Chapter 1 Notes Chapter 1 Section 2 Overview: The varied landscapes of North America encouraged the diversity of Native American cultures. I: The Pomo People: - Native American people of Northern California. - Their historic territory was on the Pacific Coast A: Etymology: 1: The name Pomo it originally meant "those who live at red earth hole" B: Culture: 1: They were not socially or politically linked as a large unified "tribe." 2: Instead, they lived in small groups ("bands") and relied upon fishing, hunting and gathering for their food. C: Religion: 1: The Pomo people participated in shamanism; 2: Shamanic intervention with the spirit world and an all-male society that met in subterranean dance rooms. 3: The Pomo believed in a supernatural being the Kuksu D: Post contact: 1: The way of life of the Pomo people changed with the arrival of immigrating Spanish and European-Americans in California. At first with the Spanish missionaries, some of the southern Pomo were moved to the Mission San Francisco, later the Mission Sonoma to work and live. 2: In 1837 a very deadly epidemic of smallpox that came from settlements at Fort Ross wiped out most native people in the Sonoma and Napa regions. Chapter 1 Notes II: The Kwakwaka'wakw: - Are an indigenous nation, who live in British Columbia on northern Vancouver Island - The Kwakwaka'wakw are made up of 17 tribes who all speak the common language - Their society was highly stratified, with three main classes, determined by heredity: nobles, commoners, and slaves. - Their economy was based primarily on fishing, with the men also engaging in some hunting, and the women gathering wild fruits and berries. - Ornate weaving and woodwork were important crafts, and wealth, defined by slaves and material goods, was prominently displayed and traded at potlatch ceremonies. A: Contact with Europeans: 1: The first documented contact was with Captain George Vancouver in 1792. 2: Disease, which developed as a result of direct contact with European settlers along the West Coast of Canada, drastically reduced the Indigenous Kwakwaka'wakw population during the late nineteenth-early twentieth century. B: The Tribes: 1: Kwakwaka'wakw were historically organized into 17 different tribes. 2: Each tribe has its own clans, chiefs, history, culture and peoples, but remain collectively similar to the rest of the kwaka'wala speaking tribes. 3: After the epidemics and colonization, some tribes have become extinct, and others have been merged into communities or First Nations band governments. C: Society: 1: Kinship: With large extended families and inter connected tribal life. Chapter 1 Notes III: Puebloan peoples: - The Pueblo people are a Native American people in the Southwestern United States. Their traditional economy is based on agriculture and trade. When first encountered by the Spanish in the 16th century, they were living in villages that the Spanish called pueblos, meaning "villages". Of the approximately 25 pueblos that exist today, Taos, Acoma, Zuñi, and Hopi are the best- known. Chapter 1 Notes IV: Iroquois The Iroquois Confederacy (the "League of Peace and Power", the "Five Nations"; the "Six Nations"; or the "People of the Longhouse") is a group of First Nations/Native Americans that originally consisted of five nations: the Mohawk, the Oneida, the Onondaga, the Cayuga, and the Seneca. A sixth tribe, the Tuscarora, joined after the original five nations were formed. At the time Europeans first arrived in North America, the Confederacy was based in what is now the northeastern United States primarily in what is referred to today as upstate New York. A: Features of Confederacy: 1: The confederacy was a union of Five Tribes, under one government on the basis of equality 2: It created a Great Council of Sachems, who were limited in number, equal in rank and authority, and invested with supreme powers over all matters pertaining to the Confederacy. 3: Fifty sachemships were created and named in tribes; 4: Unanimity in the Council of the Confederacy was made essential to every public act. 5: In the General Council the sachems voted by tribes, which gave to each tribe a veto over the others. 6: The Council of each tribe had power to convene the General Council; but the latter had no power to convene itself. 7: The General Council was open to the orators of the people for the discussion of public questions; but the Council alone decided. 8: The Confederacy had no chief executive magistrate, or official head. 9: Experiencing the necessity for a general military commander, they created the office in a dual form, that one might neutralize the other. The two principal war- chiefs were made equal in powers. 10: Equality between the sexes had a strong adherence in the Confederacy, and the women held real power, particularly the power to approve or veto declarations of war. 11: The Grand Council of Sachems were chosen by the clan mothers, and if any leader failed to comply with the wishes of the women and the Great Law of Peace, he could be removed by the clan mothers. Chapter 1 Notes B: Example to the United States: 1: The Iroquois nations' political union and democratic government has been credited as one of the influences on the Articles of Confederation and the United States Constitution. C: Member Nations: The first five nations listed below formed the original Five Nations (listed from west to north); the Tuscarora became the sixth nation in 1720. English name Iroquoian Meaning 17th/18th century location Seneca Onondowahgah "People of the Great Hill" Seneca Lake and Genesee River Cayuga Guyohkohnyoh "People of the Great Swamp" Cayuga Lake Onondaga Onöñda'gega' "People of the Hills" Onondaga Lake Oneida Onayotekaono "People of Standing Stone" Oneida Lake Mohawk Kanien'kéhaka "People of the Great Flint" Mohawk River Tuscarora1 Ska-Ruh-Reh "Shirt-Wearing People" From North Carolina² D: Government: 1: The Iroquois have a representative government known as the Grand Council. 2: The Grand Council is the oldest governmental institution still maintaining its original form in North America. 3: Each tribe sends chiefs to act as representatives and make decisions for the whole nation. The number of chiefs has never changed. 14 Onondaga 10 Cayuga 9 Oneida 9 Mohawk 8 Seneca 0 Tuscarora Chapter 1 Notes Chapter 1 Section 3 Overview: West Africa in the 1400s was home to a variety of peoples and cultures. I: Songhai: - From western Africa related to the Mandé. - They and the Mandé were the dominant ethnic groups in the Songhai Empire which dominated the western Sahel in the 15th and 16th century. - The Songhai are found primarily throughout Mali - The empire saw its pre-eminent rise under the military strategist and influential Songhai king, Sonni Ali Ber. - It began its rise in 1468 when Sonni Ali conquered much of the weakening Mali empire's territory as well as Timbuktu, famous for its Islamic universities, and the pivotal trading city of Jenne. - Among the country's most formidable scholars, professors and lecturers was Ahmed Baba - a highly distinguished historian frequently quoted in the Tarikh-es-Sudan and other works. - The people consisted of mostly fishermen and traders. - Following Sonni Ali's death, Muslim factions rebelled against his successor and installed Soninke general, Askia Muhammad (formerly Muhammad Tuore) who was to be the first and most important ruler of the Askia dynasty (1492–1592). - Under the Askias, the Songhai Empire reached its zenith. - Following Askia Muhammad, or Askia the Great's death, the empire began to collapse. - It was enormous and could not be kept under control. - The kingdom of Morroco saw Songhay's still flourished salt and gold trade and decided that it would be a good asset. - They invaded in 1591, marking the end of the Songhay Empire. Chapter 1 Notes II: The Benin Empire: (1440-1897): A large pre-colonial African state of modern Nigeria. It is not to be confused with the modern-day country called Benin (and formerly called Dahomey). Founded in 1180 AD. A: Golden Age 1: Oba Ewuare, is credited with turning Benin City into a military fortress protected by moats and walls. 2: It was from this bastion that he launched his military campaigns 3: At its maximum extent in the east of Nigeria, through parts the southwestern region of Nigeria, Modern day Benin Republic, Togo, and into the present-day nation of Ghana. 4: The state developed an advanced artistic culture especially in its famous artifacts of bronze, iron and ivory. B: European contact 1: The first European to reach Benin were Portuguese explorers in about 1485. 2: A strong mercantile relationship developed, with the Portuguese trading tropical products, and increasingly slaves, for European goods and guns. 3: In the early 16th century the Oba sent an ambassador to Lisbon, and the king of Portugal sent Christian missionaries to Benin. 4: The first English expedition to Benin was in 1553, and a significant trade soon grew up between England and Benin based on the export of ivory, palm oil and pepper. 5: Trade consisted of: 20% ivory, 30% slaves, and 50% other things. C: Decline The city and empire of Benin declined after 1700 Chapter 1 Notes III: Kingdom of Kongo: A: Early history 1: The Kingdom of Kongo (1400 – 1914) was an African kingdom located in west central Africa in what are now northern Angola, Cabinda, the Republic of the Congo, and the western portion of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. 2: At its greatest extent, it reached from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Kwango River in the east, and from the Congo River in the north to the Kwanza River in the south. 3: They farmed by at least 1000 BC and worked iron by at least 400 BC. B: Formation 1: According to Kongo tradition, the kingdom's origin lies in the small state of Mpemba Kasi, located just south of modern day Matadi in the Democratic Republic of Congo. 2: A dynasty of rulers from this small polity built up their rule along the Kwilu valley and were buried in Nsi Kwilu, its capital. C: Late fifteenth century 1: By the time of the first recorded contact with the Europeans, the Kingdom of Kongo was a highly developed state at the center of an extensive trading network. 2: Apart from natural resources and ivory, the country manufactured and traded copperware, ferrous metal goods, raffia cloth, and pottery. D: Portuguese: 1: In 1482, the Portuguese explorer Diogo Cão sailed up the uncharted Congo River, stumbling on Kongo villages and becoming the first European to encounter the Kongo kingdom. 2: During his visit, Cão left his men in Kongo while kidnapping Kongo nobles and bringing them to Portugal. 3: He returned with the Kongo hostages in 1485 beginning the slave trade. Chapter 1 Notes Chapter 1 Section 4 IV: European Society Around 1492 Overview: Political, economic, and intellectual developments in Western Europe in the 1400s led to the Age of Expansion. A: The Infante Henrique, Duke of Viseu: 1: He is known in English as Prince Henry the Navigator or the Seafarer 2: Prince Henry the Navigator was the third child of King John I of Portugal 3: Henry became aware of the profit possibilities in the Saharan trade routes. 4: It is a common conception that Henry gathered at his Vila a school of navigators and map-makers. Not true B: Vila do Infante, patron of Portuguese exploration: 1: Henry was somewhat interested in profits from his voyages. 2: From the first Africans that were brought to Lagos for sale in 1444 he received from the merchants the value corresponding to the fifth part (o quinto) as the expedition had been sponsored by the ship owners. 3: The nearby port of Lagos provided a convenient harbor from which these expeditions left. 4: The voyages were made in very small ships, mostly the caravel, a light and maneuverable vessel that used the lateen sail of the Arabs. 5: Most of the voyages sent out by Henry consisted of one or two ships that navigated by following the coast, stopping at night to tie up along some shore. C: Early results of Henry's explorers 1: Using the new ship type, the expeditions then pushed onwards. a. Nuno Tristão and Antão Gonçalves reached Cape Blanco in 1441. 2: The Portuguese sighted the Bay of Arguin in 1443 a. built an important fort there around the year 1448. 3: Dinis Dias soon came across the Senegal River and rounded the peninsula of Cape Vert in 1444. a. By this stage the explorers had passed the southern boundary of the desert, and from then on Henry had one of his wishes fulfilled: the Portuguese had circumvented the Muslim land- based trade routes across the Western Sahara Desert, and slaves and gold began arriving in Portugal. 4: By 1452, the influx of gold permitted the minting of Portugal's first gold cruzado coins. A cruzado was equal to 400 reis at the time. 5: From 1444 to 1446, as many as forty vessels sailed from Lagos on Henry's behalf, and the first private mercantile expeditions began. a. Alvise Cadamosto explored the Atlantic coast of Africa and discovered several islands of the Cape Verde archipelago between 1455 and 1456. 1. March 22 1455, he visited the Madeira Islands and the Canary Islands. 2. Second voyage, in 1456, Cadamosto was the first European to reach the Cape Verde Islands. 3. António Noli later claimed the credit. 6: By 1462, the Portuguese had explored the coast of Africa as far as present-day nation Sierra Leone. 7: 1490, Bartolomeu Dias (can be spelt Diaz) proved that Africa could be circumnavigated when he reached the southern tip of the continent. This is now known as the "Cape of Good Hope.” 8: 1498, Vasco da Gama was the first sailor to travel from Portugal to India. Chapter 1 Notes II: Renaissance: - The Renaissance was a cultural movement that spanned roughly the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe. - The term is also used more loosely to refer to the historic era, but since the changes of the Renaissance were not uniform, this is a very general use of the term. - As a cultural movement, it encompassed a revival of learning based on classical sources, the development of linear perspective in painting, and gradual but widespread educational reform. - Traditionally, this intellectual transformation has resulted in the Renaissance being viewed as a bridge between the Middle Ages and the Modern era. - Although the Renaissance saw revolutions in many intellectual pursuits, as well as social and political upheaval, it is perhaps best known for its artistic developments and the contributions of such polymaths as Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo, who inspired the term "Renaissance men". - There is a general, but not unchallenged, consensus that the Renaissance began in Tuscany in the 14th century. - Various theories have been proposed to account for its origins and characteristics, focusing on a variety of factors including the social and civic peculiarities of Florence at the time; its political structure; the patronage of its dominant family, the Medici; and the migration of Greek scholars and texts to Italy following the Fall of Constantinople at the hands of the Ottoman Turks. - The Renaissance has a long and complex historiography, and there has been much debate among historians as to the usefulness of Renaissance as a term and as a historical age. - Some have called into question whether the Renaissance was a cultural "advance" from the Middle Ages, instead seeing it as a period of pessimism and nostalgia for the classical age, while others have instead focused on the continuity between the two eras. - Indeed, some have called for an end to the use of the term, which they see as a product of presentism – the use of history to validate and glorify modern ideals. - The word Renaissance has also been used to describe other historical and cultural movements, such as the Carolingian Renaissance and the Renaissance of the 12th century. Chapter 1 Notes III: Crusades A: Historical Background: 1: The Crusades were a series of military campaigns of a religious character waged by much of Christian Europe against external and internal opponents. 2: The Crusades originally had the goal of recapturing Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslim rule. 3: The Crusades had far-reaching political, economic, and social impacts. B: Middle Eastern situation 1: The Muslim presence in the Holy Land began with the initial Arab conquest of Palestine. 2: 1009, when the Fatimid Caliph al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah ordered the destruction of the Church of the Holy Sepulcher. 3: In 1039 they permitted the Byzantine Empire to rebuild it. 4: Pilgrimages were allowed to the Holy Lands but for a time pilgrims were captured and some of the clergy were killed. C: Western European situation 1: In 1063, Pope Alexander II had given his blessing to Iberian Christians in their wars against the Muslims, granting both a papal standard and an indulgence to those who were killed in battle. 2: The Crusades were an outlet for an intense religious piety which rose up in the late 11th century among the lay public. 3: The result was an awakening of intense Christian piety and public interest in religious affairs. 4: This was further strengthened by religious propaganda, advocating Just War in order to retake the Holy Land—which included Jerusalem (where the death, resurrection and ascension into heaven of Jesus took place according to Christian theology) and Antioch (the first Christian city)—from the Muslims. D: Immediate cause: 1: the First Crusade was preached in 1095 2: The fall of Moorish Toledo to the Kingdom of León in 1085 3: The disunity of Muslim emirs was an essential factor. E: Europe and the West: 1: The crusades were remembered favorably in Western Europe 2: Many vocal critics of the Crusades in Western Europe since the Renaissance, and in recent years, critical views of the crusades have come to dominate most assessments. 3: Defenders of the Crusades, an embattled minority against a standard a. Crusades are regarded as bloody and unjustified acts of aggression. b. More comprehensive treatments seek to take account of both the brutality of the Crusades and the sincere religious motivation behind them, of "religious devotion and godly savagery" Chapter 1 Notes F: Politics and culture 1: The Crusades had an enormous influence on the European Middle Ages. 2: At times, much of the continent was united under a powerful Papacy, but by the 14th century, the development of centralized bureaucracies (the foundation of the modern nation-state) a. France b. England c. Burgundy d. Portugal, e. Castile, and Aragon 3: much knowledge in areas such as science, medicine, and architecture was transferred from the Islamic to the western world during the crusade era. 4: The military experiences of the crusades also had their effects in Europe; a. European castles became massive stone structures as they were in the east, rather than smaller wooden buildings as they had typically been in the past. 5: Along with trade, new scientific discoveries and inventions a. the development of algebra, b. optics c. refinement of engineering G: Trade: 1: Roads, Roman, saw significant increases in traffic. 2: Italian city-states had trading colonies in the Holy Land and Byzantine territory. 3: Increased trade brought many things to Europeans a. variety of spices b. ivory c. jade d. diamonds e. improved glass-manufacturing techniques f. early forms of gun powder g. oranges h. Apples and other Asian crops. 4: Recovering from the Dark Ages of AD 700-1000, throughout the 11th century Western Europe began to push the boundaries of its civilization. 5: In the 1300s, stability of trade with Asia collapsed with the Mongol Empire, a. the Mamelukes destroyed the Middle Eastern Crusader States, b. the Ottoman Empire impeded further Western European trade with Asia, c. Western Europeans sought alternate trade routes to Asia. Chapter 1 Notes IV: Protestant Reformation A: Origins: 1: A reform movement in Europe that began in 1517 with Martin Luther 2: Considered to have ended with the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. 3: The movement began as an attempt to reform the Catholic Church. a. Many western Catholics were troubled by what they saw as false doctrines and malpractices within the Church, particularly involving the teaching and sale of indulgences. b. Another major contention was the buying and selling church positions (simony) c. Considerable corruption within the Church's hierarchy. 4: This corruption was seen by many at the time as systemic, even reaching the position of the Pope. B: Martin Luter: 1: On October 31, 1517, in Saxony, Martin Luther nailed his Ninety-Five Theses to the door of the Wittenberg Castle Church, which served as a notice board for university- related announcements. 2: These were points for debate that criticized the Church and the Pope. 3: The most controversial points centered on the practice of selling indulgences and the Church's policy on Purgatory. C: History and origins: 1: The process of reform had decidedly different causes and effects in England, where it gave rise to Anglicanism. a. There the period became known as the English Reformation. b. Subsequent Protestant denominations generally trace their roots back to the initial reforming movements. 2: The reformers also accelerated the Catholic or Counter Reformation within the Catholic Church. D: Conclusion and legacy: 1: The Reformation led to a series of religious wars that culminated in the Thirty Years War. (Peace of Westphalia) a. 1618 -1648 the Catholic Habsburgs and their allies fought against the Protestant princes of Germany, supported by Denmark and Sweden. 2: The Habsburgs ruled a. Spain b. Austria c. the Spanish Netherlands and d. most of Germany and Italy, 3: The Habsburgs were the staunchest defenders of the Catholic Church. 4: The Reformation Era came to a close when Catholic France allied herself, first in secret and later on the battlefields, with the Protestants against the Habsburgs. Chapter 1 Notes E: The main tenets of the Peace of Westphalia were: All parties would now recognize the Peace of Augsburg of 1555, by which each prince would have the right to determine the religion of his own state, the options being Catholicism, Lutheranism, and now Calvinism. Christians living in principalities where their denomination was not the established church were guaranteed the right to practice their faith in public during allotted hours and in private at their will. 1: The treaty also effectively ended the Pope's pan-European political power. a. Fully aware of the loss, Pope Innocent X declared the treaty "null, void, invalid, iniquitous, unjust, damnable, reprobate, inane, empty of meaning and effect for all times." 2: European Sovereigns, Catholic and Protestant alike, ignored his verdict. Chapter 1 Notes Chapter 1 Section 5 V: Transatlantic Encounters: Overview: Columbus’s voyages set off a chain of events that brought together the peoples of Europe, Africa, and the Americas. I: Christopher Columbus A: Background: 1: born 1451 died May 20, 1506 a. Academic consensus is that Columbus was born in Genoa, though there are other theories. b. English: Christopher Columbus, Italian as Cristoforo Colombo, in Portuguese Cristóvão Colombo, and in Spanish as Cristóbal Colón. 2: Navigator, colonizer and explorer whose voyages across the Atlantic Ocean led to general European awareness of the American continents in the Western Hemisphere. 3: Columbus initiated widespread contact between Europeans and indigenous Americans. a. Several attempts to establish a settlement on the island of Hispaniola. 4: 1492 voyage a time of growing national imperialism and economic competition between developing nation states seeking wealth from the establishment of trade routes and colonies. a. Severely underestimating the circumference of the Earth, b. he hypothesized that a westward route from Iberia to the Indies would be shorter and more direct than the overland trade route through Arabia. c. If true, this would allow Spain entry into the lucrative spice trade 5: Following his plotted course, he instead landed within the Bahamas Archipelago at a locale he named San Salvador. a. Mistaking the North-American island for the East-Asian mainland, he referred to its inhabitants as "Indians". 6: The anniversary of Columbus' 1492 landing in the Americas (Columbus Day) is observed throughout the Americas and in Spain on October 12. Chapter 1 Notes Replica of the Santa Maria Chapter 1 Notes II: Taino: A: Background / Origins: 1: The Taínos were pre-Columbian inhabitants of the Bahamas, Greater Antilles, and the northern Lesser Antilles. 2: It is believed that the seafaring Taínos were relatives of the Arawakan people of South America. 3: The Taínos were historical neighbors and enemies of the fierce Carib tribes, another group with origins in South America who lived principally in the Lesser Antilles. 4: By the 1700s, Taíno society had been devastated by a. smallpox b. intermarriages c. forced assimilation into the plantation economy that Spain imposed in its Caribbean colonies, with its subsequent importation of African slave workers. 5: The Spaniards who first arrived in the Bahamas, Cuba and Hispaniola in 1492, and later in Puerto Rico, did not bring women. a. They took Taíno women for their wives, which resulted in mestizo children B: Technology: 1: Taínos used cotton, hemp and palm extensively for fishing nets and ropes. 2: Their dugout canoes (Kanoa) were made in various sizes, which could hold 2 to 150. 3: They used bows and arrows, and sometimes put various poisons on their arrowheads. 4: For warfare, they employed the use of a wooden war club, which they called a macana Chapter 1 Notes III: Columbian Exchange: A: History: 1: one of the most significant events in the world ecology, agriculture, and culture. 2: The enormous widespread exchange of plants, animals, foods, human populations (including slaves), communicable diseases, and ideas between the Eastern and Western hemispheres that occurred after 1492. 3: Many new and different goods were exchanged between the two hemispheres of the Earth, and it began a new revolution in the Americas and in Europe. B: Unintentional introductions 1: diseases 2: many species of organisms were introduced a. brown rats b. Earthworms (absent from parts of the pre-Columbian New World), c. Zebra mussels. 3: Plants introduced a. many weeds such as tumbleweeds b. wild oats c. Kudzu. 4: Even fungi were transported a. The one responsible for Dutch elm disease. b. Some of these species became serious nuisances upon being established. Chapter 1 Notes IV: Treaty of Tordesillas A: The Treaty of Tordesillas: 1: signed at Tordesillas June 7, 1494, a. divided the newly discovered lands between the Spanish and Portuguese. b. The lands to the east would belong to Portugal c. The lands to the west to Spain. 2: The treaty was ratified by Spain July 2, 1494 and by Portugal, September 5, 1494. 3: The other side of the world would be divided by the Treaty of Saragossa April 22, 1529, B: Signing and enforcement: 1: The Treaty of Tordesillas was intended to resolve the dispute that had been created following the return of Christopher Columbus. 2: In 1481 the Pope granted all land south of the Canary Islands to Portugal. 3: Very little of the newly divided area had actually been seen by Europeans, as it was only divided according to the treaty. Spain gained lands including most of the Americas. 4: The easternmost part of current Brazil, when it was discovered in 1500 by Pedro Álvares Cabral, was granted to Portugal.
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