To be effective by CF2084S


									Lesson 8-Knowledge

 Benefits of knowledge management.

 Characteristics of an effective knowledge base.

 Reactive knowledge management.

 Proactive knowledge management.

 Components of knowledge-based solutions.

 Knowledge management processes.

 Knowledge base search methods.

 Knowledge management metrics.

 Barriers to effective knowledge management.
           Benefits of Knowledge

 Knowledge management is the process of gathering,

  structuring, refining, and delivering knowledge that is of


 In a help desk setting, knowledge is stored in a database

  known as a knowledge base.
          Benefits of Knowledge

 Analysts' use the knowledge base to look for answers.

 Users access the knowledge base to try and solve problems

  without contacting the help desk.
          Benefits of Knowledge

 Decreased call volume - Individuals prefer using self-

  service knowledge base to calls due to speed and efficiency.

 Shared expertise - Captured information and expertise are

  made available to individuals.
          Benefits of Knowledge

 Reduced training time - Agents are able to search for

  solutions in the knowledge base.

 Reusable solutions - Analyzed and solved problems are

  available to all who need access to the information.
             Benefits of Knowledge

 Enriched job content - Analyst can spend time on

  researching new problems instead of responding to similar


 Personal empowerment - Analysts are recognized by their

  abilities to diagnose and resolve problems.

 Continuous improvement - Continuous feedback from

  agents and users improves the knowledge management

           Characteristics of an Effective
           Knowledge Base

Easy to use and simple to maintain:

    Knowledge base must be intuitive, possess a simple interface,

     and be developed with commonly accepted Web tools.

    A key to ease of use is to have strong search capabilities.

    Knowledge base site must be easy to administer as content

     changes frequently.

    Maintenance and administrative tasks must be kept to a

     minimum to avoid high expenses.
           Characteristics of an Effective
           Knowledge Base

Relevant and accessible:

    Relevancy is established through the context in which a

     problem occurs.

    Solutions in the knowledge base must be categorized and


    Access to knowledge base via the Web gives users and remote

     staff the ability to benefit from available knowledge.
          Reactive Knowledge

 In reactive knowledge management, capturing new

  knowledge is part of the problem management practice.

 It is also referred to as solution-centered support or

  knowledge-centered support.

 The key benefit of reactive knowledge management is the

  lower cost of ownership.
           Reactive Knowledge

 The disadvantages relate to quality.

 It is possible that the solution provided will not actually fix

  the problem.

 It is common to have redundancy and multiple answers to

  the same question.
          Proactive Knowledge

 Proactive knowledge management is the method of building

  knowledge before it is needed.

 A proactive knowledge base can reduce the high volume of

  calls encountered during a new product rollout.

 Design, development, and delivery are the three major

  phases of this methodology.
          Proactive Knowledge

 In the design phase, the requirements for the knowledge

  base are determined.

 In the development phase, answers to problems are

  discovered and drafted and technical accuracy is tested.

 The delivery phase can then be coordinated with the

  release of a new product or service.
Components of Knowledge Based

    Tacit and explicit knowledge
          Components of Knowledge Based

 In a support organization, the transferable unit of

  knowledge is the solution.

 Solutions contain the situational context, relevant

  information, problem-solving analysis, and the resolution of

  a situation.
          Components of Knowledge Based

 Solution is the content developed and shared between the

  customer and the organization.

 It describes all the facets of the problem situation and how

  it can be resolved.
             Components of Knowledge Based


    The situation of the user defines the context of the solution.

    They contain sufficient context to communicate when the

     solution should be used.

    They also contain context to indicate the scope of the solution

     to those who might need it.

    Situation can be described as configuration/operating

     environment, symptoms/things tried, goal, and user context.
            Components of Knowledge Based


    Analysis is the essence of the analyst’s diagnostic process.

    It is the most subtle and subjective element.

    It refers to an individual’s reasoning and troubleshooting

           Components of Knowledge Based


    Information is the data required for proper interpretation of

     how to implement a solution.

    It is needed to understand why and how the solution

          Components of Knowledge Based

Information (continued):

    The key provider of information is the support organization.

    Information may include reference material, language and

     concepts, supporting solutions and issues, support-specific

     actions and determinations.
           Components of Knowledge Based


    Resolution is the objective of the solution.

    It is the specific answer and response to the user problem.

    It provides one or more methods for addressing the problem.

    Resolution may include fix, workaround, answer, and support

     usage information.
           Knowledge Management


    Capturing involves identifying and collecting information that

     will be included in the knowledge base.

    Initial entries in the knowledge base are derived from existing

     help desk requests.
           Knowledge Management

Capture (continued):

    By studying existing call records and logs, it is possible to

     discover the most frequently reported problems.

    Information is also obtained by interviewing help desk staff,

     manuals and cases stored in problem management systems.
             Knowledge Management


    Structuring is the process of indexing, categorizing, and

     classifying information which establishes relationships between

     pieces of information.

    The solutions in a support knowledge base are usually

     classified into different levels for easy retrieval.
          Knowledge Management

Structure (continued):

    A well-defined structure ensures that solutions are easy to find

     and easy to implement.

    The structuring process is time- and labor-intensive.
           Knowledge Management


    Content is first reviewed for technical accuracy, usually by a

     subject matter expert.

    Subject-matter expert is an individual who exhibits the

     expertise in performing a specialized job, task, or skill within

     the organization.
           Knowledge Management

Review (continued):

    Validation is the process of testing the solution to determine if

     it resolves the problem.

    After validation, it is reviewed for grammar, spelling, writing

     style, and presentation format standards.
          Knowledge Management

Release and maintain:

    Release involves publishing a copy of the knowledge and

     moving it to the Web support site.

    To be effective, data in a knowledge base must be kept

          Knowledge Management

Release and maintain (continued):

    Regular and timely maintenance of the knowledge base is

     critical to success.

    Existing content also must be reviewed on a regular basis to

     determine whether it is still accurate and relevant.
          Knowledge Base Search

Keyword search engine:

    In keyword search engine, users enter several keywords and

     click on Search button.

    The system returns a list of answers or pages that contain one

     or more of the words provided.
          Knowledge Base Search

Keyword search engine (continued):

    Drawbacks are that they result in large number of documents

     which themselves can be misleading.

    Search engines assume that a user can specify appropriate

          Knowledge Base Search

Natural-language processing:

    Natural-language processing systems evaluate words based on

     their positioning in relation to each other.

    An exact match of a phrase has a higher relevancy.

    Natural-language processing is the easiest search method.
           Knowledge Base Search

Expert systems:

    Expert system is a program that simulates the interaction a

     user might have with human expert to solve a problem.

    The program asks questions until it has reached a conclusion.

    A rule-based expert system uses a set of rules as its

     knowledge base.

    Rule consists of a set of conditions and a set of actions to take

     if the conditions are true.
           Knowledge Base Search

Expert systems (continued):

    Decision tree is a rule-based expert system.

    Decision tree consists of a series of questions that guide users

     to relevant solutions based on their responses.

    This tree-structured logic can easily be converted to a

     computerized system.

    This computerized system is easier to use, faster, and

          Knowledge Base Search

Case-based reasoning (CBR):

    CBR systems use past cases to solve new problems.

    The approach of CBR is to find similar cases from the


    The elements in a CBR system are the case database and an

     electronic index.

    Cases consist of information about the problem, diagnosis, and

Knowledge Base Search

      Case-based reasoning
        Knowledge Management

Development of new metrics and re-evaluation of existing


     New measures of performance are required when analyzing

      the value of the knowledge management system.

     Some new measures include total number of solutions

      available, number and percent of cases resolved.

     Average case duration, first call resolution rate, and call

      volume are existing metrics that must be re-evaluated.
          Barriers to Effective Knowledge

 Fear of job loss.

 Fear of losing value to the organization.

 Fear of change.

 New opportunities.

 Knowledge management provides access to solutions for


 An effective knowledge base is easy to use, simple to

  maintain, relevant and accessible.

 Knowledge management can be proactive or reactive.

 Solutions stored in support knowledge base consist of

  explicit knowledge and tacit knowledge.

 The four steps of the knowledge management process are

  capture, structure, review, and release/maintain.

 Keyword search engine, natural-language processing,

  expert systems, and case-based reasoning are knowledge

  base search methods.

 Implementing knowledge management requires new

  metrics and re-evaluation of existing metrics.

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