Nanostructures - PNPA - PowerPoint by aqgyND1


									Nanostructures - PNPA

      Foothill College

•   PNPA rubric
•   Nanomaterials engineering
•   Nanostructures / ontology
•   Process development / optimization
•   Integrative (PNPA) approach
         PNPA Rubric

PNPA – A Rubric for Training Technicians in Nanomaterials Engineering
                     PNPA Rubric
                                     Properties (P)

                                            Structure property relationships =>


                            <= Process tools / QA/QC monitoring
Processing (P)                                                                    Characterization

    PLOs – Program Learning Outcomes – Integrated Materials Engineering Process

•   Nanocarbon           •   Polymers
•   Thin Films           •   Composites
•   Silicon structures   •   Metals and alloys
•   Quantum dots         •   Glasses
•   Nanoparticles        •   Ceramics
Nanostructures Map
Nanofabrication Map
•   Diamond
•   Diamond Like Carbon (DLC)
•   Fullerenes
•   Carbon nanotubes
    – (SWNT, MWNT)
• Graphene
• Carbon nanospheres
    Allotropes of Carbon

Eight allotropes of carbon:
a) Diamond, b) Graphite,
c) Lonsdaleite, d) C60
(Buckminsterfullerene or
buckyball), e) C540, f) C70,
g) Amorphous carbon, and
h) single-walled carbon
nanotube or buckytube
    Diamond Like Carbon

•   Tribology applications
•   CDV deposition
•   Magnetic media (outer film)
•   Combination of sp2 and sp3 carbon
•   Raman and XRD characterization
                      Diamond Like Coatings are composed of carbon,
                      which to a great extent possess the same
                      structures as diamond (sp3-configured carbon,
                      see fig. 2) and therefore are extremely hard.

                      Diamond-Like carbon film
A Swiss industrial company developed ultra hard coatings (ta-C DLC) as protection against abrasion and contamination of surfaces.
Advantages are hardness of >5000HV, low friction coefficient of 0.1, low process temperature of <100°C, control of coating
thickness down to a few nanometers. The company is looking for industrial partners (e.g. medical, watch, electronic field) to market
these advantages for new opportunities, e.g. for surface hardening, protection against wear, solid lubrication.
      Carbon Nanotubes
• Graphene winding
• sp2 hybridized
• CVD, carbon arc
• Electrical conductivity, mechanical
• Applications in electronics

•   A novel nanostructure
•   1-5 layers of graphite
•   Can be oxidized/functionalized
•   Applications in electronics
•   Multiple means of preparation
•   Multiple characterization tools
Graphene Nanostructure

  Extended sp2 hybridized carbon and p-p* network
• Nanospheres are a novel form of carbon
  prepared from acetylene, or annealing of
  other forms of ‘precursor’ carbon
• These materials can be ‘blended’ as
  composites with mechanical properties
• Process tools include CVD/furnace
• Characterization tools include Raman
Maximize sp2 bonds / graphitic nano-onion
                 Thin Films
• Thin films are a family of approaches to
  nanomaterials development, integral to entire
• Evaporation, sputtering, plasma, CVD (family)
• Process tools focus on building layer or stacks of
  precisely controlled thickness/composition
• Characterization tools include surface, optical, X-
  ray, and other composition/structural tools
Thin Film Solar on Kapton®
  Thin Film Engineering

Left image: Predicted efficiency versus bandgap for thin-film photovoltaic materials
for solar spectra in space (AM0) and on the surface of the Earth (AM1.5) at 300 K.
Right image: Decomposition of single-source precursor to produce CuInS2
  Silicon Nanostructures
• Semiconductor properties
• Electronic, micro electromechanical
  applications (MEMS) and sensors
• Tunable bandgaps (lasers, LEDs,
  transistors, photovoltaic materials)
• Lithography and selective etch/deposition
• MEMS and functional silicon
         Quantum Dots
• Confined quantum electronic states
• Chemically prepared, and can be grafted
  to biomolecules used as biomolecular tags
• Biosensor applications
• Process tools include chemical synthesis
• Characterization tools include a variety of
  chemical analysis coupled with electronic
•   Can be carbon, ceramic, metal, etc
•   Used as a filler in ‘composite materials’
•   Used in energy storage (batteries)
•   Biomimetic can be used in nanomedicine
•   Fabrication from a variety of methods
•   Characterization using SEM, AES/XPS,
    and microbeam FTIR/Raman etc
Nanoparticles on Surfaces
 Nanoparticles on Surfaces
A group led by Jillian Buriak has found a rapid
and cost-effective method of forming tiny
particles of high-purity metals on the surface
of advanced semiconductor materials such as
gallium arsenide. While the economic
benefits alone of such a discovery would be
good news to chip manufacturers, who face
the problem of connecting increasingly tiny
computer chips with macro-sized
components, the group has taken their
research a step further. The scientists also
have learned how to use these nanoparticles
as a bridge to connect the chips with organic
molecules. Biosensors based on this
development could lead to advances in the
war on terrorism.
"We have found a way to connect the interior
of a computer with the biological world," said
Buriak, associate professor of chemistry in
Purdue's School of Science. "It is possible that
this discovery will enable chips similar to
those found in computers to detect
biohazards such as bacteria, nerve gas or
other chemical agents."

In nanotechnology, a particle is
defined as a small object that behaves
as a whole unit in terms of its
transport and properties.
It is further classified according to size:
in terms of diameter, fine particles
cover a range between 100 and 2500
nanometers, while ultrafine particles,
on the other hand, are sized between
1 and 100 nanometers.
Similar to ultrafine particles,
nanoparticles are sized between 1 and
100 nanometers. Nanoparticles may or
may not exhibit size-related properties
that differ significantly from those
observed in fine particles or bulk
Although the size of most molecules
would fit into the above outline,
individual molecules are usually not
referred to as nanoparticles.
Nanostructured Polymers
• Extended monomer chains
• Chemical and morphological ‘blending’ in
  matrix materials
• Block copolymers can be synthesized with
  a nanostructured dimension or form
• Nanopolymers are ‘high performance’
  materials – used in plastics applications
• Characterization => organic analysis tools
• Particles, fibers, and novel nanostructures
  (nanospheres) blended/bonded in a matrix
• Usually adds mechanical strength
• Can add electrostatic properties
• Polymer blending process tools
• Organic analysis (FTIR, Raman, XRD,
  SEM) and mechanical / strength testing
Self Assembled Composite Material
This electron micrograph shows a self-assembled composite in which
nanoparticles of lead sulfide have arranged themselves in a hexagonal grid.
(Credit: Image courtesy of DOE/Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory)
       Metals and Alloys
• Metals and alloys use a combination of
  blending and grain boundary engineering to
  achieve novel structure => properties
• Nanostructured metals/alloys have
  applications as structural materials, and
  especially aerospace / automobiles
• Powder metallurgy, sintering, plasma spray
• Characterize => SEM, TEM, AES, XRD, XRF
    Nanometal Structures
• Nanostructured glasses have areas that
  are glass and areas that are interfacial (this
  is controlled by the overall composition).
• Heat treating nanoglasses expands the
  interfacial region exponentially with
• Nanoglasses are characterized with FE-
  SEM, small angle XRD, and optical tools
Car Glass Sealant
• Ceramic materials optimize nanofabrication
  largely through grain boundary engineering.
• Synthesis is through powder metallurgy
• Ceramics have high temperature, wear
  resistance, and novel magnetic applications
• Characterized using FE-SEM, XRF, XRD
•   Dendrimers
•   SAMs (Self Assembled Monolayers)
•   Supramolecular chemistry
•   Molecular Organic Materials (MOM)
•   Metal Organic Framework (MOF)
•   Fabricate: Synthetic Organic
•   Characterize: GC/MS, HPLC, FTIR, NMR
Self Assembled
•   Liposomes, polymers, nanoemulsions,
•   Synthetic proteins / synthetic amino acids
•   Synthesis => molecular / biotechnology
•   Applications => nanomedicine, biofuels
•   Characterize => HPLC, NMR

nanoBRICKs[pro] – synthetic smart nanomaterials from nano to macro
Caption: A Lodamin nanoparticle
with TNP-470 (the drug's active
ingredient) at the core, protected by
two short polymers (PEG and PLA)
that allow TNP-470 to be absorbed
intact when taken orally. Once the
nanoparticles (known as polymeric
micelles) reach the tumor, they
react with water and break down,
slowly releasing the drug. Lodamin
appears to retain TNP-470's
potency and broad spectrum of
anti-angiogenic activity, but with no
detectable neurotoxicity and greatly
enhanced oral availability.

Credit: Kristin Johnson, Vascular
Biology Program, Children's
Hospital Boston. Usage
Restrictions: Please credit as
 Supramolecular Structures
• Complex organic structures
• Complex synthetic mechanisms
• Host-guest chemistry / directed self
  assembly (complex solution chemistry)
• Applications in catalysis, nanomedicine, and
  ‘green chemistry’
• Characterize => NMR, FTIR, GC/MS, HPLC
Supramolecular chemistry refers to
the area of chemistry beyond the
molecules and focuses on the
chemical systems made up of a
discrete number of assembled
molecular subunits or components.
The forces responsible for the spatial
organization may vary from weak
(intermolecular forces, electrostatic or
hydrogen bonding) to strong (covalent
bonding), provided that the degree of
electronic coupling between the
molecular component remains small
with respect to relevant energy
parameters of the component.[7][8]
While traditional chemistry focuses on
the covalent bond, supramolecular
chemistry examines the weaker and
reversible noncovalent interactions
between molecules.

Supramolecular chemistry: Fluorine makes
a difference Donald A. Tomalia
Nature Materials 2, 711 - 712 (2003)
From top to bottom, specific chemical
structures lead to spatial
conformations, to self-assembly and
finally to self-organization into
supramolecular architectures. The
basic dendron molecule used by
Percec et al.2 is shown in the middle.
On the left, the non-fluorinated
dendron with a conical shape leads to
spherical assemblies that self-organize
in a cubic lattice. On the right, the
crown-like shape of the partly
fluorinated dendron gives rise to
columnar assemblies that self-organize
in a hexagonal liquid-crystalline lattice.
PNPA Integrative Approach
• Key nanostructures, novel properties
• PNPA rubric => integrated nanomaterials
  engineering, by integrating:
• fabrication => structure => properties with
  characterize => structure => properties
•   ObservatoryNANO
•   Science Daily
•   Wikipedia
•   Nanobricks
•   MEMSnet

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