Customer Order Process in SAP R/3 - Download Now DOC by cmQxCRsW

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									                Module 5: Material Master Records

Material Types
The material type in the SAP system is used to categorize materials. It controls a number of
things including:

      How the material is procured (purchased vs. manufactured in-house)
      How the material is valued (as market prices change, the value of inventory also changes)
      Screen sequence in transaction
      Assignment of material numbers

SAP comes with many material types already predefined. We will be using three of these
predefined materials in configuring the Fitter Snacker Company. These are:

       ROH – Raw Materials: These materials are purchased and used to manufacture other
       materials. Because we don’t sell these materials directly, the ROH material type does not
       allow users to enter data in the sales view screen.

       HALB – Semi-finished Products: These materials are work-in-process. They are neither
       purchased nor sold, but are created from purchased materials and then eventually used in
       finished goods.

       FERT – Finished Products: These materials are produced internally from purchased raw
       materials. Thus, purchasing views are not displayed for these materials.

Note that the terms ROH, HALB and FERT are abbreviated versions of the German terms for the
particular material types. SAP is a German company, and the native German frequently is
evident.

The SAP system has a number of material types pre-defined. It is important that the material
type definitions not be changed unless the user is positive that the change is correct and ALL
users are in agreement. Instead of changing the definition of a material type, a user can create a
new material type from a copy of an existing material type and then change the definition in the
new material type.

In the next exercise, we will look at some of the information stored in the material type
definition, but we will not make any changes!




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               Module 5: Material Master Records
To view the material types, follow the menu path:


       Logistics – General Material Master Basic Settings Material Types
       Define Attributes of Material Types (click clock icon )

Which should give you the following screen:




Click on the display/change icon
to change to display mode:
Display View “Material
types’: Overview
Select FERT
Click on the Details icon




Note that SAP comes with a large number of material types already defined. Click on the
display/change icon ( ) to change to display mode. The screen title should change to Display
View “Material types’: Overview. Select material type FERT, then click on the Details icon
( ). This will produce the following screen:




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                Module 5: Material Master Records




                                                                                          These items
            This entry                                                                    determine which
            determines                                                                    views are available
            how                                                                           when a new
            material is                                                                   material of this
            valued                                                                        type is created




This screen defines the characteristics of this material type. Click on the exit icon (   ) to return
to the IMG.

5.1 Initialize Fiscal Year
In the next step, we will initialize the fiscal period. This step is required to allow material
transactions.

Follow the menu path:


       Logistics – General Material Master Basic Settings
       Maintain Company Codes for Materials Management (click clock icon                    )

Which will produce the following screen:




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                                                      Find your company code, then enter the
                                                      current year, current period (month) and
                                                      check ABp (Allow backposting)
                                                      Then click on save




Find your company code, then enter the current year, current month and check the ABp (Allow
backposting) entry. Click on the save icon ( ), then on the back icon ( ) to save your data.

5.2 Create Material Masters
With the material types defined and the fiscal period set, we can now create the material master
data for Fitter Snacker. There is a lot of information that can be entered for Materials from a
number of sources. One of the advantages of an ERP system like SAP is that materials are
defined once for all functional areas. The disadvantage of this is that a lot of information must
be entered in a number of functional areas before the material can be used.

Raw Materials

Material Master is Master Data, which means it is not entered in the IMG but through the SAP
Easy Access. To enter our raw materials, follow the menu path:

       Logistics Materials Management Material Master Material Create (special)
       Raw Material

Which will produce the following screen:




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               Module 5: Material Master Records




                                                                   Select Industry sector Retail
                                                                   Then click on Select view(s)




Select industry sector Retail from pull-down list, then click on               , which will produce
the following window:




                                               Select views:
                                                   Basic Data 1
                                                   Purchasing
                                                   General Plant Data/Storage 1
                                                   Accounting 1
                                                   Costing 1

                                               You will have to scroll to select all
                                               views

                                               Check Create views selected

                                               Click on Default values to save this
                                               view selection
                                               Then click on the enter icon




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                Module 5: Material Master Records
Select the following views:

    Basic Data 1
    Purchasing
    General Plant Data/Storage 1
    Accounting 1
    Costing 1

You will have to scroll to select all of these views. You can create other views for materials at a
later date as the need arises. We will create MRP views for this material in a later exercise so
that we can use it in production scheduling.

Check Create views selected, which tells the SAP system that you wish to create data for your
material in all of these views, click on the save default values icon (               ) so that
you don’t have to pick these views each time, then click on the enter icon ( ). This will
produce the following screen:




                                                       Enter your plant (##PT),
                                                       Leave Stor. location blank
                                                       Click on save default values,
                                                       then click on the enter icon




Enter ##PT for plant, and leave the storage location blank so that the material will be defined
automatically for all storage locations at this plant. Click on the save default values icon
(                    ) so that you don’t have to enter the plant each time, then click on the enter
icon ( ) to get to the Create Material screen. Note that SAP has created a material number for
you:




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                Module 5: Material Master Records


                              Note:
                              SAP-assigned material number. You will
                              have a different material number assigned




                                         Enter:
                                            ## Oats for material description
                                            LB for Base unit of measure
                                            MANU for material group




Enter the following information:

   ## Oats for material description
   LB for Base unit of measure
   MANU for material group

Note that you can click on the Base unit of measure field, then click on the list icon ( ) to get a
list of units of measure that have been defined in the SAP system:




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                Module 5: Material Master Records




The material group MANU is a client-independent group that was created for Fitter Snacker.
Material Groups are like Purchasing Groups—they can be used to limit the scope of analyses or
searches. The group MANU was created for raw and semi-finished materials (ROH and HALB)
while the group SALES was created for finished products (FERT).

There are a number of views in the material master, most of which we won’t be using. To find
the views that we are using that require data entry, click on the arrows to the right of the view
tabs, and look for tabs with a special icon (   ). The next one to be filled in after Basic data 1
is Purchasing:



                                                                     Click on the arrows until you
                                                                     get to the Purchasing tab




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               Module 5: Material Master Records

Click on the purchasing tab to get the following screen:




                                                   Enter purchasing group
                                                   ##B for Bulk Grains


Enter purchasing group ##B for Bulk Grains , then scroll to the Accounting 1 view. While the
Plant Data/Storage 1 view needs to be created, we do not need to make any entries on this view.
On the Accounting 1 view, we need to add Valuation class 3000 and moving price 0.20:




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               Module 5: Material Master Records




                                               Enter Valuation class 3000 and
                                               Moving Price 0.20




On the Costing 1 view, make sure that With qty structure and Material origin are checked:




                                                                      Make sure both
                                                                      are checked




Click on the save icon (   ), and you should get the message that the material has been created:



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                Module 5: Material Master Records




You will need to repeat this process for the rest of the raw materials Fitter Snacker uses. These
materials are summarized in the table below:

             Basic Data 1                    Purchasing     Accounting 1                    Costing 1
                  Base unit      Material    Purchasing Valuation Moving              With qty Material
Description      of measure       group        group      class      price            structure    origin
## Wheat Germ        LB          MANU           ##B       3000        0.30            Checked Checked
## Cinnamon          LB          MANU           ##S       3000        3.00            Checked Checked
## Nutmeg            LB          MANU           ##S       3000        4.50            Checked Checked
## Cloves            LB          MANU           ##S       3000        5.50            Checked Checked
## Honey            GAL          MANU           ##S       3000        6.40            Checked Checked
## Canola           GAL          MANU           ##S       3000        1.70            Checked Checked
## Vit/Min           LB          MANU           ##S       3000       18.45            Checked Checked
   Powder
## Carob Chips       LB           MANU           ##S          3000            2.10    Checked       Checked
## Raisins           LB           MANU           ##S          3000            3.20    Checked       Checked
## Protein           LB           MANU           ##S          3000            4.40    Checked       Checked
   Powder
## Hazelnuts         LB           MANU           ##S          3000            1.64    Checked       Checked
## Dates             LB           MANU           ##S          3000            3.55    Checked       Checked


5.3 Create Finished Products
To create our finished products, we use essentially the same process, but with a different set of
views. Use the back icon ( ) to return to SAP Easy Access, then follow the menu path:

       Logistics Materials Management Material Master Material Create (special)
       Finished Product

Again, you will use industry sector Retail, but select the following views:
    Basic Data 1
    General Plant Data/Storage 1
    Accounting 1
    Costing 1

Note that we don’t specify the purchasing view, because these are manufactured products, not
purchased materials. Also, we will be specifying these materials for plant ##PT.

On the Basic Data 1 Tab, enter the following information:


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          Module 5: Material Master Records




                                              Enter:
                                              ## NRG-A
                                              SALES
                                              CS
                                              79
                                              LB
                                              72




Description:            ## NRG-A
Base unit of measure:   CS (case)
Material group:         SALES
Gross Weight:           79 LB
Net Weight:             72




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               Module 5: Material Master Records
For the finished products, we will need to specify more than one unit of measure. In the case of
Fitter Snacker, we have boxes, cases and pallets as illustrated in the following figure:




                                                                 1 Pallet = 15 Cases




As we will only manage snack bars at the case level, we will define cases as our base unit of
measure. To enter the alternate units of measure, click on the additional data icon
(                       ), which is available from any view when creating the material master:




                             Click on the additional data icon

Clicking on the additional data icon will produce the following screen, from which you can enter
the relationships between Cases (CS) and Pallets (PAL):




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                Module 5: Material Master Records




                                                       Click on Units of measure tab,
                                                       then define alternate unit of
                                                       measure PAL in terms of CS



 Enter the alternate units of measure data as shown above, then click on the main data icon
 (               ). Enter the remaining data for the NRG-A Bars:

 Accounting 1
     Val. class: 7920
     Std. Price: 201.60

 Costing 1
     With qty structure:    Checked
     Material origin:       Checked

 Click on the save icon (   ) to save the material.



 Repeat the process for the ## NRG-B bars, using the following data:

                    Basic Data 1                 Accounting 1     Costing 1
             Base
            unit of Material Gross Weight  Net   Val.   Std.  With qty Material
Description measure group weight    Unit  weight class price structure origin
## NRG-B      CS     SALES       79 LB     72    7920 244.80 Checked Checked

 Make sure to enter the alternate units of measure:

        1 PAL = 15 CS


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               Module 5: Material Master Records

5.4 Create Purchasing Info Records
Now that we have defined our vendors and defined our materials, we can relate our raw materials
to our vendors. To do that, we create what is called a Purchasing Info Record. The purchasing
info record provides continuously updated information about the relationship between a specific
material and a specific vendor. This data includes order unit, price, price changes, tolerances,
reminder infos, historic data, statistics, texts, etc. This data can be updated manually or
automatically.

To create the purchasing info record, follow the menu path:

       Logistics Materials Management Purchasing Master data Info record
       Create

Which will produce the following screen:




 Enter ##PR for                                                       Use the search function
 purchasing organization                                              to find Vendors and
 and select Standard for                                              Materials
 Info category




As every student has created five vendors, there are a lot of vendors floating around in the SAP
system. Furthermore, the SAP system identifies the vendors by their vendor number, which is
usually not easy to remember. To make finding our vendors easier, we can use the search
function. Click on the vendor field, then click on the search icon ( ) to call the following search
screen:




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               Module 5: Material Master Records



                                                          Enter search
                                                          term ##, then
                                                          click on the
                                                          check mark




If you remembered to enter ## for the search term when you defined your vendors, you should
get a list of them after entering the search term and clicking on the enter icon ( ):




                                                   Double-click on Climax Cereals


Double click on the vendor Climax Cereals to select this vendor. We can use a similar process
to find our material, but unfortunately the SAP programmers did not see the wisdom in providing
search terms for materials. We can deal with that problem, however. If you used the proper
naming convention, your materials should all begin with ##. Click on the Material field, then
click on the search icon ( ) to call the following search screen:


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               Module 5: Material Master Records




                                                      Enter ##*, then
                                                      click on the enter
                                                      icon to search




As your material description should begin with ##, we can tell SAP to search for any material
beginning with ## by entering it followed by an asterisk (*), which tells SAP to search for any
material that begins with ## followed by anything else. Enter ##* in the Material description,
then click on the enter icon ( ). This should produce the following screen list of materials:




                                                               Double-click on
                                                               ## Oats to select it




Select ## Oats from the search list to select it. Enter Purchasing org. ##PR and select Standard
under Info category, then click on the enter icon ( ) to get to the following screen:


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               Module 5: Material Master Records




                                    Click on Purch. Org. Data 1




Click on Purch. org. data 1 to get the following screen:




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               Module 5: Material Master Records




                                                                 Enter
                                                                    Plnd dely time: 10
                                                                    Purch. group: ##B
                                                                    Standard qty.: 44000
                                                                    Net price: 0.20




Enter the following information:

   Plnd dely time: 10
   Purch. group: ##B
   Standard qty.: 44000
   Net price: 0.20

then click on the save icon ( ) to save the info record. Repeat this process to define the
relationships between the vendors and materials as given in the following table. Note that you
will create a total of 28 info records:




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                Module 5: Material Master Records


                                                     Vendors
                                                ## Climax Cereals
                                             ## Grand Rapids Grains
                                                 ## Oshtemo Oats
Material            Planned dely time       Purch. group     Standard qty    Net price
## Oats                     10                    ##B            44,000        0.20
## Wheat Germ                5                    ##B             2000         0.30


                                                      Vendors
                                          ## Battle Creek Baking Supplies
Material                                   ## Farmington Food Products
## Canola                     3                    ##S              500        1.70
## Carob Chips                3                    ##S             1000        2.10
## Cinnamon                   3                    ##S              100        3.00
## Cloves                     3                    ##S              100        5.50
## Dates                      3                    ##S              100        3.55
## Hazelnuts                  3                    ##S              100        1.64
## Honey                      3                    ##S              500        6.40
## Nutmeg                     3                    ##S              100        4.50
## Protein                    3                    ##S             2000        4.40
   Powder
## Raisins                    3                      ##S           1000        3.20
## Vit/Min                    3                      ##S            100       18.45
   Powder




Master Data Report for Module 5
To display purchasing info records sorted by vendor, follow the menu path:

       Logistics Materials Management Purchasing Master data Info record List
       Displays By Vendor

This will call up the following screen:




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                Module 5: Material Master Records

                                               Use the search function to
                                               find your vendor, then click
                                               on the execute icon to
                                               create the report




Use the search function to find a vendor and enter it in the first vendor field. Click on the
execute icon ( ) to create the report:




Print a report for each vendor. Staple the reports together, put your
name on them, then hand the reports in.



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