Coast Section
CONFERENCE ABSTRACTS IN ALPHEBETICAL ORDER BY AUTHO

HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE OPENING OF OYSTERS, A NEW TOOL TO SHUCK AND KILL
BACTERIA?
  HaejungAN

SETTLEMENT BEHAVIOR OF DUNGENESS CRAB, CANCER MAGISTER, MEGALOPAE
WHEN EXPOSED TO CHEMICAL AND VISUAL CUES FROM THE SHORE CRAB,
HEMIGRAPSUS
  Janel L. BANKS

IS THE LABORATORY PERFORMANCE OF PACIFIC OYSTER SPAT, CRASSOSTREA
GIGAS, EXPOSED TO VARYING SALINTIES; PREDICTIVE OF PERFORMANCE IN THE
FIELD?
   Chris BROOKS and Chris Langdon

GREEN CRAB - BC UPDATE
 Gary CAINE

OYSTER SUMMER MORTALITY- AN UPDATE ON ON-GOING SEA GRANT
SPONSORED RESEARCH.
  D.P. CHENEY, R. Elston, and B. MacDonald

PSP IN GEODUCKS: VARIABILITY, ANATOMICAL DISTRIBUTION, AND COMPARISON
OF TWO TOXICITY TESTING METHODS
  Kelly M. CURTIS

FORGING AHEAD TO DEVELOP AND ADOPT SHELLFISH ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY
AND BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES (CODE OF PRACTICE)
  Bill Dewey

THE SUSTAINABLE FISHERIES ACT OF 1996- IMPLICATIONS FOR THE SHELLFISH
INDUSTRY
  Bill Dewey

INTENSIVE BIVALVE HEALTH MANAGEMENT
  Ralph ELSTON, Jerry Heidel, Joth Davis, and Dan Cheney

ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY OF CO-CULTURING RED ABALONE HAL/OTIS RUFESCENS
WITH RED MACROALGAE PALMAR/A MOU/S AT TWO GEOGRAPHICALLY DISTINCT
LOCATIONS
  Ford EVANS and Chris Langdon

GEODUCK CULTURE DEVELOPMENT
  Jim GIBBONS
CONFERENCE ABSTRACTS IN ALPHEBETICAL ORDER BY AUTHO
THE GROWTH OF BUTTER CLAMS (SAXIDOMUS GIGANTEUS) ON SELECTED BEACHES
IN THE STATE OF WASHINGTON
  Stuart A. GOONG and Kenneth K. Chew

THE VARNISH CLAM (NUTTALLIA OBSCURATA): ANOTHER COMMERCIAL SPECIES?
  William A. HEATH

CROSSBREEDING TO IMPROVEPACIFIC OYSTER BROODSTOCKS: UPDATE OF USDA-
WRAC PROJECT
  Dennis Hedgecock

THE ARRIVAL OF THE EUROPEAN GREEN        CRAB~-   CARCINUS MAENAS, IN OREGON
ESTUARIES.
  Chris HUNT and Sylvia Behrens Yamada

PERFORMANCE OF GALLO MUSSELS FROM DIFFERENT SOURCE POPULATIONS
  Kurt JOHNSON

UPDATE ON THE MOLLUSCAN BROODSTOCK PROGRAM
  Chris LANGDON

LARVAL SURVNALAND GROWTH OF MITILUS TROSSULUS AND M.
GALLOPROVINCIALIS HYBRIDS
  Sean E. MATSON

GREEN CRABS AND NATIVE PREDATORS: POSSIBLE LIMITATIONS ON THE WEST
COAST INVASION.
  P. Sean MCDONALD, Gregory C. Jensen, and David A. Armstrong

REVIEW OF STUDENT STUDIES ON JUVENILE GEODUCKSAT MALASPINA
UNNERSITY COLLEGE'S FISHERIES AND AQUACULTURE PROGRAM
  Melissa MILNE and Jesse Ketler

WATER QUALITY, SHELLFISH AND PUBLIC HALTH IN TOMALES BAY, CALIFORNIA
 Paul G. OLIN and Gregg Langlois

A SPRAY-DRIED SCHIZOCHYTRIUM-BASED BIET CAN COMPLETELY REPLACE LIVING
ALGAE FOR REARING JUVENILE MUSSELS (MITILUS GALLOPROVINCIALIS)
  Ebru ONAL and Chris Langdon

ALASKAN SHELLFISH FARMING, A PERIOD OF MAJOR DEVELOPMENT
  Raymond L. RaLonde

IDENTIFICATION AND TRACKING OF THE SOURCES OF MICROBIAL POLLUTION IN
SHELLFISH GROWING WATERS
  Mansour SAMADPOUR
CONFERENCE ABSTRACTS IN ALPHEBETICAL ORDER BY AUTHO
OFF-BOTTOM CULTURE TECHNIQUES
  Terry SAWYER

RELATING OYSTER CONDITION INDEX TO THE AQUATIC ENVIRONMENT OF
WILLAPA BAY WASHINGTON
  Ervin J. SCHUMACKER, Brett R. Dumbauld, and Bruce E. Kauffman

DEVELOPMENT OF HARD CLAM AQUACULTURE ON FLORIDA'S WEST COAST:
FROM TRAINING TO PRODUCTION TO A SUSTANABLE INDUSTRY
  Leslie N. Sturmer

INDUCTION OF TRIPLOIDY IN THE GEODBCKCLAM, PANOPE ABRUPTA
  Brent A. VADOPALAS and Jonathan P. Davis

GROWTH & SURVIVAL OF INTRODUCED AND NATIVE BLUE
MUSSELS (THE MYTILID SPECIES) IN GEORGIA STRAIT, B.C.-
THE PROSPECTS FOR AQUACULTURE
  Jenia Yanick and Daniel Heath
HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE OPENING OF OYSTERS, A NEW TOOL TO
SHUCK AND KILL BACTERA SIMULTANEOUSLY?

HaejungAN*
OSU-Seafood Laboratory
2001 Marine Dr., RM 253
Astoria, OR 97103-3427
Phone (503) 325-4531
Fax (503) 325-2753
email haejung.an@orst.edu

High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment has received a wide range of attention
because.of its-effect·on. micreorganisms·and en:zyiriatic·activity, the two most detrimental
factors to deteriorate quality and accelerate-spoilage·offoods.- IlliP treatment applied to
fresh oysters has shown promising results by reducing the number of aerobic bacteria at
medium pressure range and by opening shells at relatively low pressure range. With the
advancement of technology, it may be possible to apply the HHP treatment in processing
fresh oysters in commercial operations, and its potential effects on extending shelf life,
reducing pothogens, such as naturally present Vibrios in fresh oysters and opening of live
oyster shells will be discussed.
SETTLEMENT BEHAVIOR OF DUNGENESS CRAB,                                      IS THE LABORATORY PERFORMANCE OF PACIFIC
CANCER MAGISTER, MEGALOPAE WHEN                                            OYSTER SPAT, CRASSOSTREA GIGAS, EXPOSED TO
EXPOSED TO CHEMICAL AND VISUAL CUES                                         VARYING SALINITJES, PREDICTIVE OF
                                                                           PERFORMANCE IN THE FIELD?
FROM THE SHORE CRAB, HEMIGRAPSUS                                              Chris BROOKS*, Chris Langdon
    Janel L. BANKS*
                                                                              Oregon state University
    Undergraduate, Environmental Science, Huxley College,
                                                                              Hatfield Marine Science Center
    Western Washington University, Washington 98225
                                                                              2030 S. Marine Scieqce Dr.
    Dr. Paul A. DINNEL, Shannon Point Marine Center,
    Anacortes, Washington, 98221                                              Newport, Oregon 97:i65
 Artificial habitat is often created to augment populations of             Broodstock selectioq of oysters is a lengthy process which may
 commercially valuable species. The complex structure of the habitat       take up to three year~. ~n an effort to study the feasibility of
 serves to provide refuge from predation. In Grays Harbor, W~this          shortening this time petiod, 72 representative oysters from each of
 concept is being applied by establishing intertidal oyster shell plots    the 14 full-sib famili~s ~vailable, were individually tagged as 7-10
 for Dungeness megalopae settlement. Previous moni,toring of these         mm spat. Commerc(ally available Kumamoto, triploid and
 plots revealed a negative relationship between Hemigrapsus                tetraploid oysters we:re ~ncluded for comparison. Spat were placed
 populations and Dungeness crab juveniles within the shell plots. The     into uncrowded upw~llers and fed to excess on a diet of
 present study investigated the relationship between the presence of      Chaetoceros calcitra,ns,' and lsochrysis galbana. Whole wet
Hemigrapsus and the settling behavior ofDungeness megalopae. The          weights and survival w~re measured approximately bi-monthly for
study also explores the predation interactions between Hemigrapsus         II months. Half of the oysters were exposed to increasingly
and Dungeness crab instars.                                               severe (i.e. 30ppt- 5ppt) salinity fluctuations that simulated typical
   Dungeness crab megalopae avoid the vicinity of Hemigrapsus,            winter tide cycles and a 1996 storm event in Oregon's Yaquina
whose presence is detected chemically, not visually. Results support      Bay. The pre-flood family rankings of specific growth rate and
the hypothesis that Dungeness megalopae are avoiding the presence         survival were similar between fluctuating and constant salinity
of Hemigrapszu when selecting areas to settle. Hemigrapsus                conditions, based upon Spearman Rank Correlation, (rho= 0.893,
predation upon Dungeness crab, with carapace width - 8 em, begins         0.833 respectively). Mean family SGR values ranged from 4.56%
to occur when the shore crab is approximately 1.5 times the size of       to 1.3%. The five families with the highest pre-flood mean SGR
the Dungeness. Percentage mortality of Dungeness instars by               were the tetraploids, followed by diploid families #106, #108, #105
predation increases as the size ratio (Dungeness crab:Hemigrapus)         and the triploids. Results of the family rankings in the laboratory
increases.                                                                environments compared with their rankings at two different grow-
                                                                          out sites in the Yaquina Bay estuary will be presented.
GREEN CRAB- BC UPDATE                                          OYSTER SUMMER MORTALITY- AN UPDATE ON
  Gary CAINE*                                                  ON-GOING SEA GRANT SPONSORED RESEARCH.
   2500 Cliffe Avenue                                           Cheney, D.P., R. Elston, and B. MacDonald.
   Courtenay, BC Canada                                         Pacific Shellfish Institute
   VQR2MO                                                       120 State Ave. N.E. #142
As of October, '98, British Columbia beaches continue to        Olympia, WA 98501-0600
be Green crab-free, which is not to say the crabs aren't        and PO Box 687, Carlsborg, WA 98324.
already in BC. This brief presentation discusses potential       While oyster production on the U.S. west coast has not experienced
pathways for green crab invasion in to BC, likely beach          the catastrophic losses from disease plaguing the east coast, mass
heads for first wave invaders, and regulatory and industry       mortalities periodically occur on commercial fanns. Pacific oysters
actions being undertaken to monitor and prevent invasion         (Crassostrea gigas) from growing areas in Washington, Oregon and
and spread of Green crabs.                                       California sporadically experience larger than expected die-offs in
                                                                summer months. Sharp increases in mortality from Puget Sound,
                                                                 Washington from June to September are' considered the classical
                                                                example of west coast summer mortality. More recently, losses of
                                                                seed and adult oysters in Europe have also been attributed to
                                                                summer mortality.
                                                                   Work began in early 1998 on a Sea Grant Program funded study
                                                                to more precisely characterize summer mortality in a variety of
                                                                culture conditions and locations, definitively describe the
                                                                relationship to infectious diseases, and identify water quality and
                                                                seasonal patterns. Also, underway is a field component to
                                                                investigations into the oyster thennal stress response and an
                                                                assessment of induced thermal tolerance to reduce mortalities. In
                                                                addition, management practices for commercial cultivation are being
                                                                evaluated as possible measures to reduce the frequency and extent of
                                                               oyster losses.
                                                                   Ambient environmental conditions monitored to date indicate
                                                               oysters are subject to extreme variations in a number of parameters
                                                               during intertidal cycles. Peak temperatures neared 53° C during
                                                               exposure at low tide, and dissolved oxygen levels were below 3 mg/1
                                                               under neap tide conditions. Mortalities occurred in all size groups
                                                               and under varying culture conditions. Triploid oysters had a
                                                               cumulative mortality rate of up to 2 112 times diploid oysters planted
                                                               at the same density. Preliminary histological analysis indicated
                                                             · changes· whtcb cuutd re-sult tn metabolic·· stress and ·· clintcatty
                                                               observed gaping and weak shell closure. Expression of thennal
                                                              stress proteins occurred in animals from all sampled stations.
                                                               Further evaluation of these results and additional field research is
                                                               underway.
   PSP IN GEODUCKS: VARIABILITY, ANATOMICAL
  DISTRIBUTION, AND COMPARISON OF TWO                             THE SUSTAINABLE FISHERIES ACT OF 1996-
  TOXICITY TF...STING METHODS                                     IMPLICATIONS FOR THE SHELLFISH INDUSTRY.
                                                                     Bill Dewey
    Kelly M. CURTIS*
                                                                     Taylor Shellfish Company
    University of Washington, School of Fisheries                    130 SE Lynch Rd.
    Box 357980 Seattle, WA 98195                                     Shelton, WA 98584
 The purposes of this study were to: (I) determine variability       Bdewey@olywa.net
  in paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxicity in the         The Sustainable Fislleries Act of 1996 (Public Law I04-267) amended the
  geoduck clam (Pmwpe abruptCl), i.e., within a single            Magnuson-Stevens fishery Conservation and Management Act. It
                                                                  requires Essential Fjsh Habitat (EFH) descriptions in federal Fishery
  population, between various sets of populations, and            Management Plans ,dministered by the regional Fishery Councils. It
  seasonally; (2) determine anatomical distribution of PSP       further requires "consultations" with the National Maine Fisheries Service
  toxins; and (3) compare two PSP testing methods. From          (NMFS) on activities that may adversely affect EFH. NMFS contracted
 summer through winter 1997, 15-20 geoducks were                 with the Pacific Staies Marine Fisheries Commission to develop salmonid
 collected biweekly from a shallow and a deep location in        EFH. The first dra~ was released for public comment on March 26, 1998.
                                                                 It painted both fish and shellfish aquaculture activities as having very
 each of two tracts in Puget Sound, Washington: Agate Pass       negative impactS (wjth very limited scientific documentation) and had
 (AP) and Quartermaster Harbor (QH). Geoducks were               conservation an~ en~ancement measures that would potentially have had
 dissected into siphon, mantle, and visceral portions. All       severe impacts op t~e shellfish industry. The industry would have been
 portions were ttssayed separately using the mouse bioassay      precluded from planting in eelgrass areas and forced to employ off-bottom
 (MBA), while only the visceral portions were ~sayed using       culture techniqu~s. future use of pesticides (carbaryl, rodeo) would have
                                                                 been prohibited.~ Hatcheries would have had to disinfect effluent. Treated
 the receptor binding assay (RBA).                               wood would have b~en prohibited for docks or other structures.
                                                                                   . ;.
    Results indicated that individual variability wa.~ high in
 the shallow areas with coefficients of variation (CV)            The Pacific Coa~t Oyster Growers Association (PCOGA) prepared a
 ranging from 20-98%, and lower in the deep arias (CV=IS-         detailed,, scientificaUy based response providing input as to the beneficial
                                                                  impacts of shellfish culture and offering modified conservation and
62% ). Seasonally, variability did not change in either of the    enhancement measures. PCOGA has continued to be involved in the public
QH areas and increased in both of the AP areasi Only              process offering public comment at two subsequent Pacific Fishery
shallow geoducks were toxic in QH. All geoducks were              Management Council (PFMC) meetings and additional written comments.
toxic in AP, with the shallow ones significantly' more toxic     To date, it appears the Council has been receptive to PCOGA 's comments.
                                                                 The PFMC meets again November 3, 1998 to consider adopting a final draft
 I8% of the time. Anatomically, PSP toxins were isolated to      that will go out once again for public comment before being forwarded to
the visceral ball in all geoducks throughout the study           the Secretary of Commerce.
period. There was a highly significant positive correlation
helwccn the MBA and RBA, with the RBA slightly
overestimating the MBA at lower toxicity levels,
    Variability information will aid fishery managers in
mnximi1.ing utili1.ntion of the resource, while at the same
time protecting puhlic health from the dangers of PSP.
FORGING AHEAD TO DEVELOP AND ADOPT SHELLFISH                                     INTENSIVE BIVALVE HEALTH MANAGEMENT
ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY AND BEST MANAGEMENT
PRACTICES (CODE OF PRACTICE).
                                                                                 Ralph ELSTON*,
  Bill Dewey                                                                     Pacific Shellfish Institute, PO Box 687, Carlsborg, WA 98324 USA
  Taylor Shellfish Company
                                                                                 Jerry HEIDEL, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR
  130 SE Lynch Rd.
                                                                                 Joth DAVIS, Taylor Resources, Shelton, WA
  Shelton, WA 98584
                                                                                 Dan CHENEY Pacific Shellfish Institute, Olympia, WA
  Bdewev@olywa.net
Endangered Species Act listings of wild salmon runs and a general trend
towards more stringent environmental regulation has the West Coast               Growout of e~ible shellfish is practiced on a more or less extensive
shellfish industry concerned about their future.                                  basis, but intensive hatchery production is now an essential part of
For many years the shellfish industry has been touted as the canary in the       culture. Intensification brings new challenges for health and disease
coal mine, an indicator of a healthy environment. Now it is important that       management including a variety of highly opportunistic and
they get their own house in order as it applies to environmental impacts         aggressive infectious agents as well as nutritional and genetic
from their farming activities.                                                   diseases, and toxic conditions.
Draft Best Management Practices (BMP's) were developed in 1997 with the             Infectious d~seases that have emerged in intensive hatchery and
help of students from the University of Washington Environmental                 nursery operations include velar virus disease, herpes virus disease,
Management Program and People for Puget Sound. The P,acific Coast                vibriosis, hinge ligament disease, acute and chronic extapallial
Oyster Growers Association (PCOGA) Board of Trustees has endorsed                bacterial infections, bacterial mat disease, ameboflagellate disease and
refining the draft BMP's, adopting them and promoting their use amongst
growers. The Pacific Shellfish Institute (PSI) and PCOGA have been
                                                                                 invasive ciliate disease. A recent example are bacterial mats resulting
working to secure funding and technical assistance to accomplish this.           in debilitating infections of juvenile geoducks, Panope abrupta.
Parallel to this effort they have been submitting research proposals to better   These infections are initiated by Cytophaga-like bacteria that colonize
understand the ecological role of intensive molluscan shellfish culture.         the external shell surface and subsequently invade the mantle of
PSI recently submitted a proposal to the U.S. Department of Agriculture to       juvenile clams, necrotizing the entire mantle. The bacterial mats may
fund a two year BMP development process. It includeS:                            interact with the texture of composition of juvenile geoduck shells
• Development of an industry environmental policy statement.                     since this con~ition has not been observed in any other species.
• Promoting industry buy-in to the environmental policy statement.                 These conditions can be managed and ameliorated using principles
• Documenting current conditions, operation and aesthetics of facilities         of responsive health management. In many cases, there is a great deal
• Identification of all existing regulatory programs affecting shellfish
                                                                                 of information lacking that is needed to fully accomplish the goal of
     farming activities.
• With statkeholder involvement, develop practical BMP's to reduce or            maintaining healthy cultures of shellfish in the hatchery, nursery and
    eliminate negative environmental impacts and enhance positive                in grow out areas. Sanitation and health management are two distinct
     impacts.                                                                    objectives of intensive bivalve high health program that will be
• Preparation of BMP handbook, distribution to industry and other                discussed. Both objectives should be met by identifying standards,
     interested parties
• Conducting outreach programs to explain BMP's to growers and                   monitoring and responding to deviations in sanitary or health and
     regulators.                                                                 condition standards.
                                                                                 Supported in part by N.M.F.S. Saltonstall Kennedy Program and U.S.D.A. Small
                                                                                 Business Innovative Research Program.
ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY OF CO-CULTURING RED
ABALONE HALIOTIS RUFESCENS WITH RED
MACROALGAE PALMARIA MOLLIS AT TWO
GEOGRAPHICALLY DISTINCT LOCATIONS
  Ford EVANS*, Chris Langdon
  Oregon State University
  Hatfield Marine Science Center
  2030 S. Marine Science Dr.
  Newport. Oregon 97365
The abalone industry on the west coast of the United States relies
primarily on the harvest of wild macroalgae as a food source.
Unpredictable weather events and strict governmental regulations
may limit the availability of these algae to aquaculturists in the
future. Recent studies have shown co-culture of red abalone
(Haliotis rufesceirs) with the red rriacroaiga dulse (Palmaria mol/is)
to be an effective methOd ofabalone production. When co-cultured
with abalone, dulse is a nutritious food source as well as an in situ
biofilter. In addition, the producer can control dulse quantity and
quality at the farm site.
  Data from these previous studies allowed the development of a
bioeconomic model for abalone/dulse co-culture. This paper
examines a series of enterprise budgets for hypothetical co-culture
farms located in Oregon and Hawaii. These farms were
hatchery/nursery operations which grew 500,000 abalone to 20 mm
shell length. The farms in Hawaii and Oregon were identical, apart
from different management practices and environmental conditions.
  Results showed abalone were, in general, cheaper to produce in
Hawaii than in Oregon. This was primarily due to the fact that
artificial lights were required in Oregon to achieve the light
intensities that occur naturally in Hawaii. The use of an artificial diet
to supplement dulse as a food source reduced costs in all treatments.
The model further indicated that juvenile abalone could be grown
economically in Oregon over winter with the use of both
supplemental illumination and a diet consisting of a combination of
dulse and artificial feed.
GEODUCK CULTURE DEVELOPMENT
 Jim GIBBONS*
  Seattle Shellfish
I am a relatively new and inexperienced shellfish grower who feels
tom by two opposing aims. On the one hand l think I have a
responsibility toward my investors in protecting any proprietary
knowledge I have learned. On the other hand, l feel I should share
some of the knowledge I've gained. Especially in light of the help
and knowledge so many in the shellfish industry have extended me.
My wife has always counseled to ..Pass it on to other."
     My first year as a grower, 1997, could be summarized by the
following strategy: Ready, Fire, Aim! To me, moving forward
was more important than planning for the many unknowns.
 Besides the usual obstacles facing a new grower, no shellfish
 experience, no employees, no facility, and no tidelands, to name a
 few. there were some additional hurdles we had to overcome.
     The first was in regards to genetics. In March.l997, two months
 after our Central Puget Sound brood stock spawned, Fish and
 Wildlife changed policy, attempting to strictly enforce what had
 been a recommendation. In short, 1 was told that I wouldn't be
 allowed to plant Central Sound seed in South Sound. At this point
 I had learned enough to know South Sound had the fastest growth
 rates. With the help of two friendly Senators, two renowned
 shellfish geneticists, a geoduck expert, a director of the nearby
 School of Fisheries, and several growers, the WDFW changed their
 minds.
     The second major hurdle occurred when we received our second
  batch of seed. Out "kiddie pool" nursery system was not ready and
  I ended up killing much of it. It was only May. The planting
  season had just begun. Since there was no seed available for sale. I
  did the only thing I could think of and proposed an arrangement to
  Taylor United which they graciously accepted.
      The third hurdle I had to overcome was fund raising.
  Fortunately, a friend encouraged me to surround myself with good
  knowledgeable people. Especially since I didn't know anything
  about shellfish growing. In that vein I recruited several prominent
  growers to my cause, as well as a retired WDFW expert on
  geoduck, and a retired Department of Natural Resources employee
  who ran the State's aquatic leasing program a number of years. I
   was also smart enough to make sure my first employee had actually
   been involved in the shellfish trade previously.
      We ended up planting 460,000 seed in 1991. We used tube
   culture methods exclusively, pushing a 4 inch diameter
   polyethylene tube about 9 inches in length into the beach every 12
   inches and then dropping four small seed into the tube. We used
   four different mesh sizes, planting into several different substrate
   conditions, under many different weather conditions.
   Unfortunately, our record keeping in the are of science was almost
   non-existent that first year. By October, we suspected our survival
   rates were approaching a whopping 30%. I have since learned a
   great deal about what we did wrong that first year.
       In 1998, we decided make an effort to find out why some things
   worked. We hired two people to record data. Here are some
   lessons learned: 4-6mm seed size will work, 6-Smm is better,
   substrate is crucial, sand is the best; mesh size is critical, the
    smaller the better; polyethylene tubes float, use PVC tubes; cockles
    and horse clams grow well in tubes; geoduck seed will bake in the
    hot sun: shore crab, hermit crabs, and moon snails like geoduck
    seed; you get what you pay for when it comes to part time help'
    sand dollars aren't good for geoduck; and adult geoduck may thrive
    in gravel, but young seed find it tough going. Finally, good science
    is important.
THE VARNISH CLAI\1 (NUTTALLIA
OBSCURATA): ANOTHER CO~IERCIAL
SPECIES?
  William A. HEATH*
   BC Fisheries Ministry
   Seafood Development Section
   2500 Cliffe Avenue
   Courtenay, BC Canada V9N 5M6
Originally from Japan, the varnish or dark mahogany-clam
(Nuttallia obscurata), was unintentionally introduced to the
Strait of Georgia, BC during the 1980s - 1990s. This
attractive-looking clam reaches sizes to 2.25" (55mm) and is
found mainly in sand-gravel substrate to 8" (20cm) in the
high to mid-intertidal zone. At present, quantitative data on
its distribution are limited, but further sampling is in
progress. Preliminary data indicates that this exotic species
is widely distributed on beaches in the Strait of Georgia, but
it has also been reported in Puget Sound, Washington and in
Barkley Sound, BC. Commercial concentrations have been
found on some clam tenures in Baynes Sound, BC. A small
quantity of product was test marketed recently, with
 favourable response from food services customers regarding
 appearance, meat:shell ratio and shelf-life characteristics.
 Due to food safety concerns related to marine biotoxin (PSP)
 retention times, further harvest has been curtailed in BC until
 sufficient data are available to shellfish safety agencies (e.g.
 Canadian Food Inspection Agency) to determine appropriate
 safety protocols. Preliminary data indicate similarities with
 levels of PSP found in Manila clams and Pacific oysters
 during a toxic bloom in Okeover Arm, BC. Provided that
 safety issues are resolved satisfactorily, the Ministry of
 Fisheries is prepared to approve the licensing of varnish clam
 culture on shellfish tenures. Harvest of this species from
 untenured areas will be subject to Department of Fisheries
 and Oceans policy considerations. The potential for
  developing this introduced species into a valuable shellfish
  product appears to be very high, providing an exciting new
  opportunity to diversify the shellfish industry.
CROSSBREEDING TO IMPROVE PACIFIC
OYSTER BROODSTOCKS: UPDATE OF USDA-
WRAC PROJECT.
 Dennis Hedgecock,*
 University of California, Davis
 Bodega Marine Laboratory
 Bodega Bay, CA 94952-0247.
This collaborative project has four major objectives: (1) to test
the performance of hybrids made by crossing inbred lines, at a
commercial scale, (2) to make new inbred lines from select
pedigreed families in Oregon State University's Molluscan
Broodstock Program, (3) to synthesize triploids and eventually
tetraploids from WRAC inbred lines and test their
performance, and (4) to enable early detection of metabolic
potential for growth by determining the:metabolic basis-of
hybrid vigor. Four hybrid spawns have been carried-out at the
Taylor Resources, Inc., hatchery on Dabob Bay, each yielding
8-10 million seed, which have now been planted in Thorndyke
and Samish Bays. In the hatchery, two mixed-hybrid groups
grew faster and settled 2-7 days earlier than larvae from
typical commercial spawns. DNA markers will be used at
harvest to determine the relative performances of different
hybrids in these mixed groups and thus the best inbred lines
for further crossbreeding. DNA markers are also being used to
map genes causing growth heterosis in F2 and F3 hybrid
 populations. New inbred lines were initiated by sib-mating
within the nine, top-performing MBP families grown in
Tomales Bay. Seventeen triploid groups have been
synthesized with one-, two-, and three-way combinations of
 inbred-line genomes. Inbred triploids have the slowest larval
 growth, but differences between triploids made from
 reciprocal hybrid females are sometimes evident (i.e. AB does
 not equal BA). Triploids are being reared to provide
 broodstock for tetraploid induction. Finally, of the 13
 physiological traits compared in inbred and hybrid larvae,- -·-
 most in multiple experiments, six show no relationship to
 growth heterosis (total protein, mitochondrial density, lipid
 content, assimilation rate, shell growth, and carbonic
 anhydrase activity). Four factors (respiration and feeding
 rates, sodium ion pump activity and protein synthesis) show a
 relationship to heterosis in some but not all experiments, while
 three factors (embryo respiration rates and whole-body and
 specific protein turnover rates) show a consistent relationship
 with growth heterosis. The growth advantage of hybrids
 appears to be based on a greater metabolic efficiency, with
 lower rates of protein turnover and respiration. Dramatic
 differences in respiration rate are evident as early as 15 hrs
  post-fertilization, suggesting that hybrids "get out of the
 starting blocks early." Two-dimensional gel-electrophoretic
 analyses show that a few, small, acidic proteins are responsible
  for most of the inbred vs. hybrid difference in whole-body
  protein turnover. These proteins can be sequenced and their
  genes mapped.
                                                          PERFORMANCE OF GALLO MUSSELS
                                                          FROM DIFFERENT SOURCE POPULATIONS
 THE ARRIVAL OF THE EUROPEAN                                 Kurt JOHNSON*
 GREEN CRAB, CARCINUS MAENAS, IN                             Taylor Resources, Inc.
 OREGON ESTUARIES.                                           70 I Broadspit Road
         Chris HUNT*, Sylvia BEHRENS                         Quilcene, WA 98376
         YAMADA, Zoology Department, Oregon               Taylor Resources Inc. operates commercial mussel farms
         State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331-       using Mytilus edulis'galloprovincialis (Gallo) mussels at
         2914; Neil RICHMOND, Oregon Department           different sites in Puget Sound. Seed for these farms is
         offish and Wildlife, P.O. Box 5430,              produced in the Taylor Resources Hatchery. We have the
         Charleston, Oregon 97420                         opportunity to improve the performance of mussels
Since its first discovery in Coos Bay, OR in 1997,        through the control qf brood stock. This study is a
Carcinus maenas, is now found in at least seven           beginning point in opr brood stock program by evaluating
Oregon estuaries: Coos, Alsea, Yaquina, Siletz,           the performance of ~ifferent mussel populations. We also
Salmon, Netarts and Tillamook. All of the cr~bs found     looked at the perfonitance of diploid versus triploid
in Coos Bay in 1997 were large crabs, ranging in size     mussels. Brood stock Gallo mussels were collected from
from 54-86 mm CW (carapace width). We estimate            the Totten Inlet faml selected survivors from the Holmes
that they represent the 1995/1996 year class. Similar     Harbor farm, Dy~s l{llet wild populations and Sequim Bay
sized crabs were found in Tillamook and Net~s Bays        wild populations. Seed mussels were raised in the
this year. During the summer of 1998, a new year class    hatchery, planted'on.lines in Holmes Harbor, then
appeared in Oregon estuaries as well as in Humboldt       transferred to oyster bags for final grow out. During final
Bay, CA to the south and Willapa Bay and Grays            grow out the populations were sampled for survivorship
Harbor, WA to the north. These crabs averaged 14 mm       and weight. At the c;nd of the study differences were
CW in June, 27 mm in July and 48 mm in August.            evident in survival production and size among some of the
This coast-wide colonization event is correlated with     populations and f?etween diploids and triploids. The
unusually strong northward moving coastal currents        results suggest that the source population of brood stock
off the Oregon coast from September 1997 to spring of     and ploidy is important in farm performance of the
1998. Transport of larvae from well established           mussels. The results also lead to questions about the
populations to the south, rather than oyster transport,   genetic differences ofPuget Sound Gallo stocks, their
appears to be the mechanism for the appearance of this    origins and length of time as Puget Sound residents.
new year class. This research was supported ~y
Oregon Sea Grant.
                                                                            LARVAL SURVIVAL AND GROWTH OF MYTILUS
UPDATE ON THE MOLLUSCAN BROODSTOCK
                                                                            TROSSULUS AND M. GALLOPROVINCIALIS HYBRIDS.
PROGRAM                                                                       Sean E. MATSON*, J.P. DAVIS, and K.K. CHEW,
    Chris LANGDON*.
   Coastal Oregon Marine Experiment Station, Hatfield Marine                  School of Fisheries
   Science Center, Oregon State University.                                   University of Washington
The Molluscan Broodstock Program (MBP) focuses on improving                   Seattle, WA 98195
commercial oyster production on the West Coast by both genetic              Experiments were performed to determine whether survival and
selection and development of effective broodstock management                growth differences existed between the larvae of two locally
strategies. Researchers at Oregon State University (OSU) together with
industry partners have implemented a selective breeding scheme for          occurring species of marine mussels and their reciprocal hybrids at
Pacific oysters that involves comparing the performance of full-sib         two different salinities. The two species used were Mytilus
families planted at different commercial sites on the West coast.           trossulus, the Baltic mussel, and M galloprovincialis, the
Selection of superior families for production of subsequent generations     Mediterr~ean mussel. Preliminary results are presented.
 should result in long-term improvement in commercial oyster yields.          Broodstock were collected from essentially monospecific
   Since MBP's inception in 1995, about 250 oyster families have been       populatio.ns and were screened morphologically. They were
 planted at commercial sites in Alaska, California, Oregon and              positively identified at two DNA loci using polymerase chain
 Washington. Significant differences in family performance have been
 observed with top performing families yielding about twice the meat        reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism
 yields per bag compared with the poorest families, suggesting excellent    (RFLP) techniques.
 potential for genetic improvement.          .                                The four crosses were M trossulus x trossulus (TxT), trossulus
   In spring 1998, we crossed the top performing families from Hog          female x galloprovincialis male (TxG), gal/oprovincialis female x
 Island, Tomales Bay, California, to produce a second generation that       trossulus male (GxT), and gal/oprovincialis X galloprovincialis
  was planted with Hog Island in the fall. We will compare the              (GxG). The low salinity treatment was 20 parts per thousand (ppt)
  performance of these families with that of families derived by crossing
  unselected "wild" oysters as well as oysters produced by industry.        and the high salinity was 30ppt. The low salinity treatment was
    Genetic "finger-printing" of broodstoek oysters used in the MBP         applied after three days.
  breeding program ensures that pedigrees are correct contamination of        Survival at day three was analyzed as arcsine transformed
  subsequent MBP generations is avoided.                                    percents using one-factor analysis of variance (ANOV A). The TxT
                                                                            cross survived significantly better than the other three crosses at
                                                                            day three (p<0.05). Size at age was measured as shell length in
                                                                            microns and analyzed using two-factor ANOV A. At day 14, the
                                                                            mean shell length of all crosses differed significantly except TxG
                                                                            and GxG (p<0.05). These were smaller than the other two crosses.
                                                                            The mean size of low salinity cultures was significantly larger than
                                                                            that of high salinity cultures. Different crosses reacted differently
                                                                            to salinity (p<0.05). This was because mean size for the GxG
                                                                            cross was nearly equal between high and low salinities.
REVIEW OF STUDENT STUDIES ON
JUVENILE GEODUCKS AT MALASPINA                                 WATER QUALITY, SHELLFISH AND PUBLIC
UNIVERSITY COLLEGE'S FISHERIES AND                             HEALTH IN TOMALES BAY, CALIFORNIA.
AQUACULTURE PROGRAM                                              Paul G. OLIN* •. University of California Sea Grant
  Melissa MILNE*, Jesse KETLER                                   Extension, Santa Rosa, CA 95403;
  Fisheries and Aquaculture Diploma Program at                   Gregg LANGLOIS, California Department
Malaspina University College                                    of Health Services, Berkeley, CA 94704
Since 1994 a series of studies have been conducted by the
Fisheries and Aquaculture Program at Malaspina                In October of 1993<, the California State Legislature passed the
University/College on the Pacific Geoduck, Panopa             Shellfish Protection Act to protect water quality in shellfish
abrupta. These studies, supported by Fan Seafoods Ltd,        growing areas. The Act mandated the Regional Water Quality
have included: morphometric relationships, orientation        Control Board to assemble a technical advisory committee
and digging behaviour, effects of crab predation, salinity    whenever a comme~cial shellfish growing area is threatened to
tolerance tests, and most recently a study ofmoonsnails as    identify and remediate pollution sources. In January of 1994,
predators of juvenile moonsnails.
                                                              the Tomales Bay Shellfish Technical Advisory Committee was
   The first moonsnail study was designed to assess
predation mode and rate by the Arctic moonsnail,              formed and in 199~ a study was conducted to identify potential
Cryptonatica affinis, on juvenile geoducks. The results       pollution sources. ·
indicated that Arctic moonsnails (shell diameter 28-            The results of the· study indicated that significant coliform
30mm) did prey on geoducks (28-30mm shell length) at a        inputs were derived from surface waters flowing into the Bay.
rate of 1.25 - 4 geoducks per weeklmoonsnail.. The snails     Potential sources of coli forms in the Bay are manure from
either bored into the geoduck shell or apparently digested    livestock and da~ry 'cattle, wildlife scat and human sewage
the entire juvenile without boring.               l
                                                              entering the Bay: via faulty septic systems or from boaters.
   A second study assessed the Lewis's moonsnail,
Polinices lewisii, as a predator of juvenile geoducks and       In May of 1998 there was an outbreak of food borne illness
 was also designed to compare food preference between         associated with consumption of raw oysters that was traced to a
 geoducks and the Manila clam, Tapes phi/ippinarum. The       viral pathogen unique to humans. This resulted in a closure of
 moonsnails used averaged I 03mm shell length: The            Bay waters to shellfish harvest for 26 to 81 days. This
 observed predation rates were very low for both species of   outbreak clearly demonstrates the need to aggressively monitor
 clams and further trials are needed to clarify the           septic systems. This recommendation was made by the
 importance of the Lewis's moonsnail for geoduck
                                                              Shellfish Technical Advisory Committee in 1994 and was not
 aquaculture.
                                                              acted on. The chronology of this outbreak will be presented
                                                              along with a discussion of stepped up efforts to prevent a
                                                              reoccurrence.
                                                                                 ALASKAN SHELLFISH FARMING, A PERIOD OF MAJOR
     A SPRAY-DRIED SCHIZOCHYTRIUM-BASED DIET CAN                                 DEVELOPMENT
     COMPLETELY REPLACE LIVING ALGAE FOR REARING
     JUVENILE MUSSELS (MYTILUS GAUOPROVINCIAUS).
                                                                                 Raymond L. RaLonde
       Ebru ONAL*, Chris LANGDON
        Coastal Oregon Marine Experiment Station and Department of               University of Alaska Fairbanks
        Fisheries and Wildlife, Hatfield Marine Science Center, Oregon State     School of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences
        University.                                                              Marine Advisory Program
     Growth experiments were conducted with juvenile (0.04 - 0.21 g live         Anchorage, Alaska 99508
     wt.) mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) fed on a diet of living algal
     cells [a mixture of Chaetoceros sp. (CHAET) and lsochrysis galbana
     (Tahitian strain; T-ISO)] either partially or completely substituted with
     a spray-dried diet based on Schizochytrium sp. (SCHIZO; Docosa              Shellfish fanning in Alaska is on the brink of major changes that will
     Gold, Sanders Brine Shrimp Company, Utah).                                  determine futUre growth and economic viability. Recently regulatory
         Preliminary experiments with mussels indicated that a combination of    reforms, nurs~ry culture, oyster broodstock development, addition of
     SCHIZO and Spirulina (=Arthrospira) plafe~is (SPIRO; Spirulina 50,          new species to production, and recent construction of the state's first
     Sanders Brine Shrimp Company, Utah) wa5 a·promising substitute for          shellfish hatchery add greater assurance of success for Alaskan
      living algal diets. Subsequently, we found that a full ration of algae     fanners.
      ( 1: 1 by cell number CHAET and TISO) could be completely                    Currently, 56 farms located on 219 acres of state tidelands, are
      substituted with an equivalent dry weight df 1: 1 (by wt.) mixture of
      SCHIZO and SPIRO with no significant (Scheffe test; p>0.05) adverse        permitted for~shellfish farming. A new aquatic farm application
      effect on final live weights.                   :                          period in 1999 will enable new farming entrants and existing farmers,
         Furthermore, growth of mussels fed on living algal rations could be     for the first time, to add new species to their production plans. The
       significantly (Scheffe test; p<0.05) improved with supplements of         state-of-the-art Quetkcak Shellfish Hatchery, located in Seward, is
       either a 1: 1 (by wt.) mixture of SCHIZO and SPIRO or SCHIZO              producing Pa~ific oyster Crassostrea gigas and littleneck clam
       alone.                                                                    Protothaca stpminea seed, and researching production of purple hinge
                                                                                 rock scallop Crassadoma gigantea. An initiative is progressing to
                                                                                 produce geoduck clam seed Panopea abrupta. In cooperation with
                                                                                 the USDA Molluscan Broodstock Program, 50 brood lines of Pacific
                                                                                 oyster are undergoing growout trials in Prince William Sound. Best
                                                                                 performers will be used as broodstock for hatchery production of seed.
                                                                                   Field trials of the MIST™ developed by Jellett Bioteck Ltd. have
                                                                                 shown promising initial results and may be applicable as a monitoring
                                                                                 tool for detection of paralytic shellfish poison toxin.
                                                                                   The current challenge facing the industry is to bring into new and
                                                                                 developing regulatory reforms, hatchery production, and growout
                                                                                 technology into application.




,,
                                                              OFF-BOTTOM CULTURE TECHNIQUES
IDENTIFICATION AND TRACKING OF                                 Terry SAWYER*
THE SOURCES OF MICROBIAL                                         Hog Island Oyster Company
POLLUTION IN SHELLFISH GROWING                                   PO Box 869
WATERS                                                           Marshall, CA 94940
                                                              Hog Island Oyster Company in Tomales Bay, California,
   Mansour SAMADPOUR•, Assistant professor,                   farms shellfish utilizing a variety of techniques, including
   Department of Environmental Health,                        off-bottom culture methods. This presentation will
   School of Public Health and Community Medicine,            describe these methods, and will include aspects such as
   University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195.               nursery and growout, evolution of growing containers,
   mansour@u. washington.edu                                  site specific constraints, as wellas pros and cons of the
The lack of appropriate methodology for tracing               different methods.
bacterial contamination in the environment is a major
impediment in identification and control ofthe sources
of these pollutants and adversely affects the decision-
making process in water quality management, and
management of fisheries resources. Several methods           RELATING OYSTER CONDmOt-JitiDEX TO TilE AQUATIC
for tracking genetically engineered microorganisms           ENVIRONMENT OF WILLAPA BAY WASHINGTON.
have been used, but their utility is limited to the            Ervin J. SCHUMACKER•. Schopl of Fisheries, University of
detection of organisms carrying reporter genes or their        Washington, Box 357980, Seattle, Washington 98195
products. Limited efforts to track sources of natural          Brett R. DUMBAULD, Bruce E. KAUFFMAN. Washington Dept.
bacterial populations have been made, the approach             offish and Wildlife, PO Box 190, Ocean Par~ Washington
used was based on quantitation of indicator organisms          98640
at various sites. These studies invariably have resulted    Natural set and hatchery reared Pacific oyst~rs. Crassostrea gigas,
in raising more questions rather than providing             were transplanted to two sites within and just outside the mouth of
answers. I have developed and tested a tracking system      the Willapa River as it enters Willapa Bay. Samples from each of
for identification of sources of microbial pollution.       the four groups were taken monthly' and oyster condition index (CI)
The methodology can be used to asses the impact and         determined on individual oysters using a gravimetric method, a
contribution of point and non-point sources of fecal       volumetric method and a dry shell method.
potlution (animals, septic tanks, farms, sewage               Findings from this study have shown that the gravimetric method
treatment plants, etc.) on the fecal coliform level in      is linearly related to the volumetric method currently in use by the
shellfish growing waters. It can also be used to map        Washington Department ofFish and Wildlife and can be used as an
the distribution, transportation, and movement of          accurate gauge of oyster Cl with much less time and effort. The dry
indicator organisms and microbial pathogens in
                                                           shell method may also be applicable with oysters of the same year-
watersheds and water.                                      class.
   The Ribo-Tracking method has been used to                  Site differences for Cl response are noted in the study and
detennine the sources of fecal colifonns in a variety of   relationships between oyster CI and variations in environmental
settings. Results of one of the recent stUdies involving   conditions such as temperature, salinity, chlorophyll a content, and
shellfish growing areas in Grays Harbor, Washington        sediment loads are determined by multivariate analysis.
will be presented and discussed.                              Goals for this investigation include the recommendation of a
                                                           standard nrethod for determining oyster Cl, the use of this index as
                                                           an indicator of conditions and trends in an estuarine environment,
                                                           and determining if hatchery reared and natural set oysters differ in
                                                           their response to aquatic conditions.
                                                                           GROWTH AND SURVIVAL OF INTRODUCED
   INDUCTION OF TRIPLOIDY IN THE GEODUCK CLAM,                             AND NATIVE BLUE MUSSELS (MYTILUS SPP.)
  PANOPE ABRUPTA.                                                          IN GEORGIA STRAIT, DC: PROSPECTS FOR
     Brent A. VADOPALAS*, School of Fisheries, University of               MUSSEL AQUACULTURE.
     Washington, Box 357980, Seattle, Washington 98195;                        Jenia YANICK* and Daniel Heath
     Jonathan P. DAVIS, Baywater Incorporated, 15425 Smoland               Recently, permission was granted by the Ministry of
     Lane, Bainbridge Island, Washington 98110                             Agriculture, Fisheries and Foods (now Ministry of
 The development of geoduck culture techniques coupled with                Fisheries) to begin commercial rearing and harvesting of
  increased market demand led to cultured intertidal geoduck beds.         imported species of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis and M
 Concerns then arose regarding the potential genetic risk posed by        galloprovincia/is) in BC. Historically there has been
  the reproductive contribution of hatchery outplants to wild stocks       little or no commercial harvest or culture in British
  that may be genetically different. Although an ongoing study to         Columbia due to the small size attained by the native
  determine the genetic stock structure of Puget Sound geoducks has       blue mussel (M trossulus). As it was unknown whether
 yet to yield definitive results, the development of techniques to        this influx of non-native mussels could become an
 produce sterile triploids would enable geoduck culture to proceed
                                                                          environmental concern in Georgia Strait, it was
 irrespective of any genetic differences found. Moreover, triploid
                                                                          proposed that an investigation be made into the
 geoducks may exhibit an increased growth rate.
                                                                          feasibility of using mussels already present in Georgia
     Geoduck eggs were fertilized and distributed among three
 temperature and three salinity treatments to test the effects of these   Strait (native and non-native) as brood stock for future
 factors on the timing and synchrony of meiotic events. Samples           mussel cultUre. Presently mussels collected from
 were taken at 5 minute intervals to measure proportions of eggs at       Georgia Strait are being grown and monitored at Yellow
each meiotic stage. These data indicated a temperature and salinity       Island Aquaculture Ltd. YIAL is an organic salmon
combination for optimal triploidy induction of 15° C and 30 ppt.,         farm interested in the potential of expanding into mussel
with the meiotic period between expulsion of the first and the            aquaculture and is located on Quadra Island, BC.
second polar body lasting 20 minutes, beginning at 50 minutes post
fertilization.
                                            '
     We also investigated two chemical treatments, cytochalasin B
(CB) and 6-dimethylaminopurine (6-DMAP), to evaluate their
suitability for triploid induction in geoducks. We found optimal
triploid induction (>95%) resulted from a 600 JJM 6-DMAP
treatment using our optima. Preliminary data indicates
survivorship to straight hinge was about 20%. Survivorship to
metamorphosis was highly variable among groups, which could
not be attributed to a single factor. Surviving triploid geoducks
have been outplanted to evaluate growth and survivorship.
 DEVELOPMENT OF HARD CLAM AQUACULTURE
 ON FLORIDA'S WEST COAST: FROM TRAINING
 TO PRODUCTION TO A SUSTAINABLE INDUSTRY
  Leslie N. Sturmer*
       University of Florida, Cooperative Extension Service
       PO Box 89
       Cedar Key. FL 32625
   Retraining of Florida fishermen adversely impacted by a 1995
   state-wide ban of gill and entanglement nets. in aquaculture
   employment opportunities was promoted by the FL Department
   of Labor. The success of the Job Training Partnership Act-
   funded Project OCEAN (Oyster and Clam Educational
   Aquaculture Network) on Florida's west coast demonstrated
   this potential in 1993 and enabled displaced net fishers in the
   same region to be instructed in the entrepreneurship of
   culturing clams during 1995-7 through Project WAVE
. (Withlacoochee Aquactdture Vocational Education). Program
 · graduates, a total of 69, entered into small, independent
   businesses by each acquiring a 2:.acre aqua.Culture.lease with an
   estimated annual profit potential after 2-3 years experience of
   $30-35,000. In addition, two more community-level programs
   conducted in other areas of the state during 1997-8, retrained
   and placed another 100 net fishers into the clam aquaculture
    industry.
         Currently in the state, over 400 shellfish growers fann
    within 1,600 acres of state-owned submerged lands dedicated
    to aquaculture lease areas in Florida. Production of hard clams,
    Merceneria mercenaria, has fast become established in areas
    whf?re neither aquaculture nor a traditional clam fishery existed.
    Phenomenal growth rates (3-4 mmlmonth) allow a crop of
    littlenecks (50 nun SL), stocked at 670/m , to be produced in a
    year with commercially acceptable survivals. Production has
    risen from 38 million clams harvested in 1993 to 99 million in
     1997. The 1997 Florida aquaculture survey report of $12.7
     million fann gate sales of clams resulted in a 250% increase
    above 1993 revenues. Respective annual seed plantings
     increased from less than 100 million to over 300 million, with
     intentions in 1998 to exceed 400 million.
        Recent efforts have moved from focusing on production to
     developing infrastructure to support this emergent industry. A
     number of small businesses manufacturing clam bags and other
     growing equipment exist. Emphasis has been placed on seed
     production with several private-sector hatcheries being
     developed, 60 land-based nurseries in operation, and
     community-based nursery endeavors initiated for fanners
     without waterfront access. Another focus, due to rapid
     recruitment of fishermen into aquaculture, is marketing and
     distribution of Florida clams. Technical research on shelf life
     and handling protocols are being evaluated with the intent of
      recommending practical standards to improve harvest and
      storage methods. Further, a partnership between state and local
      agencies and farmers is directed towards developing a
      volunteer water quality monitoring program. Shellfish (hard
      clam) aquaculture has provided a means for revitalization of
      fishery dependent communities on Florida's west coast, and
      transition from training to a sustainable industry is ongoing.

				
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