Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World 2-1
Chapter 2 – Approaches to System Development
1. What are the five phases of the SDLC?
The five phases of the SDLC are the planning phase, analysis phase, design phase,
implementation phase, and support phase.
2. What characteristics of a project call for a predictive approach to the SDLC? What
characteristics of a project call for an adaptive approach to the SDLC?
Predictive: Projects are well understood—technology is well known; user requirements
are well known; development methodology is well known; project team is experienced
and familiar with the system; and there are few known risks. Adaptive: Projects are not
well understood—technology is new or unfamiliar; requirements are not very clear; team
is not experienced with the type of system or methodology.
3. How is the SDLC based on the problem-solving approach described in Chapter 1?
The five phases are similar to the steps in the general problem-solving approach outlined
in Chapter 1. First, the organization recognizes it has a problem to solve (project
planning). Next, the project team investigates and thoroughly understands the problem
and the requirements for a solution (analysis). Once the problem is understood, a solution
is specified in detail (design). The system that solves the problem is then built and
installed (implementation). As long as the system is being used by the organization, it is
maintained and enhanced to make sure it continues to provide the intended benefits
4. What is the objective of each phase of the SDLC? Describe each objective briefly.
See Figure 2-3 page 40.
The planning phase involves identifying the scope of the new system to ensure a solution
is feasible, develop a schedule, and obtain approval for funding. The analysis phase
involves understanding and documenting the business needs and processing
requirements. The design phase involves designing a solution system, both at an
architectural level and a detailed level. The implementation phase involves building,
testing, and installing a working system. The support phase involves supporting and
maintaining the system over its lifetime.
Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World 2-2
5. How is iteration used across phases?
Iteration means you do some analysis, some design, and some implementation, and then
go back and do more analysis, more design, and more implementation. You have to do
some design and some implementation before you can go back and complete the analysis.
This is different than overlapping the phases.
6. What is the difference between a model and a tool?
A model is a representation of some important aspect of the real world. A tool provides
software support that helps create models or other components required in the project.
7. What is the difference between a technique and a methodology?
A methodology provides comprehensive guidelines to follow for completing every
activity in the systems development life cycle, including specific models, tools, and
techniques. A technique is a collection of guidelines that help the analyst complete a
system development activity or task.
8. Which of the two approaches to system development was the earlier?
The structured approach was the earlier approach, beginning with structured
programming in the 1960s, structured design in the 1970s, and structured analysis in the
late 1970s and early 1980s.
9. Which of the two approaches to system development is the most recent?
The object-oriented approach to information systems is the most recent approach,
although object-oriented programming languages go back to the 1960s and 1970s.
10. Which of the traditional approaches focuses on overall strategic systems planning?
Information engineering begins with a strategic systems planning activity to define the
systems that need to be developed.
11. Which of the traditional approaches is a more complete methodology?
Information engineering includes guidelines for all phases, including planning, analysis,
design, and implementation.
12. What are the three "constructs" used in structured programming?
The three “constructs” used in structured programming are sequence of instructions,
selection or decision of one direction or the other, and iteration or repetition of
Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World 2-3
13. What graphical model is used with the structured design technique?
The structure chart that shows modules organized hierarchically with “calls” from
modules at the top to modules below.
14. What graphical model is used with the modern structured analysis technique?
The data flow diagram (DFD).
15. What model is the central focus of the information engineering approach?
The data model, specifically the entity relationship diagram (ERD). Note that the ERD is
also used in the structured analysis technique along with the DFD.
16. Explain what is meant by a "waterfall" life cycle model.
When a phase in the life cycle is completed, the results fall down to the next phase, and
there is no going back.
17. What concept suggests repeating activities over and over until you achieve your
Iteration or iterative development.
18. What concept suggests completing part of the system and putting it into operation
before continuing with the rest of the system?
19. What are some features of the Unified Process (UP)?
UP is an object-oriented system development methodology proposed by Booch,
Rumbaugh, and Jacobson of Rational Software (who originated UML). In the UP, the
term development process is synonymous with development methodology. It has four life
cycle phases, assumes the use of UML models, and is based on accepted best practices of
20. What are some features of Extreme Programming (XP)?
XP is a lightweight methodology (simple and focused on helping the developer) that
involves iterations, multiple releases, user stories to define requirements, and
programmer teams working together only on code.
21. What are some of the features of SCRUM?
Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World 2-4
SCRUM is based on rugby's football idea of a very intense, focused, and energetic
activity to capture the ball and move it forward. In software development a SCRUM
team is a self-organizing group that responds to a highly changing envrionment with
intense focus and work.
22. What are visual modeling tools? Why are they used?
Visual Modeling tools refers to software tools that support the work of the system developer
creating models and other system documents and components. Visual Modeling tools are used
because system developers, like any other professionals, can benefit from computer support of
their work. Because system developers create models, much of the Visual Modeling tools
support is for creating models and storing system information in a repository.