Research In Technology
Philip A. Reed
James E. LaPorte
• Insufficient number of researchers.
• Extrapolate & generalize from other
• Awareness aids priorities/agenda.
• Communication technologies offer global
• Scholars of varying experience.
The Status of Research in
Philip A. Reed & James E. LaPorte
• Over 40 years of research reviews.
• Increasing support, publications, and
• Reliance on graduate research.
• Still no focused agenda for the profession.
Number of Studies
Graduate Research by Year
Including Research Skills in the
Preparation of Technology Educators
John M. Ritz
• Technical and professional research for
• Action research for all practitioners.
• Mentoring and agenda development for
Dissertations topics in technology education in the U.S. (Santos, 2005)
Topic Number Percentage
Attitudes 7 12%
Instruction (how ) 17 29%
Curriculum (what) 5 8%
Continuing Education 2 3%
Professional 8 14%
Foreign Country Topic 11 19%
Work Force Education 9 15%
TOTAL 59 100%
Institutions with dissertations for technology education (Santos, 2005).
Idaho State University 12
Southern Illinois University 12
North Carolina State University 10
Virginia Tech 8
Ohio State University 7
Utah State University 4
Clemson University 2
Old Dominion University 2
Purdue University 1
University of South Florida 1
Curriculum Research in
Jim Haynie & Jeremy Ernst
• Curriculum research in the 1960s and
1970s conducted by doctoral students.
• Ongoing research on content, creativity,
design, and problem solving.
• Contemporary research on integration and
• Research training and priorities for all
technology education practitioners.
• Connections to other disciplines and
general instructional strategies.
• Research needs: learning theory, teaching
practice, and learning models.
Instructional practices associated with higher levels of student
achievement (McREL, 2000)
Identifying similarities & differences
Summarizing & note taking
Reinforcing effort & providing recognition
Homework & practice
Setting goals & providing feedback
Generating & testing hypotheses
Activating prior knowledge
Professional and Student
• Research by professional organizations
– Content and curriculum
– Conference proceedings and online
• Overall lack of research on student
Innovation and Change
• Age of accountability requires research
linking facilities, programs, resources, and
• Research on diffusion of innovation is
• Research on…
– Sampling: The appropriate unit of analysis for
addressing an issue.
– Framing: Establishing what is meant by
design and engineering.
• Appropriate unit of analysis must be
interaction with the designed world.
Stages of Expertise
(Adapted from Dreyfus & Dreyfus, 1986)
Novice Advanced Competent Proficient Expert
Aim Accuracy Accuracy and Fluency and Fluency and Characterization
and Independence Independence Demonstration
Taxonomy of Technological Literacy
(Adapted from Todd, 1991, p. 24)
Level of Action & Knowing… Level of
Perception What Attention
Expression What, That Expression
Capability What, That, and How Application
Ingenuity What, That, How, When, and Why Invention
Sensibility What, That, How, When, Why, and Why Judgment
Engineering Education Research:
Implications for Technology Education
• Since 1990 knowledge acquired broadly
through synthesis, practice, teaching, and
• Research theory used from outside
disciplines, notably educational research.
• A focus on post-secondary research.
Research Methods Employed in Design Articles
Published in Journal of Engineering Education, 2000-2009
Publication n Teaching Narrative Data- Rigorous M
Date Practice with Based Research
Narratives Assessment Studies
2000-2002 30 15 (50%) 9 (30%) 4 (13%) 2 (7%) 1.8
2003-2009 14 1 (7%) 3 (21%) 0 10 (71%) 3.4
Chris Merrill, George Reese, & Jenny Daugherty
Similarities in disciplines:
• Learning standards. • Instructional
• Use of research to technologies.
discover more effective • Conservative teachers
learning. and schools.
• Diversity in views • Applied, integrative, and
regarding subject authentic approach.
purpose. • Evolved out of societal
Research on Teaching and
Learning in Science Education
• Technology education researchers should
emulate the science research framework
based on National Science Ed. Standards.
• Science education research focuses on
student learning within the discipline.
Five science education research priority categories
Culture, Gender, and Society and
Curriculum and Assessment in Science
Science Teacher Education
General Performance Expectations for Science Practices,
NAEP 2009 Science Framework (NAGB, 2008, p. 80)
Identifying Using Science Principles Conducting Using
Science Scientific Inquiry Technological Design
Describe, measure, or Explain observations of Design and critique aspects Propose or critique
classify observations phenomena of scientific investigations solutions to problems given
criteria and scientific
State or recognize correct Predict observations of Conduct science Identify scientific tradeoffs
science principles phenomena investigations using in design decisions and
appropriate tools and choose among alternative
Demonstrate relationships Propose, analyze, and Identify patterns in data Apply science principles or
among closely related evaluate alternative and/or relate patterns of data to anticipate effects of
science principles explanations or predictions data to theoretical models technological design
Demonstrate relationships Suggest examples of Use empirical evidence to
among different observations that illustrate validate or criticize
representations of a science principle conclusions about
principles explanations and
Communicate accurately and effectively
Creativity and Design
• Review of definitions and “designerly”
ways of thinking.
• Increasing focus as 21st century skills.
• This should be a primary research area for
Design articles in the Journal of Technology Education
between 1989 and 2008.
Tracking Design in the Literature
No. of Articles in the JTE
Marc de Vries
• Survey of ideas concerning the nature of
technology that history, sociology, and the
history of technology can offer.
• Dialogue with these disciplines can help
with standards, curriculum, instructional
strategies, learning environments, and
Informal and Extracurricular
Pat Foster & Michele Dischino
• Three types of activities: informal,
competitive, and extracurricular.
• Difficult to quantify due to short duration
and un-structured nature.
• Several studies show positive results but
research goals need to be established.
Comparison of categorizations used in this study with those
used in Learning Science. 1Bell et al., 2009, p. 18-19, 13.
Learning Science Categories1 Categories used in this Study
Everyday learning environments
(e.g., the dinner table, a family N/A
Designed learning environments Informal technology education
(e.g., museums, zoos, etc.) Competitive events
Programs for science learning Noncompetitive extracurricular
(…serv[ing] a subscribed group) activities
Recommendations for Technology
• Synthesis of chapter recommendations,
conference proceedings, and literature.
• Emphasis on student learning, links to
other disciplines (i.e. STEM), large
collaborative research projects, and
appropriate research methods.
• Research agenda.
Philip A. Reed
James E. LaPorte