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Chapter 2 by A4A11h


									 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World                                        2-1

Chapter 2 – Approaches to System Development
Review Questions
1.      What are the five phases of the SDLC?
        The five phases of the SDLC are the planning phase, analysis phase, design phase,
        implementation phase, and support phase.

2.      What characteristics of a project call for a predictive approach to the SDLC? What
        characteristics of a project call for an adaptive approach to the SDLC?

        Predictive: Projects are well understood—technology is well known; user requirements
        are well known; development methodology is well known; project team is experienced
        and familiar with the system; and there are few known risks. Adaptive: Projects are not
        well understood—technology is new or unfamiliar; requirements are not very clear; team
        is not experienced with the type of system or methodology.

3.      How is the SDLC based on the problem-solving approach described in Chapter 1?

        The five phases are similar to the steps in the general problem-solving approach outlined
        in Chapter 1. First, the organization recognizes it has a problem to solve (project
        planning). Next, the project team investigates and thoroughly understands the problem
        and the requirements for a solution (analysis). Once the problem is understood, a solution
        is specified in detail (design). The system that solves the problem is then built and
        installed (implementation). As long as the system is being used by the organization, it is
        maintained and enhanced to make sure it continues to provide the intended benefits

4.      What is the objective of each phase of the SDLC? Describe each objective briefly.

        See Figure 2-3 page 40.

        The planning phase involves identifying the scope of the new system to ensure a solution
        is feasible, develop a schedule, and obtain approval for funding. The analysis phase
        involves understanding and documenting the business needs and processing
        requirements. The design phase involves designing a solution system, both at an
        architectural level and a detailed level. The implementation phase involves building,
        testing, and installing a working system. The support phase involves supporting and
        maintaining the system over its lifetime.
 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World                                         2-2

5.      How is iteration used across phases?

        Iteration means you do some analysis, some design, and some implementation, and then
        go back and do more analysis, more design, and more implementation. You have to do
        some design and some implementation before you can go back and complete the analysis.
        This is different than overlapping the phases.

6.      What is the difference between a model and a tool?

        A model is a representation of some important aspect of the real world. A tool provides
        software support that helps create models or other components required in the project.

7.      What is the difference between a technique and a methodology?

        A methodology provides comprehensive guidelines to follow for completing every
        activity in the systems development life cycle, including specific models, tools, and
        techniques. A technique is a collection of guidelines that help the analyst complete a
        system development activity or task.

8.      Which of the two approaches to system development was the earlier?

        The structured approach was the earlier approach, beginning with structured
        programming in the 1960s, structured design in the 1970s, and structured analysis in the
        late 1970s and early 1980s.

9.      Which of the two approaches to system development is the most recent?

        The object-oriented approach to information systems is the most recent approach,
        although object-oriented programming languages go back to the 1960s and 1970s.

10.     Which of the traditional approaches focuses on overall strategic systems planning?

        Information engineering begins with a strategic systems planning activity to define the
        systems that need to be developed.

11.     Which of the traditional approaches is a more complete methodology?

        Information engineering includes guidelines for all phases, including planning, analysis,
        design, and implementation.

12.     What are the three "constructs" used in structured programming?

        The three “constructs” used in structured programming are sequence of instructions,
        selection or decision of one direction or the other, and iteration or repetition of
 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World                                         2-3

13.     What graphical model is used with the structured design technique?

        The structure chart that shows modules organized hierarchically with “calls” from
        modules at the top to modules below.

14.     What graphical model is used with the modern structured analysis technique?

        The data flow diagram (DFD).

15.     What model is the central focus of the information engineering approach?

        The data model, specifically the entity relationship diagram (ERD). Note that the ERD is
        also used in the structured analysis technique along with the DFD.

16.     Explain what is meant by a "waterfall" life cycle model.

        When a phase in the life cycle is completed, the results fall down to the next phase, and
        there is no going back.

17.     What concept suggests repeating activities over and over until you achieve your

        Iteration or iterative development.

18.     What concept suggests completing part of the system and putting it into operation
        before continuing with the rest of the system?

        Incremental development.

19.     What are some features of the Unified Process (UP)?

        UP is an object-oriented system development methodology proposed by Booch,
        Rumbaugh, and Jacobson of Rational Software (who originated UML). In the UP, the
        term development process is synonymous with development methodology. It has four life
        cycle phases, assumes the use of UML models, and is based on accepted best practices of
        system development.

20.     What are some features of Extreme Programming (XP)?

        XP is a lightweight methodology (simple and focused on helping the developer) that
        involves iterations, multiple releases, user stories to define requirements, and
        programmer teams working together only on code.

21.     What are some of the features of SCRUM?
 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World                                   2-4

        SCRUM is based on rugby's football idea of a very intense, focused, and energetic
        activity to capture the ball and move it forward. In software development a SCRUM
        team is a self-organizing group that responds to a highly changing envrionment with
        intense focus and work.

22.     What are visual modeling tools? Why are they used?

Visual Modeling tools refers to software tools that support the work of the system developer
creating models and other system documents and components. Visual Modeling tools are used
because system developers, like any other professionals, can benefit from computer support of
their work. Because system developers create models, much of the Visual Modeling tools
support is for creating models and storing system information in a repository.

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