World-Wide advances in technologies
What is ?
The study and
applications of things or
structures that are of the
order or below one
hundred nanometers (1
nanometer = 10-9 meter
or one-billionth of a
meter) in sizes.
Essentially this is the
study of the “super small.”
Diameter of human hair ~ 100
m or 100,000 nm
Distant Hills Always Look Green !!!
The Size of Things
Dimensions of Materials & Structures Found in Nature
Atom 0.1 nm
DNA (width) 2 nm
Protein 5 – 50 nm
Virus 75 – 100 nm
Materials internalized by
cells < 100 nm
Bacteria 1,000 – 10,000 nm
White Blood Cell 10,000 nm
Should we get excited About Starting....
Research in NanoTechnology?
o The worldwide nanotechnology (R&D) investment increased more
than five times since 1997
o At least 30 countries have initiated national activities in this field.
Education in NanoTechnology?
o The worldwide annual industrial production in the nanotech sectors is
estimated to exceed $1 trillion in 10 - 15 years from now.
o This would require about 2 million nanotechnology workers.
NanoTechnology 101: 1. Total Surface area will increase
2. Properties can become SIZE-DEPENDENT
Nano Technology & Health Applications
1) Biopharmaceutics (Drug Delivery & Drug Discovery)
2) Implantable Materials (Bone & Tissue Repair)
3) Implantable Devices (Sensors & Medical Devices)
4) Surgical Aids (Operating Tools & Surgical Robots)
5) Diagnostic Tools (Genetic Testing & Imaging)
Drug Delivery & Cancer
field to concentrate
Inject NMPs IV,
NMP will circulate
through the blood stream
Modulate field to
heat tumor cells
Other Drug Delivery Methods:
Gold nanoshell Dendrimer Fullerene C60
Implantable Devices - Sensors
Implantable Devices – Medical Devices
Nanosomes / Nanospheres
nano Signature Treatment
Non Surgical Aesthetic Treatment
Categorisation of health-related nanotechnology patents, by utility
Application (%) Examples
Drug delivery mechanisms, vaccines,
Therapeutic 775 52
nutraceuticals, bone scaffolds
Diagnostic 270 18 Sensors, biomarkers
449 30 antibacterial/antiseptic/antimicrobial coatings,
water purification systems
The 10 most cited diseases in health-related nanotechnology
Distribution of health-related nanotechnology patent activity (1975-2004), by country
10 Important Issues For Discussion
1-The effects of nanotechnology is unpredictable
2-Nanoparticles health risks. Are they overstated?
3-Lack of information about the effect of nanoparticles on species other than
humans or about how they behave in the air, water or soil
4-Can nanotechnology be neutral?
5-Who owns the science? Is it OK for commercial research to be kept ‘secret’?
6-Human rights and discrimination
7-Fairness and equity to narrow the gap between the rich and the poor worlds.
Could nanotechnology widen the poverty gap?
8-Too much regulation hinders progress
9-Regulation and the rate of change