Parasite: any organism
that gets it nutrition from
Occurs worldwide but mostly in less
Young animals are most likely to show signs.
– Mild to severe diarrhea (carrying the oocysts in
– Cats with compromised immune systems (feline
Leukemia or Feline immunodeficiency virus can
Fecal smears must be used and are difficult
to detect unless an oocyte (naked egg) is in
– Immuno-supportive drugs
People and animals with compromised immune systems
should avoid contact
Boil water for at least 5 min in underdeveloped countries
Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasma gondi
Cats are the only known host
Toxoplasma gondii is a common parasite
found in the guts of cats; it sheds eggs that
are picked up by rats and other animals that
are eaten by cats. Toxoplasma forms cysts in
the bodies of the intermediate rat hosts,
including in the brain.
– Up to 70% of the human adult population is
seropositive (indicates exposure and possible
– Cats (60%) and livestock(40%) are also carriers
of the cycts
Cats shed oocysts through feces (the cycst
can survive for up to 1 year)
Humans can consume oocysts (especially
through pork or mutton) through
undercooked meat or through oral fecal
Congenital – passed from mother to fetus
which often results in birth defect
In sheep causes congenital disease and
Cats are asymptomatic – kittens may
Women should avoid cat feces and
undercooked meat. You are more likely to
get toxoplasmosis from undercooked meat
than from a domestic cat.
Avoid feeding cats raw meat!
Classified in 2 categories
– Urban-Occurs in developing countries where
there are no/very little vaccinations.
Mostly dog-human contraction (35,000 deaths per year
in developing countries)
– Sylvatic cycle – where rabies happens mostly in
wild/feral animals because of vaccinations
Rabies is transmitted through saliva –
generally a bite that penetrates the skin.
Aerosol can occur (when zoologists work
with large populations of bats)
– Furious-animals become enraged, aggressive
– Paralytic (dumb)-affects the muscles in the head
and neck causing difficulty swallowing=foaming at
Incubation is varies (generally 3 to 8 weeks)
from a bite from a rabid animal
Discomfort in bite area along with a fever
Salivation increases and eyes and ears
become hypersensitive to light and sound
Hydrophobia may occur
Convulsions and mental issues occur and
death usually occurs from respiratory failure.
RABIES IS FATAL!
All pets should be vaccinated
Cattle and horses should also where skunk
rabies is endemic
An animal that bites should be quarantined
for at least 10 days. If symptoms occur from
the biting animal the animal must be killed
and it’s brain tested.
Wash all bites with disinfectant soap!