drought-Iran by rajeshsharma17109


									UNDP Sub-Regional Seminar on Drought
Mitigation 28-29th August, 2001 -Tehran

                 Swami S.K.
     Natural Disaster Management Division
   Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India
       e-mail: skswami@krishi.delhi.nic.in
         web site: www.ndmindia.nic.in
Country Profile
 Population : 1027.0 Million
 Rural Population: About 72%
 Population growth (1991-2001) : 21.34 %
 Area : 328.7 million hectares
 Net Area Sown : 142.2 million hectares
 Net Irrigated Area : 55.10 million hectares
 States/UTs : 28 States (provinces) and 7 Union
Country’s Vulnerability to Drought

 33 per cent area receives rainfall less than
  750mm -chronically drought prone
 35 per cent area receive rainfall
  between750-1125 mm- drought prone
 Total 68 % area of the country prone to
  drought in varying degrees
Rainfall distribution

 India receives its annual rainfall in
 four spells:
  •   Pre-Monsoon(March-May)----10.4 %
  •   SouthWest Monsoon(Jun-Sept)--73.3%
  •   NorthEast Monsoon(Oct-Dec)- 13.3%
  •   Winter Rains (January-Feb.)-- 3.0 %
Definition of Drought

Many definitions of drought available
 “actual moisture supply at a given place
  consistently falls short of the climatically
  expected moisture supply”
 “ a period of dry weather of sufficient
  length and severity to cause at least
  partial crop failure “
Definition of Drought
Common accepted definition is:
 “ a temporary reduction in water or
  moisture availability significantly below
  the normal or expected level for a
  specified period “
 “ a creeping situation of scarcity without
  recharging of resources “
Drought Classification

• Meteorological --significant decrease
  from normal precipitation over an area
• Hydrological drought: marked
  depletion of surface water and fall in
  water tables
• Agricultural Drought: soil moisture
  and rainfall inadequate to support crops
Drought Proofing Programmes

Drought Prone Areas Programme (DPAP)-
 180 districts of 16 States (Rs. 19.0 billion)
 Desert Development Programme (DDP) -
 40 districts of 7 States (Rs. 8.5 billion)
 Watershed approach : a geo-
 hydrological approach for in situ soil and
 water conservation (Rs. 22.6 billion)
Drought Management
Critical parameters:
 Availability of Drinking water
 Sustenance of Economic activity
 Availability of Food-reasonable price
 Health and Nutrition-vulnerable sections
 Conservation of Livestock
  Drought Management-India

 Employment Generation Programmes
  • Food For Work Programme (FFWP)
  • Employment Assurance Scheme (EAS) (Rs. 16.0
  • Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana (JGSY) (Rs. 16.5
    billion) *
  • Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY) (Rs.
    25.0 billion)
  • Swaranjayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY) (Rs.
    5.0 billion) *
Drought Management- India
 Social Security Programme
  • Antyodaya Anna Yojana (AAY)
  • National Old Age Programme (NOAP)
  • Annapurna Scheme (Rs. 3.0 billion)
  • Integrated Child Development Scheme
  • Mid Day Meal - School children
 Extent of damage-Drought
 Year  States Population Cropped area
        affected Human Cattle affected
               (in million)    (in million ha.)
 96-97    4      29.3      --        0.5
 97-98    3       9.8    3.1         6.8
 98-99    3      25.6 32..6         3.4
 99-00    11     37.1    34.6      13.4
 00-01    8      146.3 69.3        21.1
Drought Management
-Good Practices
 In place contingency action plan
 Monitoring of Rainfall and likely drought
  scenario from the beginning by Natural
  Disaster Management Division
 Timely declaration of drought and initiation
  of drought relief measures
 Effective coordination between Centre and
  States-Central Teams
Drought Management
-Good Practices
 Monitoring by Group of Ministers   and the
  Prime Minister at political level
 Constant Monitoring by Group of
  Secretaries under Cabinet Secretary
 National Crop Forecasting Centre (NCFC)
  and Crop Weather Watch Group
 Warning and forecasting by India Met
  Department (IMD)
Drought Management
-Good Practices
 1978 exploratory bore wells handed over by CGWB
  for augmenting water supply
 Free transportation of drinking water by Railways-
  19009 wagons and Fodder -386 wagons
 Guidelines relaxed under Accelerated Rural
  Water Supply Programme (ARWSP)
 At least one source of drinking water earmarked
  in each habitat
Drought Management
-Good Practices
 2.2 million MT Foodgrains free of cost for
  Food for Work Programme
 440 million additional man-days generated
  for drought mitigation
 Advance release of funds under drought
  mitigation related schemes
 Expansion of social security schemes
Drought Management
-Good Practices
 Special care of vulnerablesections like
  children, pregnant and lactating mothers,
  old and infirm
 Opening of cattle camps and subsidised
 Association of NGOs and UN Agencies
 Use of Information Technology- web sites
  e-mail for communication
Management system
Institutional mechanism
 Natural Disaster’s management
  responsibility of State Governments
 Union Government supplements the efforts
  of the State Governments by providing
  financial and logistic support
 Set up at the National Level
  • Department of Agriculture & Cooperation
    (DAC) - Nodal Department
Management system
Institutional mechanism
   – National Crisis Management Committee
     (NCMC) under Cabinet Secretary
   – Crisis Management Group under Central
     Relief Commissioner (CRC) in the DAC
   – Krishi Control Room- to monitor the
     situation regularly
   – Constitution of Ministerial-level Body for
     expeditious decision making
Financial arrangements
 Ready availability of funds with the State
  Governments in the form of Calamity Relief
 State wise allocation in CRF based on the
  recommendations of the Finance
  Commissions-Rs. 21 .0 billion for 2001-02
 CRF sharing between Central and State
  Government in the ratio of 3:1
Financial arrangements
 Additional assistance provided in the wake
  of disaster of severe nature from National
  Calamity Contingency Fund (NCCF)-
  released Rs. 20.0 billion
 Funds are also available from many on-
  going Plan Schemes of the Central and
  State Governments
Community Participation
 Community participation is key to effectiveness
  of Governments efforts
 Gram Sabha/Panchayat recommend relief work
 Districts & Block level committees involved in
  sanctioning and monitoring of relief works
 NGOs play a significant role training and
External Assistance-Policy
 No formal appeal is issued on behalf of the
  Government, directly or through any other
  agency, for assistance
 Relief offered on voluntary basis accepted
  and acknowledged as a sign of
  international solidarity
 Areas of assistance are Nutrition, Health,
  Community capacity, Water harvesting etc.
    Drought a Management Issue
Country experience is that-
 Drought can be prevented
 Drought can be mitigated
 Hardships can be minimised
 Sufferings can be reduced
      If we at all levels work together
               Drought is not a Disaster but
                     a Management Issue

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