PolyTechnic Dist EnegySystems

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PolyTechnic Dist EnegySystems Powered By Docstoc
					Distributed Energy Systems


                  Ali Keyhani
Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering
              Keyhani.1@OSU.edu
      Amirkabir University of Technology,
          May 18 , 2004, Tehran, Iran




         Mechatronic Systems Laboratory
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
            The Ohio State University
                                                   Mechatronics Lab.
                         1
Future Trends of Electric Utility Industry


  Central Power Plants               Distributed Energy Systems




                             Photovoltaic Array

                              Microturbine               Wind Turbine

                                                           Fuel Cell




                              Combustion Gas
                                 Turbines               Energy Storage
                                                           Devices


                                                     Mechatronics Lab.
                         2
Operating System For DES

                                                                                             Electric Power
                                                   Central Power Station                     Monitoring &
                                                                                             Control Lines
       Regional Dispatch                    Transmission line      Smart controller
                     Energy Value
                      Information   Distribution                                   Communication
                                    Substation



                                                   Energy storage
Gas turbines          Micro-turbines
                                                      devices
                                             Distribution line

                                                                                        Stand-alone




                                                                                   Remote location
    Town                Building              Factory            Hospital
 Source: Distributed Utility Associates                                               Mechatronics Lab.
                                               3
Technologies for DES


 Technologies for Distributed Energy Systems (DES)
   Gas technologies
    Combustion gas turbines
    Micro-turbines
    Fuel cells


   Renewable Energy Technologies
     Biomass power
     Small wind turbines
     Photovoltaic Arrays


   Energy Storage Devices
    Battery
    Flywheel
    Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES)
    Ultracapacitor (Supercapacitor)
    Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES)
                                                      Mechatronics Lab.
                                         4
Applications for DES


 Applications of DES

   Stand-alone


   Standby


   Grid-interconnected


   Cogeneration (Combined Heat and Power (CHP))


   Peak shaving



                                                   Mechatronics Lab.
                                     5
Benefits of DES


 Benefits of DES
  Environmental-friendly and modular electric generation

  Increased reliability/stability

  High power quality

  Load management

  Fuel flexibility

  Uninterruptible service

  Cost savings

  On-site generation

  Expandability
                                                            Mechatronics Lab.
                                       6
Barriers of DES


 Barriers
   Technical Barriers
    Protective equipment
    Safety measures
    Reliability and power-quality concerns


   Business-Practices Barriers
    Contractual and procedural requirements for interconnection
    Procedures for approving interconnection, application and interconnection fees,
    Insurance requirements
    Operational requirements


   Regulatory Barriers
    Tariff structures applicable to customers
    Backup or standby charges
    Net metering
    Environmental permitting                                                          Mechatronics Lab.
                                                 7
What supports Technologies of DES?


 What supports Technologies of DES?

   Power Electronics Technologies

    Advanced Power Converter Design Technique

    High-speed/high-power/low-losses power switches

    New control techniques

    Digital signal processors with high performance

   New communications in the form of the Internet

   Planning and valuation tools

     Value to grid

    Capacity needs assessment

                                                       Mechatronics Lab.
                                             8
Comparison of Several Technologies



               Combustion                                                                    Photovoltaic
 Technology                      Micro-turbine           Fuel Cell        Wind Turbine
               Gas Turbine                                                                      Array

    Size       0.5 – 30+MW         25 – 500 kW        1 kW – 10 MW        0.3 kW – +5 MW    0.3 kW -2 MW

  Installed
                400 – 1,200       1,200 – 1,700        1,000 – 5,000       1,000 - 5,000     6,000 – 10,000
 Cost ($/kW)

 O&M Cost
               0.003 – 0.008      0.005 – 0.016       0.0019 – 0.0153         0.005               0.2
  ($/kWh)

    Elec.
                  20 - 45%          20 – 30%             30 – 60%
 Efficiency
                                                                             20 – 40%           5 – 15%
  Overall
                 80 – 90%           80 – 85%             80 – 90%
 Efficiency
                                    natural gas,
                 natural gas,                         hydrogen, natural
 Fuel Type                       hydrogen, biogas,                             wind             sunlight
               biogas, propane                          gas, propane
                                  propane, diesel


 Source: Distributed Energy Resources and Resource Dynamics Corporation
                                                                                        Mechatronics Lab.
                                                  9
Combustion Gas Turbines (1)



                  fuel
air                                   Power Turbine
               Combustor


                                                                       Power
  Compressor                                     Generator            Converter

                Gas Producer Turbine

                                                      HRSG
                                                  (Heat Recovery
                         Feed water              Steam Generator)


                                                      Process steam

               Fig. 1 Block diagram of Combustion Gas Turbine System.

                                                                                  Mechatronics Lab.
                                          10
Combustion Gas Turbines (2)


 Features
   Very mature technology
   Size: 0.5 – 30+ MW
   Efficiency: electricity (20 – 45%), cogeneration (80 – 90%)
   Installed cost ($/kW): 400 – 1,200
   O&M cost ($/kWh): 0.003 – 0.008
   Fuel: natural gas, biogas, propane
   Emission: approximately 150 – 300 ppm NOx (uncontrolled)
               below approximately 6 ppm NOx (controlled)
   Cogeneration: yes (steam)
   Commercial Status: widely available
   Three main components: compressor, combustor, turbine
   Start-up time range: 2 – 5 minutes
   Natural gas pressure range: 160 – 610 psig
   Nominal operating temperature: 59 F
                                                                  Mechatronics Lab.
                                      11
Combustion Gas Turbines (3)


 Advantages & Disadvantages
  Advantages
    High efficiency and low cost (particularly in large systems)
   Readily available over a wide range of power output
   Capability of producing high temperature
   Marketing and customer serving channels are well established
   High power-to-weight ratio
   Proven reliability and availability


  Disadvantages
    Reduced efficiencies at part load
   Sensitivity to ambient conditions (temperature, altitude)
   Small system cost and efficiency not as good as larger systems
                                                                     Mechatronics Lab.
                                              12
Combustion Gas Turbines (4)


 Future Research Issues
  10 – 20% cost lower than conventional power systems
  Break the 60% barrier in net thermal efficiency
  Reduce Sox and NOx emissions
  Development of next generation turbine system
   for product commercialization in 2002 and market entry around 2008


 Vendors
  Alstom, General Electric Power Systems, IHI, Kawasaki Gas Turbines-Americas,
  Pacific Power Solutions, Pratt & Whitney, Rolls-Royce,
  Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation, Solar, Vericor Power Systems



                                                                        Mechatronics Lab.
                                       13
Micro-turbines (2)


 Features
  Size: 25 – 500 kW
  Efficiency: unrecuperated (15%), recuperated (20 – 30%), with heat recovery (up to 85%)
  Installed cost ($/kW): 1,200 – 1,700
  O&M cost ($/kWh): 0.005 – 0.016
  Fuel: natural gas, hydrogen, biogas, propane, diesel
  Emission: below approximately 9 - 50 ppm NOx
  Cogeneration: yes (50 – 80C water)
  Commercial Status: small volume production, commercial prototypes now
  Rotating speed: 90,000 – 120,000
  Maintenance interval: 5,000 – 8,000 hrs

                                                                       Mechatronics Lab.
                                          15
Micro-turbines (3)


 Advantages & Disadvantages
  Advantages
   Small number of moving parts
   Compact size
   Light-weight
   Good efficiencies in cogeneration
   Low emissions
   Can utilize waste fuels
   Long maintenance intervals


  Disadvantages
   Low fuel to electricity efficiencies
   Loss of power output and efficiency with higher ambient temperatures and elevation

                                                                                  Mechatronics Lab.
                                            16
Micro-turbines (4)


 Future Research Issues
   Improve the micro-turbine design
   Lowering costs
   Increasing performance
   Heat recovery/cogeneration
   Fuel flexibility
   Vehicles
   Hybrid systems
    (e.g., fuel cell/micro-turbine, flywheel/micro-turbine)


 Vendors
  Bowman Power Systems, Capstone Turbine Corporation,
  Elliott Energy Systems, Ingersoll Rand Energy Systems, Turbec AB

                                                                     Mechatronics Lab.
                                         17
   Fuel Cells (1)

 Electrochemical energy conversion: Hydrogen + Oxygen  Electricity, Water, and Heat



                                                           AC Power
                                      Power
                                     Converter

                                             +
            Fuel
                                                                Cathode
                                                                Catalyst
                     H2
          Reformer                                                  O2
                                                                 from air

                      Anode           Polymer
                      Catalyst       Electrolyte
                                                       H2O
                                                      Exhaust

                          Fig. 3 Block diagram of Fuel Cell System.
                                                                            Mechatronics Lab.
                                                 18
Fuel Cells (2)


 Features (1)
   Types (according to electrolyte used):
     Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC)
     Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC)
     Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC)
     Proton Exchange Membrane or Solid Polymer Fuel Cell (PEMFC or SPFC)
     Alkaline Fuel Cell
     Direct Methanol Fuel Cell
     Regenerative Fuel Cell
     Zinc Air Fuel Cell
     Proton Ceramic Fuel Cell


                                                                  Mechatronics Lab.
                                      19
Fuel Cells (3)


 Features (2)

   Size: 1 kW – 10 MW
   Efficiency: electricity (30 – 60%), cogeneration (80 – 90%)
   Installed cost ($/kW): 1,000 – 5,000
   O&M cost ($/kWh): 0.0019 – 0.0153
   Fuel: natural gas, hydrogen, propane, diesel
   Emission: very low
   Cogeneration: yes (hot water, LP or HP steam)
   Commercial Status:
     PAFC: commercially available
     SOFC, MCFC, PEMFC: available in 2004


                                                                  Mechatronics Lab.
                                        20
  Fuel Cells (4)


 Fuel Cells Overview (1)
          Types                   PAFC                   SOFC                MCFC                PEMFC

  Commercially Available           Yes                    No                   No                   No
           Size               100 – 200kW           1kW – 10MW          250kW – 10MW            3 – 250kW
                           Natural gas, landfill     Natural gas,                               Natural gas,
                                                                           Natural gas,
          Fuel              gas, digester gas,     hydrogen, landfill                        hydrogen, propane,
                                                                            hydrogen
                                 propane              gas, fuel oil                                diesel
        Efficiency              36 – 42%                45 – 60%            45 –55%              30 – 40%
  Operating Temperature           400F                 1,800F              1,200F               200F
     Environmental –
          friendly                 Yes                    Yes                  Yes                  Yes
  (Nearly zero emission)
                                                   Yes (hot water, LP   Yes (hot water, LP
      Cogeneration           Yes (hot water)                                                  Yes (80C water)
                                                     or HP steam)         or HP steam)

                                                       Likely               Likely                Likely
                           Some commercially
    Commercial Status                              commercialization    commercialization    commercialization
                               available
                                                        2004                 2004               2003/2004

  Source: Distributed Energy Resources (DER)                                                Mechatronics Lab.
                                                   21
  Fuel Cells (5)


 Fuel Cells Overview (2)

                             Peak Power Density   System Efficiency   Start-up Time
          Types
                                 (mW/cm3)             (% HHV)            (hours)


          PAFC                      ~200               36 - 45            1 -4


      SOFC (tabular)              150 - 200            43 - 55            5 - 10


       SOFC (planar)              200 - 500            43 - 55          unknown


          MCFC                      ~160               43 - 55            10+


          PEMFC                     ~700               32 - 40            <0.1


  Source: Distributed Energy Resources (DER)

                                                                       Mechatronics Lab.
                                           22
Fuel Cells (6)


 Applications (1)
   PAFC
    Medical
    Industrial
    Schools
    Commercial utilities
    Utility Power Plants
    Waste water treatment plants


   SOFC
    Residential cogeneration
    Small commercial buildings
    Industrial facilities
                                         Mechatronics Lab.
                                    23
Fuel Cells (7)


 Applications (2)

   MCFC
    Industrial
    Government facilities
    Universities
    Hospitals



   PEMFC
    Automotive
    Residential (< 10kW), both with and without cogeneration
    Commercial (10 – 250kW), both with and without cogeneration
    Light industrial (< 250kW), both with and without cogeneration
    Portable power (< several kW)
                                                                      Mechatronics Lab.
                                            24
Fuel Cells (8)


 Advantages & Disadvantages (1)

  1. PAFC                        2. SOFC

     Advantages                    Advantages
      Quiet                         Quiet
      Low emissions                 Low emissions

      High efficiency               High efficiency

      Proven reliability
                                    Disadvantages
                                     Planar SOFCs are still in the R&D stage
     Disadvantages
                                     but recent developments in low temperature
      High cost
                                     operations show promise
                                     High cost


                                                                 Mechatronics Lab.
                            25
Fuel Cells (9)


 Advantages & Disadvantages (2)

3. MCFC                                            4. PEMFC

   Advantages                                       Advantages
    Quiet                                            Quiet
    Low emissions                                    Low emissions

    High efficiency                                  High efficiency
                                                      Synergy with automotive

   Disadvantages
                                                     Disadvantages
    Need to demonstrate long term dependability
                                                      Limited field test experience
    High cost
                                                      Low temperature waste heat may
                                                      limit cogeneration potential
                                                      High cost

                                                                          Mechatronics Lab.
                                           26
Fuel Cells (10)


 Future Research Issues (1)
  1. PAFC

     Increase anode CO tolerance with operating temperature

      : Simplify reformer design, and increase the lifetime of reformate-fueled stacks

     Lower the moderate stack temperature to allow rapid start-up and shutdown

     Increase the temperature difference between the stack and the environment

       thermal and water management functions of the fuel cell system

         are greatly simplified

     Decrease the system water requirements and increase the flexibility of operation
                                                                          Mechatronics Lab.
                                       27
Fuel Cells (11)


 Future Research Issues (2)
  2. SOFC
     Cost reduction

     Identify configurations to require less stringent material purity specifications

     Identify routes to reduce the amount of insulation in the system

     Move manufacturing processes towards net-forming rather than machining

      in order to minimize scrap production

     Use of less exotic alloys

     Maintenance of seals and manifolds under severe thermal stresses

     Long-term mechanical integrity of planar systems

     Long-term material compatibility of planar systems
                                                                            Mechatronics Lab.
                                        28
Fuel Cells (12)


 Future Research Issues (3)
  3. MCFC
     Extend stack life
     Increase the power density
     Reduce the cost


  4. PEMFC
     Operate at pressures > 1.5 atm.
     Guarantee long-term operation
     Produce 10 – 20 ppm CO in long-term, real-world environments
     Operation of fully integrated systems in a broad range of thermal environments
      with adequate water recovery over extended periods
     Operation of fully integrated systems in environments like freezing temperatures

                                                                         Mechatronics Lab.
                                       29
Fuel Cells (13)


 Vendors
   Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC)
    Japan’s Fuji Electric Company, Ltd., UTC Fuel Cells, Mitsubishi Electric Corporation


   Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC)
    Global Thermoelectric, Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation,
    SOFCo, ZTEK Corporation

   Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC)
    Fuel Cell Energy, Hitachi, Ltd., Ansaldo Ricerche Srl


   Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC)
   Avista Labs, Ballard Generation Systems, Dais-Analytic Corporation, H Power, IdaTech,
   UTC Fuel Cells, Nuvera Fuel Cells, Plug Power, Proton Energy Systems


                                                                                  Mechatronics Lab.
                                            30
Wind Turbines (1)


                              Nacelle
 Wind
                       Gear Box
           Low-speed
             shaft                 High-speed
                                      shaft
                                                   Generator




                                                Power Converter




          Fig. 4 Block diagram of Small Wind Turbine System.

                                                                  Mechatronics Lab.
                              31
Wind Turbines (2)


 Features
   Size: small (0.3 - 50 kW), large (300 kW – +5 MW)
   Efficiency: 20 – 40%
   Installed cost ($/kW): large-scale (900 - 1,100), small-scale (2,500 - 5,000)
   O&M cost ($/kWh): 0.005
   Fuel: wind
   Emission: zero
   Other features: various types and sizes
   Commercial Status: widely available
   Wind speed:
     Large turbine: 6 m/s (13 mph) at average sites
     Small turbine: 4 m/s (9 mph) at average sites
   Typical life of a wind turbine: 20 years
                                                                            Mechatronics Lab.
                                             32
Wind Turbines (3)


 Advantages & Disadvantages
   Advantages
    Power generated from wind farms can be inexpensive
    Low cost energy
    No harmful emissions
    Minimal land use
    : the land below each turbine can be used for animal grazing or farming
    No fuel required


   Disadvantages
    Variable power output due to the fluctuation in wind speed
    Location limited
    Visual impact
    : Aesthetic problem of placing them in higher population density areas
    Bird mortality
                                                                              Mechatronics Lab.
                                            33
Wind Turbines (4)


 Future Research Issues
   Lower the cost of energy from wind to 2.5 cents/kWh
    at sites with 6.7 m/s [15 mph] winds
   Reduce system cost
   Improve efficiency of wind turbine generator
   Improve power quality
   New design of the airfoils for the wind turbine blades



 Vendors
  Atlantic Orient Corporation, Bergey WindPower Company, Inc., Enron Wind,
  Northern Power Systems, Southwest Windpower Inc., Vestas-American Wind Technology, Inc.


                                                                              Mechatronics Lab.
                                           34
Photovoltaic Arrays (1)

                                        PV module




                                            Cell



        Array
                 Charge
                Controller                             AC power
                             DC power
                 Batteries              Power Converter


                 Battery
                 Charger                Back-up Generator


           Fig. 5 Block diagram of Photovoltaic Array System.
                                                                  Mechatronics Lab.
                                 35
Photovoltaic Arrays (2)

 Features (1)

   Several types of solar electric technology (1):
     Crystalline silicon:
      Used in more than half of all solar electric devices
      Consists of a positive (p-type) layer and a negative (n-type) layer
      Applications: Small (watch, calculator), Large (satellites, electricity for utilities)


     Thin films:
      Lighter, more resilient, and easier to manufacture than crystalline silicon module
      Materials used: amorphous silicon (best), cadmium telluride, and copper indium diselenide
      Cost saving because of relatively little semiconductor materials
      Flexible solar electric roofing shingles


                                                                                         Mechatronics Lab.
                                               36
Photovoltaic Arrays (3)

 Features (2)

   Several types of solar electric technology (2):
     Concentrators:

      Need optical lenses or mirrors to concentrate the sunlight

      Components: a lens, a solar cell assembly, a housing element, a secondary concentrator,

                       various contacts and adhesives

      Materials used: crystalline silicon, gallium arsenide, and gallium indium phosphide

      Cost saving because of using inexpensive semiconductor materials



     Thermophotovoltaics (TPV)

      Convert heat into electricity

      Advantages: cleaner, quieter, simpler, relatively maintenance free

                                                                                   Mechatronics Lab.
                                             37
Photovoltaic Arrays (4)


 Features (3)
   Size: 0.3 kW – 2 MW
   Efficiency: 5 – 15%
   Installed cost ($/kW): 6,000 – 10,000
   O&M cost ($/kWh): 0.2
   Fuel: sunlight
   Emission: zero
   Main components: batteries, battery chargers, a backup generator, a controller
   Other features: no moving parts, quiet operation, little maintenance
   Commercial Status: commercially deployed, advanced PV films under development
   An individual photovoltaic cell: 1 – 2 watts
                                                                           Mechatronics Lab.
                                         38
Photovoltaic Arrays (5)


 Advantages & Disadvantages
  Advantages

    Work well for remote locations

    Require very little maintenance

    Environmentally friendly (No emissions)




  Disadvantages

    Local weather patterns and sun conditions directly affect the potential of photovoltaic system.

     Some locations will not be able to use solar power




                                                                                      Mechatronics Lab.
                                             39
Photovoltaic Arrays (6)


 Future Research Issues
   Use of a concentrator technology

    to concentrate the solar energy over a large area onto a small area of solar cells

   Increase energy density several hundred times using a freznel lens or reflective surface

   Use of more exotic solar cell technology for greater efficiency

   Lower an overall cost/watt competitive with flat plate technologies

   Increase concentrator efficiency to above 30 %


 Vendors
  AstroPower, Baekert ECD Solar Systems LLC, BP Solar,
  DayStar Technologies, Inc., Solec international, Inc., Xantrex Technology, Inc.

                                                                             Mechatronics Lab.
                                         40
Energy Storage Devices (1)


 Energy storage technologies
   To provide electric power over short periods of time
   To improve the efficiency and reliability of the electric utility system
   To accelerate adoption of renewable energy technologies
   To correct voltage sags, flicker, and surges
   To be used as an Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS)



 Types of Energy Storage Devices
   Batteries
   Flywheels
   Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES)
   Ultracapacitor (Supercapacitor)
   Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES)
                                                                               Mechatronics Lab.
                                                41
Energy Storage Devices (2)


 Features (1)
   Batteries
    To provide an interruptible supply of electricity to power substation
      To start backup power systems during power outage
    To increase power quality and reliability
    Size: 0.14 – 2,100 kVA
    Operating time: 5 – 60 minutes
    Types: lead-acid (commercially available and widely used), sodium/sulfur,
           zinc/bromine, lithium/air
    Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS):
      Cost of a complete UPS system: $200/kVA - $1,500/kVA
      Battery cost of the complete UPS system: 60 – 70%
      Battery replacement frequency: every 5 – 7 years

                                                                                 Mechatronics Lab.
                                             42
Energy Storage Devices (3)


 Features (2)

   Flywheels

     Electromechanical device: an integral motor/generator provides power for short durations

                                 such as a power outage, voltage sag, or other disturbance

     Size: 120 – 700 kW

     Operating time: 20 sec – 10 minutes

     RPM: a few thousand – 60,000

     Main components: flywheel, inverter, control system

     Commercial Status: commercially available as individual products

                           or integrated with prime movers such as engine

                                                                                     Mechatronics Lab.
                                             43
Energy Storage Devices (4)


 Features (3)

   Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES)

    To store energy in the field of a large magnetic coil with DC flowing

    To be used for short durations such as utility switching events

    Main components: SMES, inverter, control system

    Commercial Status:

      low temperature SMES cooled by liquid helium (commercially available)

      high temperature SMES cooled by liquid nitrogen (in development)



                                                                               Mechatronics Lab.
                                             44
Energy Storage Devices (5)


 Features (4)
   Ultracapacitor
     To provide power during short duration interruptions and power sags
     The life of the batteries can be extended
     if a ultracapacitor is combined with a battery-based UPS system
     Commercial Status:
      small ultracapacitor (commercially available)
      large ultracapacitor (in development)


   Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES)
     To use pressurized air as the energy storage medium
     An electric motor-driven compressor and a modified turbine required
     Ideal location for CAES: aquifers, conventional mines in hard rock,
                                hydraulically mined salt caverns
     Not widely utilized because of the significant space requirements
                                                                            Mechatronics Lab.
                                              45
Energy Storage Devices (6)


 Advantages & Disadvantages
   Advantages
    Improved power quality and reliability (“premium power”)
    “Green power” dispatch/purchase options
    Reduced sizing of distributed generation systems
    Energy/demand cost saving from load leveling
    Decreased transmission and distribution infrastructure investment


   Disadvantages
    High cost for long duration storage system
    Parasite power losses to keep unit charge
    High maintenance
    (e.g. frequent testing, charge assessment for batteries )
                                                                         Mechatronics Lab.
                                              46
Energy Storage Devices (7)


 Future Research Issues
   Lower costs
   Longer life-time
   Higher efficiency

 Vendors
   Batteries
    Energizer, Evonyx, Inc., Ovonic Battery Company, Panasonic Industrial Company,
    Sony Corporation, Ultralife Batteries, Inc.

   Flywheels
    Active Power, AFS Trinity, Beacon Power, Pentadyne, Precise Power Systems

   Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES)
    American Superconductor

   Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES)
    CAES Development Company LLC

   Ultracapacitors
    PowerCache (Maxwell Technologies, Inc.), EPRI PEAC                          Mechatronics Lab.
                                          47
Five Different Configurations for DES
1. A Power Converter connected
   in a Stand-alone AC System (1)

                      Power Converter

                                                                   3  AC
                                                                  240/480 V
                                               Sensors           50 or 60 Hz
Distributed
              Vdc                                        Trans.                Loads
  Energy
  System




                                                    V, I, P, Q

                            DSP
                          Controller

               Fig. 6 Block diagram of a Power Converter connected
                            in a stand-alone AC system.
                                                                 Mechatronics Lab.
                                    48
Five Different Configurations for DES
1. A Power Converter connected
   in a Stand-alone AC System (2)




                                     I
                                                          3  AC
                                                 Load
                                             E           240/480 V
         Vdc                    V
                                                        50 or 60 Hz




               Fig. 7 Simplified block diagram of Fig. 6.




                                                                      Mechatronics Lab.
                                49
Five Different Configurations for DES
1. A Power Converter connected
   in a Stand-alone AC System (3)

                              Research Issues
                        (Focus on Power Electronics)

 Autonomous power system
  Voltage, power quality and reliability requirements of the customers



 Power factor correction
  Elimination of harmonic current and voltage components
  Compensation of the reactive power and harmonic load current components
  P and Q controls independently



 Stability of frequency and voltage according to suddenly additional loads


                                                                             Mechatronics Lab.
                                              50
Five Different Configurations for DES
2. A Power Converter connected
   in Parallel with the Utility Mains (1)

                       Power Converter
                                                                    Utility
                                                                    Mains

                                                                                3  AC
                                                 Sensors                       240/480 V
                                                                              50 or 60 Hz
Distributed
               Vdc                                         Trans.
  Energy
  System                                                                        Loads


                                                      V, I, P, Q


                             DSP
                           Controller


              Fig. 8 Block diagram of a Power Converter connected
                         in parallel with the utility mains.
                                                                    Mechatronics Lab.
                                   51
Five Different Configurations for DES
2. A Power Converter connected
   in Parallel with the Utility Mains (2)




                                                Utility
                                                Mains
                                        I
                                                        3  AC
                               V            E          240/480 V
         Vdc
                                                      50 or 60 Hz




                Fig. 9 Simplified block diagram of Fig. 8.




                                                                    Mechatronics Lab.
                                   52
Five Different Configurations for DES
2. A Power Converter connected
   in Parallel with the Utility Mains (3)

                              Research Issues
                        (Focus on Power Electronics)

 Distributed system control
  System protection: overcurrent, overvoltage, undervoltage

  Seamless connection and isolation from the utility grids


 Autonomous power system
  Voltage, power quality and reliability requirements of the customer


 Power factor correction
  P and Q controls independently

  Compensation of the reactive power and harmonic load current components


                                                                             Mechatronics Lab.
                                              53
 Five Different Configurations for DES
 3. Paralleled-Connected Power Converters
    in a Stand-alone AC System (1)
                          Power Converters
                                                   Sensors


Micro-turbine                                             Trans.
                                                                        3  AC
                                                                       240/480 V
                                       DSP                            50 or 60 Hz
                                     Controller     V, I, P, Q
                                                                        Loads
                                                   Sensors


  Fuel Cell                                               Trans.



                                       DSP
                                     Controller     V, I, P, Q


         Fig. 10 Block diagram of Paralleled-Connected Power Converters
                            in a Stand-alone AC System.            Mechatronics Lab.
                                       54
Five Different Configurations for DES
3. Paralleled-Connected Power Converters
   in a Stand-alone AC System (2)




                     I1                     I2
                 V          E           E        V
  Vdc1                                                    Vdc2
                                Loads




           Fig. 11 Simplified block diagram of Fig. 10.




                                                          Mechatronics Lab.
                                  55
Five Different Configurations for DES
3. Paralleled-Connected Power Converters
   in a Stand-alone AC System (3)

                                Research Issues
                          (Focus on Power Electronics)
 Control based on local information available at each inverter
   Impracticality of communication information between DES
   Terminal quantities


 Autonomous power system
   Voltage, power quality and reliability requirements of the customer


 Power factor correction
  Elimination of harmonic current and voltage components
  Compensation of the reactive power and harmonic load current components
  P and Q controls independently


 Loads sharing uniformly depending on the capacities
  Active power, reactive power, harmonic current components
                                                                             Mechatronics Lab.
                                               56
  Five Different Configurations for DES
  4. Paralleled-Connected Power Converters
     with a common DC grid in a Stand-alone AC System (1)
                           Power Converters
                                                     Sensors

Micro-turbine                                                                 3  AC
                                                                             240/480 V
                                                                            50 or 60 Hz
                                         DSP             V, I, P, Q
                                       Controller
                                                                               Loads

                                                     Sensors

  Fuel Cell


                                                         V, I, P, Q
                                         DSP
                            DC Grid    Controller


              Fig. 12 Block diagram of Paralleled-Connected Power Converters
                     with a common DC grid in a Stand-alone AC System.
                                                                        Mechatronics Lab.
                                          57
Five Different Configurations for DES
4. Paralleled-Connected Power Converters
   with a common DC grid in a Stand-alone AC System (2)

           DC Grid


                                       I1
                                              E          3  AC
                                                        240/480 V
                                                       50 or 60 Hz
           Vdc
                                                                 Loads
                                       I2
                                             E




                 Fig. 13 Simplified block diagram of Fig. 12.


                                                                     Mechatronics Lab.
                                 58
Five Different Configurations for DES
4. Paralleled-Connected Power Converters
   with a common DC grid in a Stand-alone AC System (3)

                                Research Issues
                          (Focus on Power Electronics)
 Efficient control of the batteries for the long service life


 Control based on local information available at each inverter
   Impracticality of communication information between DES
   Terminal quantities


 Power factor correction
   Elimination of harmonic current and voltage components
   Compensation of the reactive power and harmonic load current components
   P and Q controls independently


 Loads sharing uniformly depending on the capacities
   Active power, reactive power, harmonic current components
                                                                              Mechatronics Lab.
                                            59
 Five Different Configurations for DES
 5. Power Converters supplying power in a Stand-alone
    mode or feeding it back to the utility mains (1)
                          Power Converters                                   Utility
                                                     Sensors                 Mains

                                                                                         3  AC
Micro-turbine                                             Trans.
                                                                                        240/480 V
                                                                                       50 or 60 Hz


                                          DSP
                                                     V, I, P, Q
                                        Controller

                                                     Sensors                                Loads

                                                                         Distributed
  Fuel Cell                                               Trans.
                                                                          Control
                                                                           Center

                                                     V, I, P, Q Supervisory
                                          DSP
                                                                   Control
                                        Controller
                                                                    Unit


              Fig. 14 Block diagram of Power converters for a Stand-alone
                       mode or feeding it back to the utility mains.    Mechatronics Lab.
                                          60
Five Different Configurations for DES
5. Power Converters supplying power in a Stand-alone
   mode or feeding it back to the utility mains (2)
                                          Utility Grid



                                  I1                           I2
                             V            E             E           V
     Vdc1                                                                             Vdc2
                                              Loads



                        Fig. 15 Simplified block diagram of Fig. 14.

  Operation Modes
    Stand alone mode: DES directly supply loads with power or mains failures

    Parallel mode to the mains: DES have surplus power or need more power
      Serve as a source of reactive power and harmonic current components
      Can function as a complete Active Filter by changing its control method
                                                                                 Mechatronics Lab.
                                           61
Five Different Configurations for DES
5. Power Converters supplying power in a Stand-alone
   mode or feeding it back to the utility mains (3)

                             Research Issues (1)
                         (Focus on Power Electronics)
 Control strategy for power storage, power export/import and generation dispatch
   Optimization algorithm


 Distributed system control
  System protection: overcurrent, overvoltage, undervoltage
  Seamless connection and isolation from the utility grids
  Simple control technique for reducing system complexity


 Autonomous power system
  Voltage, power quality and reliability requirements of the customer


 Reliability of communications between each DES and Supervisory Control Unit, and
  Supervisory Control Unit and Distributed Control Center
  Radio and wire link
                                                                         Mechatronics Lab.
                                              62
Five Different Configurations for DES
5. Power Converters supplying power in a Stand-alone
   mode or feeding it back to the utility mains (4)

                              Research Issues (2)
                          (Focus on Power Electronics)

 Control based on local information available at each inverter
   Impracticality of communication information between DES
   Terminal quantities



 Power factor correction: operate DES as a complete active filter
   P and Q controls independently: amplitude and phase controls of voltage
   Compensation of the reactive power and harmonic load current components



 Loads sharing uniformly depending on the capacities
   Active power, reactive power, harmonic current components

                                                                              Mechatronics Lab.
                                              63
• Load Management Techniques

• Methods of Implementation

• Integrated Load Management and Solar Energy Systems

• Government Policies

• Conclusions

                                          Mechatronics Lab.
                         65
• The annual consumption of electric energy is increasing
 around the world, and will continue to increase.
• The electric power generated from fossil fuels would
 create pollution.
• It is essential to look at distributed generation and
 generation of electric energy at the point of use
 by using all available renewable energy sources.

                                                   Mechatronics Lab.
                            66
• Smart metering systems have been installed and a number
 of rates are being offered during the daily usage.

• The daily load curve of energy usage reflects the type of
 generating units that are used to produce the energy.

• The load management system will take advantage of
 the rate difference and schedule the none-essential
 loads to reduce the cost of energy to the users.

                                                    Mechatronics Lab.
                            67
• Daily load curve of a sample house

     Load (kW)
       1
     0.9
     0.8
     0.7
     0.6
     0.5
     0.4
     0.3
     0.2
     0.1
       0
          1    3   5   7   9   11 13 15    17   19   21   23
                               Time (Hr)
                                                           Mechatronics Lab.
                                68
• We propose an energy management system where
 solar energy will be used to provide the peak load
 demand of a modern home.
• The objective is to show the combined management
 of solar energy production and load management can
 reduce the cost of energy use at home and promote
 cleaner environment.

                                                Mechatronics Lab.
                           69
   Load Management Techniques (1)

• Importance of Load Management

    The load management systems is designed to reduce
     the demand factor by shaving the peak energy use
     where the production cost is the highest.

    The load control can create a load cycle where the
     production cost can be minimized by planning
     the generation systems with efficient base load units.


                                                 Mechatronics Lab.
                         70
     Load Management Techniques (2)

• Definitions
     Connected Load: the rating of the installed devices
                         in the user premises in KW
     Maximum Demand: the maximum energy in KW
                           when some of the connected loads
                           are used at the same time
     Load Factor: the ratio of maximum demand in KW
                   and the connected load

     Load Factor = Average Load / Maximum Load
                                              Mechatronics Lab.
                          71
    Load Management Techniques (3)


• To plan the generation systems, the power companies

 need to calculate their annual load factor.

• This information can also be used to plan an effective

 load management system.




                                                Mechatronics Lab.
                           72
    Load Management Techniques (4)


• The time and implementation an effective load

 management system depends on a number

 of factors:

    Time of day metering and tariff

    Government policies on renewable energy sources

    Government policies on clean air standard

                                            Mechatronics Lab.
                         73
     Load Management Techniques (5)

• Peak Clipping: Peak clipping method seeks to reduce
                 the peak load demand and match it
                 with the power companies’ available
                 power generation




       Peak
       Clipping




                                              Mechatronics Lab.
                          74
    Load Management Techniques (6)

• Valley Filling: This method is based on scheduling
                  certain load during the time of the day
                  when the load demand is low due
                  to consumer life style




      Valley
      Filling




                                                  Mechatronics Lab.
                            75
    Load Management Techniques (7)

• Load Shifting: In this method, the daily load shape is
                adjusted by shifting some of pre-agreed
                loads from peak usage time to off peak
                without changing overall consumptions




       Load
       Shifting




                                               Mechatronics Lab.
                           76
     Methods of Implementation (1)

• Time-of-use-Tariff (TOU):
 This tariff is based on the price of peak load energy.
 It is designed to inform the users the real cost of
 energy consumption.

• Objectives:
  Reduce the rising demands and shape the daily profile
     Promote the alternative and renewable energy sources
     Promote distributed energy systems and remove
       the bottlenecks in transmission
                                                  Mechatronics Lab.
                            77
      Methods of Implementation (2)

• Interruptible Load Control:
 This method is based on tariffs designed to add spinning

 reserve to the system in case of system emergency

• The tariff rate increases based on the amount of advance

 time notice given to the customers.

• The load reduction is controlled based on demand meter

 and equipment installed on the customer sites.

                                                  Mechatronics Lab.
                            78
    Methods of Implementation (3)

• Solar Energy for Peak Shaving:

    The capital cost for installed solar energy system
      is higher than conventional systems

    The production of solar energy is essentially cost free

    No environmental degradation



                                               Mechatronics Lab.
                          79
Integrated Load Management and
Solar Energy Systems (1)

                                   Load                                                                 Valve
                                   Management                                                           and
                                                                                      Water
                                   Switch                                                               Sensor   Solar Water
                                                                                      Tank
                                                                                                                   Heater

                                    Load Management
                                        Interface                                                                Solar Cells
                 Power                                                                                            System
                   to
                 Switch
                                              Current
                                              Transformer
                                                                                                 24 VAC             See
   House Smart                                                                                   Thermostat        Fig. 6
     Meter                                                                                       Wiring
                                                                                      A/C

                                                                                               Air
                                                                                               Conditioner
                                              CT                                               Compressor

                             Current           Current           Compressor
                                                                                     Return Air Dust
                            Transducer        Transducer          Contactor
                                     Water         Air
                                                                                     Inside Air Temperature
                 Power    Switch
                   to                Heater        Conditioner
                          Activation
                  DSP                KWH           KWH
                                                            Inside Air Temperature



                                 Embedded DSP
                                 System Monitor
                                                                                                 Internet Connection
                  Whole
                  House
                  KWH                                                                                                   Mechatronics Lab.
                                                         80
      Integrated Load Management and
      Solar Energy Systems (2)
• The control of the load management technology will be
 based on the development of an embedded DSP based
 system monitored through Internet connection.

• The embedded DSP control systems will control the following:

     House loads
     Passive solar energy
     Active solar energy systems

                                                 Mechatronics Lab.
                             81
   Integrated Load Management and
   Solar Energy Systems (3)

• House Loads

    The loads will be classified as essential loads and
     interruptible loads that can be controlled under a tariff
     agreement. Examples of interruptible loads are heating
     and cooling loads.




                                                 Mechatronics Lab.
                          82
    Integrated Load Management and
    Solar Energy Systems (4)
• Passive Solar Energy
    Solar water heating has been one of the most successful
     thermal applications of solar energy use.
    To have an efficient solar hot water system, it is essential
     that the system be monitored in real time.
    The proposed technology of software control will allow
     that total system be provided as a service by a company
     whereby remote monitoring and efficiency can be
     maintained.
                                                  Mechatronics Lab.
                           83
     Integrated Load Management and
     Solar Energy Systems (5)

• Active Solar Energy
    This energy is produced by using solar cells to convert
      the solar energy directly to electric energy as shown
      in previous figure. The system is monitored and controlled
      by embedded software control systems for its operation.




                                                Mechatronics Lab.
                           84
    Integrated Load Management and
    Solar Energy Systems (6)
• Active Solar Energy Structure with
  Off-the-Shelf Components

                                         12VDC/220VAC
                                         Power Inverter




                   12V/100W
                   Solar Panel




                Charge                12V Battery
                Controller

                                                          Mechatronics Lab.
                                 85
      Integrated Load Management and
      Solar Energy Systems (7)

• Solar Panel - SolarPRO plug’n’play 100W solar panels

    The SolarPRO plug’n’play™ 100 is produced
      by ICP Global Technologies. It comes with a charge
      controller and all wiring/hardware.
      Built-in LED indicator displays the charging level.

    100 Watts rated power at 15 volts operating voltage



                                                  Mechatronics Lab.
                            86
    Integrated Load Management and
    Solar Energy Systems (8)

• Battery
     PVX-490T from Concord Battery Corporation:
      12V, 48A•Hrs


• Trace/Xantrex C40 Charge Controller
     From Xantrex Technology, Inc.




                                           Mechatronics Lab.
                         87
     Integrated Load Management and
     Solar Energy Systems (9)

• Power Inverter – IPS1000 DC/AC PureSine Inverter
    From Analytic Systems, Inc.
    The IPS Series of ‘True Sine Wave’ Inverters is designed
     specifically for running computers and other electronics
     in mobile and other off-grid locations.
    120 VAC / 60 Hz fully regulated output
    1000 Watts of continuous output power


                                               Mechatronics Lab.
                           88
        Automotive: 5th Wave: Conversion of Mech
              anical to Electronic Systems


• Typical Applications
  – Brake-By-Wire
  – Steer-By-Wire
  – Integrated vehicle dy
    namics
  – Camless engines
  – Integrated starter alte
    rnator


                                       Mechatronics Lab.
                   Automotive Systems
                            Fuel Cell Car

                         Fuel Tank
                                                            Auxiliary
                                                            Batteries
             Power
            Converters




  Fuel                                                     Traction
Processor                                                   Motor




                                            Fuel Cell


                                                        Mechatronics Lab.
Research Area : Hydrogen Economy Control of Fuel Cell
Energy System

 Control Block Diagram




        Fig. 3 Control block diagram of conventional system.
                                                               Mechatronics Lab.
1. A Power Converter connected
   in a Stand-alone AC System (3)

                                    Research Issues


 Autonomous power system
  Voltage, power quality and reliability requirements of the customers



 Power factor correction
  Elimination of harmonic current and voltage components
  Compensation of the reactive power and harmonic load current components
  P and Q controls independently



 Stability of frequency and voltage in load pick up or load shading


                                                                             Mechatronics Lab.
          Recent IEEE Power Electronics Transaction Papers
                  In Control of Distributed Generation
•   “Control of Distributed Generation Systems, Part I:
    Voltages and Currents Control,” Mohammad N. Mar
    wali, Ali Keyhani, IEEE Transactions on Power Electr
    onics, in print.
•   “Control of Distributed Generation Systems Part II:
    Load Sharing Control,” Mohammad N. Marwali, Jin-
    Woo Jung, and Ali Keyhani, IEEE Transactions on P
    ower Electronics, in print.
•   “An Integrated Virtual Learning System for the Devel
    opment Motor Drive Systems,” A. Keyhani, M. N. M
    arwali and Gerald Baumgartner, IEEE Transaction in
    Power Systems, Paper number TR12061 (In press)

                                                  Mechatronics Lab.
III. Space Vector PWM Implementation

 Space Vector PWM

 Conventional Space Vector PWM:

                      V3               V2
   (1 / 3, 1 /    3)
                     (010)            (110)
                                                  (1 / 3, 1 /   3)
                                 2
                                 T2       Vref
                    3                                                                         sin( / 3   )
     V4                V0                                   V1                 T1  T z  a 
                                                 1                                             sin( / 3)                          
    (011)             (000)
                        V7
                                                           (100)      q axis                                                V ref   
(2 / 3, 0)                               T              (2 / 3, 0)
                                                                                                sin( )          where, a          
                    4 (111)               1   6                                T2  T z  a                                2       
                                                                                              sin( / 3)                      Vdc   
                                                                                                                            3       
                             5                                                 T0  T z  (T1  T2 )
 ( 1 / 3,  1 /   3)
                     V5                V6 (1 / 3,  1 /          3)

                    (001)             (101)

                             d axis


                        Fig. 5 Basic space vectors and switching patterns.

                                                                                                                  Mechatronics Lab.
                                                                      10
 IV. System Modeling

 State Equations for System Modeling

 Current/voltage equations from the L-C filter
     dVL    1         1                          dI i   1      1
               Ii       Ti I L ,                       Vi     VL
      dt   3C f      3C f                        dt L f        Lf

  where, state variables: VL (= [VLAB VLBC VLCA]T ) and
                          Ii (= [iiAB iiBC iiCA]T = [iiA-iiB iiB-iiC iiC-iiA]T )                          1 1 0 
                                                                                          ,                      
         control input (u): Vi (= [ViAB ViBC ViCA]T )                                               Ti   0 1  1
                                                                                                          1 0 1 
                                                                                                                 
         disturbance (d): IL (= [iLA iLB iLC]T )

                                            .
 State equations in the stationary qd reference frame
      dVLqd        1            1                   dI iqd       1         1
                      I iqd       Tiqd I Lqd                     Viqd     VLqd
        dt        3C f         3C f                  dt          Lf        Lf
  where,
                                                                                             1 
          1   1/ 2 1/ 2                                                          1
       2                                                                       3            3
   Ks   0  3 2     3 2             ,   Tiqd = [KsTiKs-1]row, column, 1,2 =                 
       3                                                                         2  1       1 
         1/ 2
              1/ 2  1/ 2                                                         3
                                                                                               
                                                                                                   Mechatronics Lab.
                                                        14
IV. System Modeling

Continuous-time/Discrete-time State Space Equation

  Continuous-time state space equation of the given plant model
                         
                         X(t )  AX (t )  Bu(t )  Ed (t )

                                                          1         
                VLqd                     022               I 22               0 22 
                                                          3C f
     where,   X             ,        A                          
                                                                             ,   B 1 I 
                                           1                                          2 2 
                 Iiqd  41
                                         L I 22        022                   Lf
                                                                                              42
                                                                                              
                                             f                       44
                                                        1      
                   
              u  Viqd
                         21
                               V 
                               iq      ,       E  3C Tiqd 
                                                           f   
                                                                             ,
                                                                                                    i 
                                                                                  d  [I Lqd ]21   Lq 
                               Vid                 
                                                        0 2 2  4 2
                                                                                                   iLd 


  Discrete-time state space equation

                      X(k  1)  A*X(k )  B*u(k )  E*d(k )


                                  z A (T  )
                                                                             E*  0 z e A (Tz  ) Ed
                                                                                   T
               A*  e ATz , B  0 e z Bd ,
                             *                T
     where,
                                                                                                       Mechatronics Lab.
                                                     15
III. Control System Design




                       Fig. 12 Total control system block diagram.
   where, Three controllers
           1. Discrete-time Optimal Voltage Controller
           2. Discrete-time Sliding Mode Current Controller (DSMC)
           3. Discrete-time PI DC-link Voltage Controller
           One observer
           1. Asymptotic Observer for estimation of load currents    Mechatronics Lab.
III. Control System Design
A. Discrete-time Sliding Mode Current Controller


 Block diagram of Current Controller




            Fig. 13 Discrete-time current controller using DSMC.


                                                             Mechatronics Lab.
V. Simulation Results
System Parameters for Simulations




             TABLE II. System Parameters for Simulations
         Fuel Cell Output Voltage                Vin = 150 V
      Desired Average DC-link Voltage            VC2 = 360 V
           Output Rated Power               Pout = 10 kVA (p.f. 0.8)
                                              L1 = L2 = 200 H,
          Impedance Components
                                              C1 = C2 = 1000 F
          Inverter Output Filters          Lf = 800 H, Cf = 400 F
                                            VL, RMS = 208 V (L-L),
            AC Output Voltage
                                                  f = 60 Hz
        Switching/Sampling Period        Tz = 1/(5.4 kHz) = 185.2 sec



                                                                 Mechatronics Lab.
                                    16
V. Simulation Results
A. Gating Signals for Six Power Switches

                 2


            S1
                 1
                 0
                 2   0.0167   0.0168   0.0168    0.0169    0.0169    0.017   0.017   0.017
            S4


                 1
                 0
                 2   0.0167   0.0168   0.0168    0.0169    0.0169    0.017   0.017   0.017
            S3




                 1
                 0
                 2   0.0167   0.0168   0.0168    0.0169    0.0169    0.017   0.017   0.017
            S6




                 1
                 0
                 2   0.0167   0.0168   0.0168    0.0169    0.0169    0.017   0.017   0.017
            S5




                 1
                 0
                     0.0167   0.0168   0.0168    0.0169    0.0169    0.017   0.017   0.017
                 2
            S2




                 1
                 0
                     0.0167   0.0168   0.0168    0.0169     0.0169   0.017   0.017   0.017
                                                 Time [sec]




           Fig. 10 Gating signals for six power switches.
                                                                                             Mechatronics Lab.
                                                20
IV. Simulation Results
B. Open-Loop Control (R – L load)


          V* , VLAB [V] iLA, iLB, iLC [A] VLAB, VLBC, VLCA Vin, VC2 [V]
                                                                          400
                                                                                                                                                        V
                                                                                                                                                          in
                                                                          200                                                                           VC2


                                                                            0
                                                                            0.05   0.055   0.06   0.065   0.07    0.075       0.08   0.085   0.09   0.095      0.1
                                                                          400
                                                                          200
                                                                         0
                                                                      -200
                                                                      -400
                                                                         0.05      0.055   0.06   0.065   0.07    0.075       0.08   0.085   0.09   0.095      0.1
                                                                        50

                                                                            0

                                                                          -50
                                                                            0.05   0.055   0.06   0.065   0.07    0.075       0.08   0.085   0.09   0.095      0.1
                                                                          400
                                                                          200                                                                          V*
                                                                                                                                                         LAB
                                                                            0                                                                          V
                                                                                                                                                        LAB
                                                                      -200
           LAB




                                                                      -400
                                                                         0.05      0.055   0.06   0.065   0.07    0.075       0.08   0.085   0.09   0.095      0.1
                                                                                                                 Time [sec]




      Fig. 11 Simulation waveforms under an open-loop control.
                                                                                                                                                                     Mechatronics Lab.
                                                                                                           21
IV. Simulation Results
C. Closed-Loop Control (PI)


                                                             400
           V* , VLAB [V] iLA, iLB, iLC [A] LAB, VLBC, VLCA V , V [V]
                                                                                                                                              V
                                                                                                                                                in
                                                             200
                                                            in  C2                                                                            VC2


                                                               0
                                                               0.05        0.055   0.06   0.065   0.07     0.075   0.08    0.085   0.09   0.095      0.1
                                                             400
                                                             200
                                                        0
                                                     -200
                                                     -400
                                                        0.05               0.055   0.06   0.065   0.07     0.075   0.08    0.085   0.09   0.095      0.1
                                         V




                                                       50

                                                                       0

                                                             -50
                                                               0.05        0.055   0.06   0.065   0.07     0.075   0.08    0.085   0.09   0.095      0.1
                                                             400
                                                             200                                                                             V*
                                                                                                                                               LAB
                                                               0                                                                             V
                                                                                                                                              LAB
                                                     -200
            LAB




                                                     -400
                                                        0.05               0.055   0.06   0.065   0.07     0.075    0.08   0.085   0.09   0.095      0.1
                                                                                                         Time [sec]




       Fig. 12 Simulation waveforms under a feedback control.
                                                                                                                                                           Mechatronics Lab.
                                                                                                  22
                              Mechatronics Laboratory
     Experimental Results (9)
• Compare the simulation result with the ex
  perimental result
  – Short circuit from no load: Imax=3Inorminal




          Simulation             Experimental
                                          Mechatronics Lab.
 V. Test-Bed for Experiment

                      Power Controller          DSP Controller


Signal conditioner
                                                                        Host PC


     Load




 Transformer
 for DC bus




                Fig. 20 Experimental test-bed with a TI TMS320LF2407.
                                                                 Mechatronics Lab.
                   Government Policies

• Rational Policy can be developed based:
•Hydrogen Economy Distributed Generation
•Transportation
• Total Cost of Electric Energy, production, transmission,
 distribution, and government excessive cost.
• A suggested policy: A rate reduction as function of total demand.
• Benefits: 1. Cleaner Environment
              2. Development of new industries.
              3. Job creation.
                                                                Mechatronics Lab.
                                    89

				
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