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NSTA Mid-Winter Conference

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									        NSTA
Mid-Winter Conference

School Bus Suppliers Emissions Technology for 2010
            What You Need To Know;

             The Choice Is Yours



                                          By Bob Pudlewski
                                          January, 18th 2010
                                                               1
                Contents

• Our Legacy
• Quick review of EPA criteria and the
  manufacturer’s path to 2010
• EGR-As a solution-IC’s Strategic Choice
• SCR- As a solution- Thomas and Blue Bird
  powered by Cummins a strategic choice



                                         2
Our Legacy
     • 480,000 yellow school
       buses provide Home-to-
       School-to-Home service
       daily nationwide
     • 23.5 million elementary
       and secondary school
       children representing
       54% of the nations K-12
       population, ride on school
       buses twice a day. 47
       million transports each
       day
     • Traveling over 4 Billion
       miles each year
       consuming over 500       3
       Million gallons of Fuel
Mobile source diesel emissions by
             sector




                                    4
    1993-2010 EPA Emissions Reduction
    Steps
                                                                  1994   500 PPM
                                                                          (6/93)
                     5.0        Electronic fuel control
                                                                  1998
                     4.0
         (g/hp-hr)



                                                                                   SULFUR
                              EGR                                                  Content
                                                                                     In
                     2.5                                         2004               Fuel
        NOx




                             Increased EGR w / DPF

                     1.2
                                 2007                                     ULSD
                                                                         15 PPM
                                                                          (6/06)

                                Increased EGR w/Urea injection
                     0.2
                     0.0
                                  2010
                           0.0 0.01                               0.10
                                     PM           (g/hp-hr)
2007 Emissions        required 50% reduction in NOx over 2004
2007 Emissions        required 90% reduction in Particulate matter over 2004
2010 Emissions        requires 90% reduction in NOx over 2004                        5
2010 Emissions        requirement for Particulate matter was met in 2007
2010 Requires a Systems
       Approach
Engines alone cannot meet the new
  2004    requirements.                                   2010


                 Fuel   Aftertreatment   Lube
        Engine                            Oil   Vehicle




   All Systems must be in place to be successful
                                                             6
  2010 EPA Technical Solutions

Advanced EG- International’s IC




EGR/SCR Cummins, for Thomas and Blue Bird




                                            7
             EGR



What International says about EGR




                                    8
                             EGR-System


1) Advanced Fuel Injection
   Technology
                                      Lower Life    Lower
2) Proprietary Combustion            cycle Costs    NOx
   Bowl Designs

3) Advanced Air-Management            Improved      Particulate
                                      Drivability   Control
   Systems

4) Proprietary Electronic
   Calibration Strategies



ADVANCED EGR TECHNOLOGY ENABLERS
                                                                  9
STEP 1        Multiple injections per cycle
Advanced      Higher injection pressures
Fuel
Injection     Less NOx created
Technology
                                Main Injection Event
              Early Injection
                                          Post Injection

                            TDC                            BDC




STEP 2        Finer mist
Proprietary   More even distribution in
Combustion
Bowl Design   cylinder
              More complete burn


                                                                 10
STEP 3          Dual turbochargers
Advanced Air
Management      Interstage cooling
                Lower combustion temp.




                More flow
STEP 3
Exhaust Gas     Cooler temperature
Recirculation
                Lower combustion temp.




                                         11
STEP 4        Increased Computing power
Electronic
Calibration   Continuous calculation
Strategies    Maximum power and
              efficiency
                   COMBUSTION TEMPERATURE


                                                                Too High:
Total                                                           • Excess NOX
                                            High
Advanced
EGR                                                             Low Nox
                                                                Low Soot
                                            Low

                                                                 Too Low:
                                                                 • Excess fuel
                                                                 • Excess soot
                                            SINGLE COMBUSTION CYCLE            12
      Some unique benefits of
             EGR?

• EPA Compliance rests with engine manufacturer
•Driver interface is unchanged
•Technician requirements are unchanged
•Packaging Superiority
•Lower Operating Costs
•Urea Liquid Requirements Avoided


                                              13
   Selective Catalytic Reduction-SCR


• Why Cummins says it chose Selective Catalytic
  Reduction (SCR) Technology over In-Cylinder
  Technology

• System Integration

• 2010 EPA ISB6.7 & ISC8.3 – Features

• Cummins Aftertreatment System

• Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF)

                                                  14
 Why Cummins says it chose SCR
• Cummins has expertise with EGR and SCR technology


• Cummins has been using Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR)
  since 2002, and SCR since 2006


• Cummins evaluated In-cylinder and SCR approaches and
  selected SCR for a variety of reasons


• Those reasons included a number of customer inputs:
   – Total cost of ownership and low maintenance
   – Improve/maintain fuel economy
   – Improve/maintain reliability and durability
   – Improve/maintain performance                          15
        Why Cummins says it chose SCR
         Technology over an In-cylinder
                  Approach

• Fuel economy is not degraded with an SCR approach, as it would
  be with an in-cylinder approach

• SCR requires fewer DPF regenerations than an in-cylinder
  approach, resulting in less fuel usage and soot generation

• SCR avoids an increased risk of excessive corrosive acidic
  condensation that would have come with an in-cylinder approach
  and is harmful to the engine (e.g., rapid lube oil deterioration).


                                                                       16
      Why Cummins says it chose SCR
       Technology over an In-cylinder
                Approach
• SCR avoids a bigger cooling package that would be driven by
  significant increase in heat rejection with an in-cylinder approach


• SCR allows for improved driver satisfaction as throttle response is
  better (due to less EGR flow) than with an in-cylinder approach


• SCR avoids the complex integration involved with an in-cylinder
  approach:
   – Higher EGR flow
   – Multiple EGR coolers
   – Additional turbocharging and piping in the air handling system
   – Larger radiator, charge air cooler, and fan systems
                                                                        17
        Why Cummins says it chose SCR
         Technology over an In-cylinder
                  Approach
• SCR allows for improved reliability and durability due to
  relatively little engine architecture and component changes

• SCR is overall a better choice for the driver and for
  maintenance:
   – The only additional maintenance is the DEF filter
     replacement on the base of the DEF tank, every 200,000
     miles
   – The SCR catalyst is intended to last the life of the vehicle
   – SCR is off the engine, where access is easy, versus an
     in-cylinder approach which would have required extra
     hardware on the engine and therefore less space for
     service
                                                                    18
        Experience Matters –
Core Technologies + Systems Integration




                                  Cummins Fuel
                                    Systems
Cummins Turbo
 Technologies




      Cummins
      Filtration              Cummins Emission
                                 Solutions
                                             19
                     2010 ISB6.7
                                       Cooled EGR
                                        Improved EGR
                                        Cooler
Cooling System                          Improved Cold-Side
Changes                                 EGR Valve
 Improved EGR                          Improved EGR
 Coolant Flow                           Measurement
 Cooling Circuit                       New Intake
 Rebalanced with                        Connection for
 increased flow to                      Better EGR Mixing
 critical areas
 New Coolant
 Circuit for SCR
 Components                    Fully Integrated
                                Electronic Controls
                                CM2250MD with
                                Aftertreatment, EGR & Air
                                Handling Controls
                                New Wiring Harness     20
    Cummins Aftertreatment System

Selective
Catalytic                   Decomposition
Reduction                      Reactor
  (SCR)
 Catalyst




 Cummins                        Diesel
Particulate                    Exhaust
  Filter                      Fluid (DEF)
                             Dosing Valve
                                        21
         Cummins Aftertreatment System

• Hot exhaust gas travels from the DPF into the SCR through a
  connecting pipe called the Decomposition Reactor.

• A fine mist of Diesel Exhaust Fluid (mix of water & urea) is dosed
  into the reactor through a dosing valve.

• The DEF reacts with the hot exhaust to produce ammonia, which is
  what is needed to reduce NOx levels.

• The ammonia reacts with the surface of the SCR catalyst to reduce
  the NOx levels.
• Out of the tailpipe comes nitrogen and water vapor that are natural
  elements of the air around us.
                                                                        22
         Cummins Aftertreatment System

• The Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) collects and oxidizes carbon to
  remove particulate matter (PM) by more than 90%

• The SCR system reduces NOx levels by converting it to nitrogen
  and water

• The Decomposition Reactor connects the DPF and SCR catalysts,
  and includes the Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) dosing valve.




                                                                        23
Cummins Aftertreatment
      System




                         24
           Technician’s Perspective:
      Hardware Add-on Vs. Engine Changes
       SCR                  Extreme EGR
       Required Changes     Required Changes

                           • ECM & Emissions
•   ECM & Emissions          Controls
    Controls               • Injectors
•   DEF Tank               • Vehicle Cooling
                           • Dual Turbochargers
•   Doser & Lines
•   SCR Catalyst           • Dual Stage EGR
                             Cooling
•   DEF Gauge
                           • Redesigned Pistons
                                               25
          Burden of Compliance
1. EGR’s Burden of Compliance rests on the manufacturer
2. SCR’s Burden of Compliance rests on the operator
                                QuickTime™ an d a
                                  decompressor
                         are need ed to see this picture.




  – EPA Requires: “Driver Inducements”
     • Tamper-proof systems
           » System must be maintained by owner or operator
     • “No Urea” Progressive warning
           » Audible and visual indicators
           » Engine de-rate
           » No start




                The vehicle must have urea of proper quality
                                                              26
Diesel Exhaust
 Fluid (DEF)




                 27
 What is Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF)?


• Diesel Exhaust Fluid is one of the key elements of the SCR
  System in reducing NOx to the near-zero levels defined by
  the EPA

• It is a solution comprised of:
    – 32.5% automotive grade urea
    – 67.5% deionized water




                                                               28
                      DEF Fact Check
 DEF is non-toxic, biodegradable and non-flammable

 DEF is 32.5% UREA solution

 DEF freezes at 12° F

 Vehicle is fully operational when DEF is frozen

 DEF weighs 9.21 lbs per gallon

 DEF Shelf life is 12 -18 months

 Urea, a component of DEF is also used in skin softener, dish
  soap, tooth whitening formulas and pretzels
                                                                 29
                   DEF Properties



                                          Acidic pH
• DEF is safe to handle and store
   – Non-toxic
   – Non-polluting
   – Non-flammable

• When stored at extreme temperatures,
  neither DEF nor Urea become toxic


• DEF is slightly alkaline with a pH of
  approximately 9
                                                      30
      Labels – Material Safety Data Sheets
                    (MSDS)
Ultra Low Sulphur Diesel Fuel (ULSD)
                    Health – Exposure could cause irritation, but only minor residual injury even if
                         no treatment is given
                    Fire – Must be moderately heated or exposed to relatively high
                         temperature before ignition can occur
                    Reactivity – Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions and
                         are not reactive with water
                    Specific – Neoprene butyl or nitrile rubber gloves with cuffs;
                         goggles/eye protection; mask



Windshield Washer Antifreeze Fluid

                   Health – Prolonged or repeated exposure by any route may cause
                       systemic poisoning including varying degrees of temporary or
                       permanent visual damage
                   Fire – Auto ignition Temperature Specific – Impervious 385°F
                   Reactivity – Normally stable, avoid heat, sparks, open flame
                   clothing as needed where splashing can occur. Eyewash stations and
                       safety showers
                                                                                  31
      Labels – Material Safety Data Sheets
                    (MSDS)
Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF)




         Health – Exposure could cause irritation, but only
                          minor residual injury even if no treatment is
            given
         Fire – Materials WILL NOT burn
         Reactivity – Normally stable, even under fire exposure
                          conditions and are not reactive with water
         Specific – Rubber gloves suggested                        32
           DEF Storage and Handling



• NO serious risk to humans, animals, equipment, or the
  environment
• When stored as recommended, between 12°F and 86°F,
  DEF shelf life will be greater than one year
   – A fleet will likely carry only a few months worth of DEF
     supply.
• The SCR system, DEF tank, and distribution equipment are
  designed fully compatible with DEF’s properties




                                                                33
        How Much DEF Will I Use?



• DEF consumption = approximately 2% of fuel




                                               34
                                    DEF Availability


           Fleetguard DEF will be available at all Cummins
           Distributors October 1, 2009

           Cummins Filtration’s North America network will
            have access to Fleetguard DEF
                      - Distribution to over 20,000 locations
                      - Includes nearly 8,000 retail locations




1, 2.5 and 5 Gallon         Plastic       Disposable 275         Plastic 330   Bulk
     Packages             55 Gal Drum        Gal Tote             Gal Tote            35
     How Can I Determine how Much DEF I
                  will Use?

Example…

Annual miles for average school bus = 15,000 miles

MPG for average bus = 8 mpg

15,000 miles / 8 mpg = 1875 gallons diesel fuel per year

DEF usage @ 2% of fuel consumption = 38 gallons of DEF / year

38 gallons / 15 DEF fill-ups / year gallon tank = 2-3
                                                                36
Example Only
               DEF Freezing Point
• DEF is subject to freeze at temperatures at or below 11
  degrees F


• If DEF freezes, start up and normal operation of the
  vehicle is not inhibited.


• DEF is not damaged or destroyed if it is frozen and is
  fully usable when thawed.


• SCR system is designed to provide heating for the DEF
  tank and supply lines.



                                                            37
                  DEF Availability

• In addition to Cummins’ ,Thomas and, Blue Bird distribution
  network, all major truck stops have committed to carrying
  DEF
  in some form in 2010

• DEF availability will not be an issue




                                                                38
               The Current Price of DEF
• Detroit Diesel currently pays $2.61 per gallon for DEF Bulk
• IBC’s currently cost $3.75 per gallon and jugs cost $7.00 per gallon
• Prices expected to decrease as demand increases




                                                                         39
        What does all this look like in a bus

• Engine Compartment

• Cooling System

• DEF Tank

• Fueling Locations

• Installed Exhaust System

• Instrument Panel                              40
     Advanced EGR Packaging- IC Corp




Advanced EGR
NO PACKAGING ISSUES IT ALL FITS
                                       41
Blue Bird 2010 SCR Solution




       All-American &
       Vision


                              42
                Engine Compartment
              Vision & All American FE

• Changes vs. 2007
   – Fan Blade
   – Fan Drive
      • Viscous Clutch
   – Alternator
      • 240 Amp




                                         43
               Engine Compartment
                 All American RE
• Changes vs. 2007

   – Component Relocation
      • Battery Box
      • PDU Box
      • Air Reservoir




                                    44
• Vision
   – No increase in packaging     Cooling System
     size
   – 14 fpi to 17 fpi for added
     cooling capacity
   – Bottom tank modifications

   All American FE
   – Similar to 2007 radiator
     package

• All American RE
   – No additional cooling
      capacity necessary




                                                   45
                DEF Tank
• 15 Gallons Usable DEF Tank Capacity
• 1.2 gal DEF per 60 gal diesel tank at 2%
  DEF usage rate
   – 12.5 diesel fill ups per DEF tank fill up
• 2-4 DEF tank fill ups per year estimate
   – Dependant on duty cycle and miles per
      year




                                                 46
DEF Tank Fueling Locations

                 • Vision
                    – Curb side just behind the
                       entrance door
                 • All American FE
                    – Curb side just behind the
                       front axle
                 • All American RE
                    – Street side through engine
                      compartment access door




                                                   47
     Installed In Line Exhaust System


               SCR
Reactor Tube
w/Injector




                                        DEF
                            DPF
                                        Tank


                                               48
Installed Switch Back Exhaust
           System
                      SCR

                      Reactor Tube
                      w/ Injector

                      DPF

                      DEF Tank




                                     49
                    Instrument Panel

• DEF Low Level Indicator
  Light
• Messaging Center
   – Constant display of DEF
     level in Quad 3
   – Flash condition in Quad
     1 when DEF Low Level
     Indicator Functioning




                                       50
Instrument Panel DEF Messaging

       • Quad 1 messaging to explain condition when
         DEF Fluid indicator light on during different
         conditions



       • Audible signal also present when DEF Level
         Low and DEF Level Critical




                                                      51
The SCR Solution




  :


                   52
     Thomas HDX and Safety-Liner C-2

Purchaser’s
Perspective




 HDX                 Saf-T-Liner C2




                                       53
     Driver’s Perspective – Saf-T-Liner & C2

 % Full Indicator
        Lamp
 75% to 4 green lights
  100%
 50% to 3 green lights
  75%
 25 % to 2 green lights
  50%
 10% to 1 green light
  25%
Approximately 5,000 Mile Range
                                               54
Maintenance in 5,000 miles?
        Driver’s Perspective – Saf-T-Liner C2

% Full Indicator
       Lamp
5% to     1 yellow light &          Malfunction
                                  Indicator Lamp
 10%       DEF lamp




                                                               450 Miles




100% 90%     80%   70%   60%     50%     40%       30%   20%      10%       0%
 Full                                                                      Empty
                             % DEF in tank                                    55
        Driver’s Perspective – Saf-T-Liner C2
% Full      Indicator
            Lamp
0% to 5% 1 red light &           Malfunction
                               Indicator Lamp
          DEF lamp
0%          1 red light
             flashing & DEF
             lamp




 100% 90%    80%   70%   60%   50%    40%       30%   20%   10%    0%
 Full                                                             Empty
                          % DEF in tank                              56
QUESTIONS


THE CHOICE IS YOURS   57
    Green School Bus Fleet Certification
               San Diego
            January 18th 2010

This is a short overview of NSTA’s recently adopted First Ever Green
School Bus Fleet Certification Program being presented at the NSTA
Mid-Winter mtg.
                                                                       58
•    According to a recent PHH Arval annual survey of public and
  private fleets, 80% of those surveyed reported that interest in their
  fleets environmental impact is growing
• A number of companies have reported that they have reduced
  emissions while reducing cost which helps disprove the myth out
  there that being environmentally friendly costs a lot of money
• And our efforts are supported by……..




                                                                          59
Non-Economic Benefits

• Improved reputation within the public for environmental stewardship

• Meet corporate environmental sustainability goals

• Demonstrate corporate values that matter to employees and
  customers

• Recognition from your peers as an industry leader



                                                                   60
Economic Benefit

• Reduced cost of fuel usage

• Payback on investment

• Reduced maintenance cost

• Cost savings after payback

• Improved business opportunity


                                  61
•    NSTA partners would demonstrate to customers, clients, and
    investors that they are taking responsibility for the emissions
    associated with pupil transportation, are committed to corporate
    social responsibility and sustainable business practices, and are
    reducing their carbon footprint.

• Participating Member companies would benchmark their current
  operations, identify technologies and strategies to reduce their
  carbon emissions, track emissions reductions and project future
  improvement.




                                                                        62

								
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