References by wxQbknDC

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									Superior
University Lahore




               Referencing
                    Be consistent and precise!




                                                    By: Nadeem Iqbal


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Superior                                  Agenda
University Lahore

► In   today’s session you will learn to:

    What is referencing
    Why we reference our work
    Referencing Methods
    Referencing Formats
               in-text references
               end references


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Superior              What is referencing?
University Lahore


        “Referencing means giving details of the
          original source of information, either
                orally or in written form”

  Referencing must be:
      ►sufficiently detailed to enable the source
         to be accurately and efficiently located
      ►concise    enough not to interrupt the flow
         of your argument

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Superior                        Principles
University Lahore



  Accurate referencing is vital for:
      ►Effective communication with your target
         audience (your notional ‘reader’)
      ►Conveying      your research accurately
      ►Persuasive     argument
      ►Allowing     your reader to follow up leads


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Superior                       Why reference ???
University Lahore

   To avoid plagiarism and reduction of possibility of accusations
    of plagiarism
   To acknowledge direct quotes
   To provide evidence to support arguments
   So that readers can check how much preparation has gone
    into your work and can find extra information
   Context of material referred to affects its significance, validity
    and relevance
   Referencing demonstrates:
        ►   Academic credibility
        ►   Ethical respect for work of others
        ►   Respect for legal aspects of published works (copyright)

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Superior                                Plagiarism
University Lahore
The unauthorized use or close imitation of the language and thoughts of
  another author and the representation of them as one's own original work


► Using  someone else's ideas or phrasing
► and representing those ideas or phrasing
  as our own,
► either on purpose or
► through carelessness,
► is a serious offense known as plagiarism.
                              PLAGIARISM
                http://www.reference.com/search?q=plagiarism

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Superior Some language explained
University Lahore




 ► CITING   - acknowledging in the text
 ► CITATION - the passage or words quoted
   within your text
 ► REFERENCE LIST - list of sources
 ► REFERENCE - detailed description of
   works used
 ► BIBLIOGRAPHY – list of sources used to
   inform your work but not cited in your text

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Superior                          What to refer
University Lahore

  Most citations should contain the following basic
  information:

  ► Author’s        name                    ► Theses

  ► Title    of work                        ► Papers

  ► Publication      information            ► Websites

  ► Books                                   ► Comic    strips
  ► Encyclopedias                           ► Videos

  ► Journals                                ► Editorial   comics

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Superior                         Citation
University Lahore

  Citation is the actual process of recording the
         source of material in a written text

► Quotations    and indirect references should
   always be linked with their sources
► use   either numeric system (numbered
   endnotes or footnotes) or name and date
   system, e.g: (Brown, 1999:245)
► buildall references into your written work in a
   grammatically accurate manner

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Superior               Methods of Referencing
University Lahore



      ► Harvard        Referencing
      ► APA         Referencing
      ► Oxford-Cambridge             Referencing
      ► MLA

      ► AMA




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Superior            Methods of Referencing
University Lahore
        There are a few main types of referencing:
•Harvard system                      APA
                                        •Psychology
   • Social Sciences
                                        •Education
   • Business
                                        •Social Sciences
   • Engineering                     • MLA
•Oxford and Cambridge system            •Literature
   • Law subjects                       •Arts
   • occasionally referred to as        •Humanities
     'footnoting'                    •AMA
•Turabian:                              •Medicine
   • college students to use with       •Health
     all subjects.                      •Biological sciences
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 Superior                    Steps Involved in Referencing
 University Lahore

1. Note down the full bibliographic details including the page number(s) from which the
   information is taken.
    •    In the case of a book, ‘bibliographical details’ refers to: author/editor, year of
         publication, title, edition, volume
    •    Number, place of publication and publisher as found on the front and back of
         the title page. (Not all of these details will necessarily be applicable).
    •    In the case of a journal article, the details required include: author of the
         article, year of publication, title of the article, title of the journal, volume and
         issue number of the journal, and page numbers.
    •    For all electronic information, in addition to the above you should note the
         date that you accessed the information, and database name or web
         address (URL).
2. Insert the citation at the appropriate place within the text of the document.
3. Provide a reference list at the end of the document.



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Superior                   Harvard Referencing
University Lahore

  Harvard referencing is a format for writing and
      organizing citations of source materials.
 ► Also called as
         ► The Author-date system
         ► Parenthetical system


 ► Format
         In-text:
             (Author surname, date of publication)

          End-list:
AUTHOR. (ed.) (Publication year) Title, ed., Place of publication: Publisher.
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Superior                 In-Text References
University Lahore


   These appear in the main body of the text to indicate the
    source of your information

   Use in-text references whenever you mention facts written by
    someone else, or when you include someone else’s ideas

   Write the surname of the author and the date of publication,
    in brackets e.g. (Greaves, 2004)

   Use letters after the date to distinguish between books by the
    same author published in the same year (Greaves, 2004a)


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Superior              In-Text References
University Lahore

    Include a reference at the end of a sentence. (Greaves,
     2004)

    Greaves (2004) says that references can be written in the
     middle of a sentence.

    “For direct quotes, use speech marks and state the page
     number of the source in the reference.” (Greaves, 2004,
     p.72)

    Remember that what you put in the in-text reference must
     direct the reader to the correct reference in the end list.

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Superior                  End List References /
University Lahore             Bibliography

    The end list is a list of sources that you have either quoted
     directly or used arguments from, listed in alphabetical order
     by author (or editor) surname

    Be consistent with formats – capitals & italics should be
     used in the same way throughout

    You should also include a bibliography of items consulted
     but not cited in your work




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Superior                  End list references
University Lahore

Books
    MEGGS, P (ed.) 1998 A history of Graphic Design, 3rd ed.,
    Chichester: John Wiley
                      In-text – (Meggs, 1998)

   1st & 2nd author / editor surnames (include (ed.) if editors) in
    capitals
   Publication year
   Title in italics
   Edition number (where relevant)
   Place of publication
   Publisher
   Also note the punctuation between each piece of information
    about your sources.
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Superior                     Journal articles:
University Lahore



         GERA, T 2002 “Keep your hair on”, New Scientist, 23
         (12), 13 October, p. 28-35
                       In-text – (Gera, 2002)

        Article author in capitals
        Publication year
        Article title in speech marks
        Journal title in italics
        Volume & issue / part number, and publication date
        Page numbers
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Superior                                Web Sites
University Lahore



        Jazz review. Your complete resource for jazz music
        reviews. Online. Available from:
     http://www.jazzreview.com. [Accessed 18 October 2003]
                 In-text – (Jazz review, accessed 2003)

        Title of web site in italics

        Web site address underlined

         The date you accessed the site in square brackets (this is
         important as web pages can change frequently)


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Superior                      Summary In-Text
University Lahore

• Citing one work by one author




• Citing a work with two or three authors




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Superior                     Summary In-Text
University Lahore

• Citing a work with more than three authors




• Groups as authors




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Superior                        Summary In-Text
University Lahore

• Works with an editor




• Newspaper articles




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Superior                     Summary In-Text
University Lahore


• Authors with the same last name




• Citing more than one article or book




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Superior                    Summary In-Text
University Lahore


• Citing two or more works by the same author published
in the same year




• Anonymous works




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Superior                     Summary In-Text
University Lahore


• Unpublished works




• The Internet




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Superior                    Summary End-List
University Lahore


• A book with one or more authors




• Groups as authors




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 Superior                             Summary End-List
 University Lahore


• Anonymous works
Anonymous works are listed in alphabetical order by title. The words ‘anonymous’ or
‘anon’ should not be used.


• Editors, compilers, translators, etc




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Superior                        Summary End-List
University Lahore

• Component part by one author in a collection




• Edition of book

The edition number is cited only if the book is not the first edition.

• Journal articles




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Superior                     Summary End-List
University Lahore

• Newspaper articles




• Conference papers




• Videos & movies




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Superior                      Summary End-List
University Lahore


• CD-ROM




• Internet & websites




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Superior              APA Referencing
University Lahore


     The American Psychological Association
     reference style is one of the Author-Date
    reference styles. When quoting directly or
  indirectly from a source, the source must be
 acknowledged in the text by author name, year
 of publication and location reference. If quoting
    directly, a location reference such as page
     numbers and paragraph numbers is also
                       required.

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Superior            Standards evolve, change.
University Lahore


      ► 1st published standards: February 1929
        issue of Psychological Bulletin.
      ► Next 70 years, successive revisions.
      ► Publication Manual, 1st edition, 1952.
      ► 2nd edition, 1974.
      ► 3rd edition, 1983.
      ► 4th edition, 1994.
      ► 5th edition, 2001.
      ► 6th edition, ?


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Superior                              APA In-Text
University Lahore
►   APA in-text citations for articles require either 2 or 3 pieces
    of information:
►   Citing an Entire Article:
►   Mello, Studdert, and Brennan (2004) found that Medicaid . . .
    [Authors' surnames in sentence, year in parentheses]
►   or
►   ...has led states to try to control Medicaid costs (Mello,
    Studdert, and Brennan, 2004). [Authors' surnames and year
    in parentheses]
►   [If there are 2 authors, always give both surnames; if there
    are 3-5 authors, give all surnames first time but 1st surname
    plus "et al." thereafter; if there are 6 or more authors, always
    give 1st surname plus "et al."]


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Superior                         APA In-Text
University Lahore
► Quoting    from an Article:
► Mello, Studdert, and Brennan accuse the states of
  "unprecedented aggressiveness" (2004, p. 609) . . .
  [use p. or pp. before page/pages]
► or
► . . . charged with "unprecedented aggressiveness"
  (Mello, Studdert, and Brennan, 2004, p. 609).
► Quoting from an Article lacking Page Numbers:
► Articles retrieved from databases sometimes lack
  the original page numbers. APA recommends
  counting paragraphs from the beginning of the
  article. Use "para." before the paragraph number.
► . . . charged with "unprecedented aggressiveness"
  (Mello, Studdert, and Brennan, 2004, para. 11).
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Superior                         APA In-Text
University Lahore


► Quoting      from an Article with no Author:
► If there is no credited author, use a shortened form
  of the article title--the first few words of the
  References list entry--but unlike the References list
  entry, put words from article titles in quotation
  marks and capitalize normally.
► . . . still awaits U.S. approval ("Kyoto Ratification,"
  2004, p. A22).




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Superior                       Basic format:
University Lahore


                      One Author                  Optional




              (Author(s), Date, Page. #)

                    (Smith, 2001, p. 2)




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                         Two Authors                 Optional




              (Author(s), Date, Page. #)

                    (Smith & Jones, 2002, p.3)




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                      Two Authors                 Optional

First reference
               (Author(s), Date, 3 or more
               Basic Format:Page. #)
              (Smith, Jones, & Brown, 2003, p.4)
                                                             Optional

Subsequent references

               (Author et al., Date, Page. #)

                    (Smith et al., 2003, p.6)
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                    Gov’t. or Corp. Author:
First reference
            (Corp [Abr.], Date, Page.#)
   (Canadian Nursing Association [CNA], 2005, p.6)

Subsequent references
                     (Acronym, page.#)

                           (CNA, p.9)
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                      Article from a website:
                           (Author(s), Date)

   No author? Look for one of these:
          Corporation
          Association
          Government Ministry
          Sponsoring Body
   Still no author? Use a short form of the title, then the
    date.
   No date? Use “Access date,” clearly noted as such


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Superior                         More Weird Stuff:
University Lahore


 Info. from an entire website:
         For a brief reference, just use (URL)

 Info from an email:
          As with personal communications:
          (personal communication, Oct. 25, 2005)

 Info from a Govt. Website (ie. Stats Canada):
     – As with a corporate website:
         ►   First reference: (Statistics Canada [Stats.Can.], {date of collection})
         ►   Subsequent references: (Stats.Can., {date of collection}).

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Superior                          APA Referencing
University Lahore




                         Follow these color codes:


 Author(s)    Date       Title of Book       Title of Article   Title of Periodical



  Volume      Pages   Place of Publication     Publisher        Other Information




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 University Lahore



Journal or Magazine Article
(use for journals that start each issue with page one)

    Wilcox, R. V. (1991). Shifting roles and synthetic women in Star trek:
       The next generation. Studies in Popular Culture, 13(2), 53-65.

Journal or Magazine Article
(use for journals where the page numbering continues from issue to issue)

    Dubeck, L. (1990). Science fiction aids science teaching. Physics
      Teacher, 28, 316-318.




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 University Lahore




Newspaper Article
    Di Rado, A. (1995, March 15). Trekking through college: Classes
       explore modern society using the world of Star trek. Los Angeles
       Times, p. A3.

Article from an Internet Database
(for more details, see the American Psychological Association's official site)

    Mershon, D. H. (1998, November-December). Star trek on the brain:
      Alien minds, human minds. American Scientist, 86, 585. Retrieved
      July 29, 1999, from Expanded Academic ASAP database.




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Book
   Okuda, M., & Okuda, D. (1993). Star trek chronology: The
   history
      of the future. New York: Pocket Books.

Book Article or Chapter
   James, N. E. (1988). Two sides of paradise: The Eden myth
   according to Kirk and Spock. In D. Palumbo (Ed.),
   Spectrum of the fantastic
     (pp. 219-223). Westport, CT: Greenwood.

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Encyclopedia Article
   Sturgeon, T. (1995). Science fiction. In The encyclopedia
   Americana pp. 390-392). Danbury, CT: Grolier.

ERIC Document
   Fuss-Reineck, M. (1993). Sibling communication in Star
   trek: The next generation: Conflicts between brothers.
   Miami, FL: Annual Meeting of the Speech Communication
   Association. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.
   ED 364932)

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Website
(for more details, see the American Psychological Association's official site)

    Lynch, T. (1996). DS9 trials and tribble-ations review.
    Retrieved October 8, 1997, from Psi Phi: Bradley's Science
    Fiction Club
    Web site:
    http://www.bradley.edu/campusorg/psiphi/DS9/ep/
    503r.html




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 Superior
 University Lahore      TIPS
•Begin reference list on a new page
•Reference lists should be flush left, with hanging indent and double-
 spaced
•All references cited in the text must be cited in the reference list, and
 all titles cited in the reference list must be cited in the text
•Entries are arranged in alphabetical order of author
•Multiple works by the same author should be listed chronologically
 with the earliest date first
•Alphabetize name prefixes M’, Mc and Mac literally, not as if they
 are spelled Mac


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 Superior
 University Lahore
• If no author, list the title first
• If more than 6 authors, after the 6th author’s name and initial, use et al.
  for Do not use a full stop at the end of a URL
• remaining authors

· Capitalize proper nouns and only the first word of the title and
  subtitle for books and reports
· Italicize the titles of books, newspapers, reports, journals and the
  volume number of journals
· Use n.d. (no date) when a publication date is not available
· Only give issue number of a journal if every issue begins at page 1
· If a URL goes over a line break it after a slash or before a full stop
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Superior
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              What information? (books)
    ► Author(s)    (use “&” to join authors)
    ► Date of publication
    ► Title (first letter of title capitalized)
         – Of article/essay
         – Of book
    ► Place of publication
    ► Publisher
    ► Pages your article/essay is found on


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      ► Author(s) (use “&” to join names)
      ► Date of publication
      ► Title
          – Of article/essay
          – Of journal
      ► Pages       your article/essay is found on



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