CITING AND REFERENCING by mmqkkj

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									  CITING AND
 REFERENCING

TUTORIAL PREPARED BY
   TIM McLERNON
     June 2004
THE IMPORTANCE OF CITING AND
        REFERENCING
• You will derive a significant proportion of your
  knowledge at university from work done by others
  of authority in their subject.
• This will mainly be from written work in the form
  of books and journals.
• You will also use electronic resources in a variety
  of formats and the Learning Resource Centre at
  UU has a considerable, and growing, resource
  database in electronic format.
THE IMPORTANCE OF CITING AND
        REFERENCING
• Your time at university is very much self managed
  by yourself.
• A 20 credit point module carries with it 200
  notional learning hours.
• Contact time with tutors will amount to about 6-60
  hours per module.
• The remaining time should be spent studying. This
  will consist mainly of reading authoritative work.
THE IMPORTANCE OF CITING AND
        REFERENCING
• Much of your coursework will require you
  to submit written work based on what you
  have read or discovered from other
  sources.
• In these written submissions, you will need
  to refer, in the text, to material written or
  produced by others.
• This procedure is referred to as citing
  references.
THE IMPORTANCE OF CITING AND
        REFERENCING

• A list of those references cited in the text
  should be prepared and listed at the end of
  the text in a logical fashion in a
  bibliography.

     •WHY?
  Why is Referencing Necessary ?

• It is to acknowledge the work of other writers; to
  demonstrate the body of knowledge on which you have
  based your work;

• to enable other researchers to trace your sources and lead
  them on to further information.

• To distinguish between your own thoughts, ideas and
  contributions and those of others on which you are
  assembling your dialogue
HOW DO I CITE REFERENCES AND
  PREPARE A BIBLIOGRAPHY?
• The system chosen in the Faculty of Engineering
  for Citing and Referencing is ‘The Harvard
  System’.
• This tutorial will point you to sources of
  information on the Harvard System and how to
  use it.
• It is imperative that you familiarise yourself with
  the Harvard System and use it in all of your
  written work
       CITING IN THE TEXT

• The Harvard system of citation is the most
  straightforward method of acknowledging other
  people's work, because initially all you need to do
  is mention the author and date of publication in
  the text of your work. So, at each point in the text
  which refers to a particular document, insert the
  author's surname and publication year.
• e.g. The work of Preece (1994) was concerned to
  emphasise the importance of quality in social
  research.
   CITING AND REFERENCING
  WITH THE HARVARD SYSTEM
• The reader can easily locate the full description of
  the item you have cited by referring to the
  alphabetical list of references (or bibliography)
  provided at the end of your text.
• The system has the advantages of showing at a
  glance the authority used, who may well be
  recognised, and how recent or contemporary the
  information might be.
   Citing and Referencing with the
           Harvard System
• Try your own UU resource: e.g. VIBEL, the
  Virtual Built Environment Library and click
  on ‘The Harvard System’
• Lots of guidance freely available on-line:
• Using a search engine such as ‘google’
  input ‘Harvard System’; loads of websites;
  there should be one at least which is suited
  to your style of reading and learning
         AND FINALLY……
• GET USED TO EXAMINING THE CITING
  AND REFERENCING SYSTEMS USED
  WHEN YOU ARE READING.
• LOOK AT BIBLIOGRAPHIES, OR
  REFERENCE SECTIONS IN BOOKS AND
  JOURNALS AND HOW THEY ARE
  CONSTRUCTED.
• REMEMBER, ALWAYS QUOTE YOUR
  SOURCES OF REFERENCE IN ALL OF
  YOUR WRITTEN WORK

								
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