Project by amran.irshad


      This Report Is a Collaborative Effort Of:








Iqra Khan

Sidra Ghazanfar

Zoya Chaudhry

Kokab Khalid
Mudassir Khalid

Sher Afghan


                          REPORT SUBMISSION

With Due Respect We the Group Members Submit This
 Human Resource Report to Our Instructor of Human
              Resource Management

                              Madam Bushra Baig

                            TABLE OF CONTENTS


Organizational structures for global business…………………………………………....…5.

Cultural compatibility & HR…………………………………………………………..…....8

Globally oriented culture………………………………………………………………..…..9

Globalization vs. cultural identity………………………………………………………..…11

Cross-cultural differences and HR…………………………………………………….……13

CASE STUDY- conflict resolution strategies of Canadian and Chinese executives ….......17.

CASE STUDY-German industrial enterprises………………………………………….….18

CASE STUDY- leading Chinese telecom corporation – Huawei………………………….21

Implementing global HR strategies……………………………………………………..….24
Cross-cultural competent HR…………………………………………………………..…..25

Effective HR strategies in globalization……………………………………………………26


Report: culturally compatible HR strategies of TELENOR…………………………….….34

Company profile…………………………………………………………………………….35

Vision & core values of Telenor………………………………………………………...….36

Organizational structure……………………………………………………………….....…37

HR department of Telenor……………………………………………………………….…37

Global presence…………………………………………………………………………….38

Cultural compatibility in Telenor…………………………………………………………..40

Culturally compatible HR strategies of Telenor……………………………………………46





Our visit………………………………………………………………………………….…51

 This report reviews the Human Resource Management
(HRM) of Telenor, the second largest telecom company
in Pakistan. We give a brief history of the company and
  tell about the corporate human resource of Telenor
   primarily in Pakistan. It put light on the culturally
  compatible HR strategies of the organization around
 the globe. Telenor is a multinational company that has
  set up its operations in Europe and Asia. This report
  puts light on the specific Hr strategies, policies and
      practices of Telenor that makes it culturally
      compatible in different nations. We start our
    consideration with the theoretical knowledge of
  culturally compatible HR strategies giving some real
       life case studies of leading multinational &
  transnational organizations. In the end we conclude
   with our recommendations for global organizations.

 “Culture is the customs and civilization of a particular people or group”

“It is the capability of different cultures to live together harmoniously.”

When an organization goes global and sets up its operations in some other
country, it faces a totally different culture of that particular location.
This local culture is their in the attitudes, work styles, demands and
perceptions of the local human resource. A globalizing organization thus
has to make its home culture compatible with the local culture in order to
survive in the local market. The new transnational environment requires a
plethora of individuals who can work internationally – who are ultimately
flexible, accommodating, and adaptable to different cultures and varying
ways of doing things. Those organizations who effectively pursue
culturally compatible HR strategies actually achieve success in long-run.
Studies on the success or failure of individuals in an international setting
have indicated that American expatriates experience a failure rate of 30
to 40 percent as compared to many Europeans and Japanese, whose
failure rate has been estimated as low as six percent (Tung 1988). It
appears that some countries or cultures are more effective at producing
successful global professionals than other countries.

There are 4 main organizational structures for global business:

                 1) Domestic exporter - heavy centralized activities in
                 one country (financing, sales, marketing, human
                 resources, strategic management) while sales are
                 dispersed using agency agreements, and subsidiaries
                 that are reliant on the home company. i.e. Caterpillar

           HR STRATEGY:

           Domestic exporters just have to rely on the sales staff of
           local area; therefore they adjust the HR policies regarding
           the pay scales, skills required and evaluation for sales
           personnel only.

                 2) Multinational firm - control and management of
                 finances out of central home base, while production,
                 sales and marketing operations are in other countries.
                 Products are made to fit local markets i.e. financial
                 firms, General Motors etc

           HR STRATEGY:
Multinational firms have to set their HR strategies for the
employees of all departments according to the culture of
respective firms. Here the budget of the firms is being set in
home base while the pay scales as well as incentive plans &
benefits are the core discretions of national firms.

     3) Franchisers - product is created, designed and
     financed in home country, but for product-specific
     reasons, there is a heavy reliance on foreign personnel
     for production, marketing, and human resources. i.e.
     McDonald's, KFC


Franchisers are just like multinational firms with the only
difference that multinationals create the whole separate set
up for all national campuses while the franchisers follow the
strict policies and strategies of HR being pre-set by the home
base. However franchises may carry out specific HR plans as
per the local cultural adjustments but within a restricted
provision of base.

     4) Transnational firms - have no national home base,
     have several regional home bases, and optimize supply
     and demand constraints locally, central core for decision
     making, but dispersed power and financial power to the
     divisions. i.e. Citicorp, Sony, Ford


Transnational firms retain the freedom of decision-making in
determining its own HR strategies. Such strategies follow the
cultural adjustments in the best interest of company. Such HR
strategies are fully coated with local cultural essence that
gives the firm a new home environment.
Human resources or, as some would call it, human capital, is becoming the
most important asset for most organizations in the world. As the New
Economy pervades in the world’s communities and organizations, it
becomes necessary to study and pay close attention to the impact of
Globalization and Technology in shaping today’s strategy for managing
culturally diverse human resources.

Globalization has resulted in significant implications for HR functions as
 they attempt to develop global HR strategies and design programs and
processes to manage a global workforce. The key to success is to balance
               global standardization and local autonomy.

The challenge for Human Resource leaders is really to understand the
role of Human Resource Management in an organization competing in a
global business environment and effectively define the critical issues and
responses necessary in implementing a strategic Human Resource

           Studies on the success or failure of individuals in an
           international setting have indicated that American expatriates
           experience a failure rate of 30 to 40 percent as compared to
           many Europeans and Japanese, whose failure rate has been
           estimated as low as six percent (Tung 1988). It appears that
           some countries or cultures are more effective at producing
           successful global professionals than other countries.

           Moore (2003) argues that there are 10 countries that
           produce the largest number of “good” global managers:
           Canada, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Belgium, Ireland,
           Sweden, Denmark, Singapore, Australia, and Finland.
           According to Moore, what these 10 countries have in common
           is their size. While they are not dominant powers in their
           geographic regions, they are considered significant players on
           the international stage. These middle-economy countries face
           the everyday reality that they are not the most important
           culture in their region and thus they find themselves
           constantly negotiating between their own culture and identity
           and that of surrounding dominant cultures. In order to be
           successful, individuals growing up in mid-sized countries learn
           to embrace multiple ways of looking at the world. They grow
           up with a duality (or plurality) that obliges them to work
           effectively with their neighbors. It is this ability to be “all
           things to all people” that helps such individuals to be
           successful in a global context. “When working on global teams
           or in other countries, the ability to think outside your own
           culture and see an issue through the eyes of another is critical
           to success” (Moore 2003)

           In the field of psychology considerable work has been
           conducted on people’s sensitivity to intercultural issues and
           their ability to adapt to other cultures and different ways of
           doing things. Some organizations have moved to personality
           testing to better ascertain the likelihood of success of
           individuals working in an international environment.

Much has been written on the influence of culture and global orientation
on business. These “deeply ingrained assumptions, generalizations, or …
images that influence how we understand the world and how we take

An ethnocentric mindset is one that basically holds one’s own values,
beliefs, and culture are intrinsically superior to those of others.
Ethnocentric individuals interpret the world through the eyes of their
own culture, not recognizing, even devaluing, cultures that are different
from their own. “If it works here, it’ll work anywhere,” exemplifies the
ethnocentric individual. Ethnocentric can play an important role in
preserving standards and uniformity across the global corporation.

A polycentric mindset is one that adapts and assimilates to the values,
attitudes and beliefs of another culture. Because they are highly attuned
to the conditions and expectations of other cultures, polycentric
individuals can play the role of empathetic “advisors,” effective at
bridging the gap and transferring knowledge between the local
environment and corporate. The danger with the polycentric mindset is
the tendency to “go native”, sometimes to the detriment of the
organization’s objectives.

A geocentric mindset is one that believes there are certain cultural
universals and commonalities in the world and that no culture is superior
or inferior to another. The geocentric mindset accepts the premise that
bright people [do] bright things around the world” (Sullivan 2001). Also
called “cosmopolitans,” these types of individuals focus on “finding
commonalities and spreading universal ideas and juggling the requirements
of diverse places” (Kanter 1995).

It is fair to say that the impact of globalization in the cultural sphere
has, most generally, been viewed in a pessimistic light. Typically, it has
been associated with the destruction of cultural identities, victims of the
accelerating encroachment of a homogenized, westernized, consumer
culture. This view, the constituency for which extends from (some)
academics to anti-globalization activists (Shepard and Hayduk 2002),
tends to interpret globalization as a seamless extension of – indeed, as a
euphemism for – western cultural imperialism.

Into this world of manifold, discrete, but to various degrees vulnerable,
cultural identities there suddenly burst (apparently around the middle of
the 1980s) the corrosive power of globalization. Globalization, so the
story goes, has swept like a flood tide through the world’s diverse
cultures, destroying stable localities, displacing peoples, bringing a
market-driven, ‘branded’ homogenization of cultural experience, thus
obliterating the differences between locality-defined cultures which had
constituted our identities.


Though globalization has been judged as involving a general process of
loss of cultural diversity,

some of course did better, some worse out of this process. Whilst those
cultures in the mainstream of the flow of capitalism – those in the West
and, specifically, the United States – saw a sort of standardized version
of their cultures exported worldwide, it were the cultures of the
developing world that have been most threatened. Thus the economic
vulnerability of these non-western cultures is assumed to be matched by
a cultural vulnerability.


Cultural identity is at risk everywhere with the depredations of
globalization, but the developing world is particularly at risk. But another,
quite contradictory, story can be told: that globalization, far from
destroying it, has been perhaps the most significant force in creating and
proliferating cultural identity. To take just one example, Manuel Castells
devoted an entire volume of his celebrated analysis of ‘The Information
Age’ to the proposition that: ‘Our world and our lives are being shaped by
the conflicting trends of globalization and identity.’ For Castells, the
primary opposition to the power of globalization lies in ‘the widespread
surge of powerful expressions of collective identity that challenge
globalization on behalf of cultural singularity and people’s control over
their lives and environment’ (1997: 2). Far from being the fragile flower
that globalization tramples, identity is seen here as the up surging power
of local culture that offers resistance to the centrifugal force of
capitalist globalization. The impact of globalization thus becomes, more
plausibly, a matter of the interplay of an institutional-technological
impetus towards globality with counterpoised localizing forces. The drive
towards globality combines logic of capitalist expansion with the rapid
development of deterritorializing media and communications technologies.
But this drive is opposed by various processes and practices expressing
different orders of ‘locality’.


In a global-local strategy, cultural differences amongst employees can be
seen as a strategic advantage for cross-border learning capabilities and
the flexibility of the company.

This policy can be summarized as follows:

   “As much global integration as possible, as much local adaptation as
                         absolutely necessary.”

                 Hewlett-Packard manager illustrated the direction
                 in one sentence:

         “We want one solution for the world rather than 54 country
        solutions. We optimize at the company rather than the country

           IBM, on the other hand, values a regional differentiation
           in their human resource policy. They believe in making
           exceptions, in flexibility in the area of deployment even as far
           as differentiated standardization:

       “This is the span needed to bridge the political and cultural gaps,

  especially between westernized corporate cultures and Asian country
                        cultures” (Begley/Boyd

A growing body of research has emerged over the past decade looking at
cross-cultural differences in negotiation style [Fisher 1980; Tung 1984].
These studies conclude that people of different cultures use significantly
different negotiation approaches. These different approaches include:

           communication styles used

           Persuasion strategies employed

           Protocols followed.


Negotiation studies all point to possible differences in the way conflict is
viewed and managed, little attention has been paid to differences in
reacting to cross-cultural conflicts in negotiations. Yet, the handling of
conflict is critical to any effective cross-cultural negotiations.

When two parties negotiate in a joint project, buyer/seller relationship or
any other business context, conflict inevitably arises [Habib 1987]. It
may arise because of differences in the perceptions of the decision
making environment, or preferences for particular actions, behavioral
styles and/or goals between the parties [Fisher 1974]. How the parties
respond to conflict also depends on a number of factors, including the
nature of the conflict, the cultural orientation of the individuals, and the
affiliation of the parties. It is clear that how the parties perceive,
respond to, and choose to resolve conflicts is critical to the success of
any long-term business relationship. Individuals from different cultures
are known to adopt different conflict resolution strategies. Ting-Toomey
[1988] proposed that members of collective cultures perceive and manage
conflict differently from those in individualistic cultures.

There is no consensus on whether decision makers extend their domestic
negotiation styles to negotiating with cross-cultural partners. Managers
may assume different negotiation styles with parties of another culture
to seek greater cooperation [Graham 1985].

           When dealing with members of a foreign culture, a
           manager may try to adopt behavioral patterns similar to the
           other party. The negotiators who appear similar may be more
           attractive to the other party and, thereby, enhance the
           bargaining outcomes (see review by Evans [1963]; Rubin and
           Brown [1975], and Francis [1991]). A business deal is a
           business deal, and profit maximization knows no cultural


Milton Bennett’s Model of Intercultural Sensitivity provides a useful
roadmap for understanding the acquisition and maturity of individual
cultural awareness. and global orientation. Bennett (1993) postulates a
development progression that that all individuals go through as they
develop into geocentric or cosmopolitans (see Figure 13). As individuals
mature globally, they move from the “ethnocentric” stages of denial,
defense, and minimization to the “ethno relative” stages of acceptance,
adaptation, and integration. Other empirical work has demonstrated that
the more international experiences individuals have, the less ethnocentric
they become (Guy and Beaman, forthcoming). Hence, associates who have
reached the ethno relative stages of their individual development – those
with geocentric mindsets – are vital for the new chaordic, Transnational
HR organization to function effectively.


The differences between the Chinese and North American culture are
well documented.

         The Chinese culture is collective and of "high context."

         Collectivism emphasizes group harmony and

         Chinese negotiators dislike taking the initiative and
         normally pay more attention to maintaining a harmonious

         When successive efforts within the inner circle fail, the
         conflict is likely to be met with resolute force by the

         PRC executives were also found to be more dichotomizing
         (i.e., inclination to classify the world into extremes-black or
         white, evil or good

         In their decisions, more likely to consult their superiors

         motivation for favoring certain norms over others is also
         driven by cultural factors

         Societal norms are known to reward those who subscribe
         to them and punish those who deviate


    In two-person, buyer-seller simulations, it is more effective to use
    competitive (domineering) strategies to negotiate with Chinese.

    avoid open conflict, and when a conflict emerges, it must be
    resolved in inner circles before it becomes serious enough to justify
    public involvement.

    avoid potential conflicts and smooth over issues.
    use delaying tactics

    use more obliging and avoiding conflict resolution styles

    maintain relations as key motivators in their negotiation strategy


          The North American culture is individualistic and of "low

          Individualism emphasizes individual rights and

          American negotiators tend to be authoritative, autocratic
          and in a hurry to make a deal

          American executives are less dichotomizing

          less decisive

          American executives emphasize personal motivations
          (Self-Esteem, Position In Company) or situational explanations
          as key motivators


    in two-person, buyer-seller simulations, it is more effective to use
    problem-solving integrative strategies to negotiate with Americans

    use less obliging and avoiding conflict resolution styles

    show more concern for goal achievement

    individuals be responsible for all decisions by themselves.
     Turning to superiors for instruction on ordinary conflicts,
     particularly task-related conflicts could signal incompetence at
     one's level of responsibility

Here, a case study on conflict resolution concerning Chinese and Canadian
culture would more elaborately describe it.

Executives from two cultures-Canadian and People's Republic of China
(PRC)-were asked to respond to conflict in the context of a joint project
negotiation scenario. They responded under two conditions-when the
potential partner firm was from their own culture and when the firm was
from the other culture. Each executive evaluated potential partner firms
that would likely cause two different types of conflicts- "person" related
and "task" related-using in-basket decision scenarios.

The study used a 2 (Country: Canadian and PRC executives) by 2 (Culture-
Intra versus Inter-cultural) by 2 (Conflict: Person-related versus Task-
related conflict) experimental design. This study differs from existing
literature by studying:

(1) How executives from collective and individualistic cultures react to
conflicts in joint projects

(2) How intra- and inter-cultural negotiations differ

(3) How person-related and task-related conflicts generate different
resolutions by executives of collective and individualistic cultures


This study confirms that home culture orientation (collectivism versus
individualism) affects executives' responses to conflicts. Executives from
countries which differ in this cultural dimension tend to adopt different
strategies to resolve conflict, develop different expectations about
possible outcomes, and be motivated by different causes.

The collectivist/individualist orientation was also found to affect social
rules used to maintain group harmony. A superior is responsible for
maintaining an effective balance between subordinate human relationships
and corporate goals, and in China the superior/subordinate relationship
usually has been. This study found that being from a different culture
does not place one in a disadvantageous position in negotiation. Executives
from both PRC and Canada used the same conflict resolution strategy and
were motivated by the same underlying factors regardless of the culture
of the potential partner. While this may put international negotiators
somewhat at ease, by lending support to the globalization of business
norms, the finding may be situation specific.

This study found that person-related conflicts elicit different responses
compared to task-related conflicts. Regardless of culture, person-related
conflicts seemed to invite negative, more relation-oriented (versus
information-oriented) responses, and appeared to be less satisfying, if
more controllable, than task-related conflicts, treated with caution.
Executives from different cultures may tend to assume different
strategies during such processes.

A few years ago it was typical to give one’s subsidiaries a free rein and
send managers overseas from headquarters only. But today a great deal
depends on overcoming this one-way street and in looking for and
employing the best-suited managers, regardless of their origins. What
contributions can human resource management make towards a company’s
global orientation – an area in which local scope and latitude are
traditionally very high.
This is a study on German industrial enterprises named “DEVELOPING
shows that in recent years German industrial enterprises have re-aligned
the management of their executive staff. Cornerstones of this quiet
revolution are a policy of worldwide parity of executives in evaluation,
remuneration and development, greater participation of those with line
responsibility from product areas and regions in strategic development, as
well as a re-alignment of human resource instruments. Worldwide
standards in human resource policy are key factors in the competition for
qualified managers. Not only companies, but also executives need to

“Do you have worldwide HR policies, that is, policies that apply to all
employees regardless of location?”

This is one of the central questions underlying interviews with HRM
executives of the twelve largest German manufacturers, which took place
between the summer and fall of 2000. This includes the largest German
companies excluding trade, banking and insurance, as well as energy
suppliers according to the Business Week Global 1000, 12 July 1999


The same worldwide standards for senior management in evaluation,
compensation and development are the milestones en route towards a
global human resource strategy, which has only caught on in recent years
at German companies like BASF, Bayer, DaimlerChrysler, Henkel,
Lufthansa, SAP, Schering, Siemens, and Volkswagen.

Henkel sees itself as a leader in human resource policy, both within and
beyond its own areas of business, one which brings about more equality of
treatment and fairness, so that qualified executives can commit
themselves to the company and participate in its success.
Deutsche Telekomand Preussag (the former steel manufacturer-turned
tourism giant), who have recently become more international in their
orientation, are just now in the process of preparing themselves for a
cross-border, integrated human resource policy. The autonomy of the
newly purchased overseas companies has been substantial so far.
Bertelsmann, where deployment has traditionally been decentralized, has
just begun a more integrated policy for senior management. Lufthansa in
the Star Alliance network, too, participated recently for the first time in
creating a sound foundation for a global executive management scheme.


Local Adaptation:

     1) International Strategy:

                             Appropriate when there is little foreign
                             business – knowledge transfer from the
                             center of headquarters.

                             Coordination costs are low.

     2) Multinational Strategy:

                             Affiliates are autonomous and local

                             Cross-border advantages of
                             standardization and learning are low.

                             Coordination-costs are lowest.

Global Integration:

     3) Global Strategy:
                             Advantages of standardization of policies
                             and practices.

                             Strong centralism.

                             Lack of local responsiveness causes

                             National segmented markets, cultures,
                             policies set barriers

                             Coordination costs are high.

     4) Transnational Strategy:

                             Uses advantages form globalization,
                             localization and cross-border learning

                             Coordination costs are highest.(see
                             Bartlett /Ghoshal 1998)

Companies successful across borders with corporate headquarters in
Germany have pursued a more globally integrated human resource


In recent years, many of the largest German companies have completed
the change towards a transnational strategy for senior management:
Worldwide guidelines with enough flexibility to adjust to local situations,
a global “as far as possible” with local responsiveness and interpretation
of criteria, as well as a network of systems development contributing to
global integration (see fig). The drivers of this transformation are
adjusted company strategies and structures, the lack of qualified senior
executives for global competition and the fact that managers have staff
in many countries. Additional impetus has come about by a change in the
expectations of executive managers and their desire for equality of

The consequences: changes in the expectations placed on senior
management – broader and greater international experience and the
dissolution of traditional centers of power, which the headquarters had
offered previously.

     Huawei was established in 1988 as an IT product trading firm in
     Shenzhen. Its internationalization drove since 2001, now it is
     serving ¾ of the top 50 IT operators in the world. HW has
     representation offices in over 100 countries and over 1 billion users.
     It is now employing over 60,000 employees, 48% of whom working in



           High quality

           Low cost

           Excellent customer service


           Less developed countries first, then developed countries

           Occupy market first (loss-making) then make profit
           through maintenance and upgrades

               Market seeking

               Asset seeking


         Deployment of Chinese expatriate to set up operations

         Localization to overcome language and cultural problems,
         also to show commitment to local economy and observation to
         local labour law – deployment of social capital


    HR challenges:

    The Hr challenges faced by HW include the retention problem due
    to lower pay than western companies. Another challenge being
    identified was the low competence of local employees in poor
    countries (low literacy and project management skills). There were
    also cultural differences in work values of other countries. HW
    faced many cross-cultural issues between Chinese expatriates &
    local employees. And there was lack of identification of local
    employees with HW’s corporate culture or HW as their employer.

    HW’s adopted HR strategies:

    HW promotes local employees to ranks which they will not get in
    western companies. They introduce local practices to suit local
    employees (e.g. bank loan guarantee letters). They carry out cross-
    cultural team building through social events. They also adopt the
    strategy of sending key local employees to HW’s HQ for training
    and development. HW does the deployment of locals as deputy
    managers to look after personnel issues because the locals know the
     people-related issues well. Hw believes in learning by doing in
     developing HR practices to suit local needs, e.g. borrow western
     companies’ good HR practices. In addition to the practical
     strategies being adopted by HW, they deploy emotional intelligence
     in understanding local employees needs and provide support as well.


     HW’s HR strategy is characterised with high-performance work
     system and paternalism typical of oriental culture. Creation and
     mobilization of social capital of employees plays an important role in
     supporting HW’s global business strategy. Mobilizing political capital
     is crucial for Chinese organizations to develop international
     markets, esp. in emerging economies

In many cases cultural misalignments are a byproduct of major
organizational change initiatives, such as total quality management,
employee involvement or reengineering. Each of these initiatives typically
requires some cultural adjustment to be effective, even though they all
seem to have similar goals, such as treating employees as critical assets,
focusing on customer satisfaction and delegating authority broadly. Even
when the optimal culture for supporting these initiatives has been
identified and agreed to, the difficulties associated with making
adjustments to the current culture must still be dealt with.


"Top-level managers in many of today's leading corporations are losing
control of their companies. The problem is not that they have misjudged
the demands created by an increasingly complex environment and an
accelerating rate of environmental change, nor even that they have failed
to develop strategies appropriate to the new challenges. The problem is
that their companies are incapable of carrying out the sophisticated
strategies they have developed. Over the past 20 years, strategic
thinking has far outdistanced organizational capabilities.

“Today, people create national competitiveness, not, as suggested by
classical economic theory, mere access to advantageous factors of
production. Yet, human systems are also one of the major constraints in
implementing global strategies. Not surprisingly therefore, human
resource management has become "an important focus of top management
attention, particularly in multinational enterprises.

The clear issue is that strategy (the what) is internationalizing faster
than implementation (the how) and much faster than individual managers
and executives themselves (the who). "The challenges [therefore] are not
the 'whats' of what-to-do, which are typically well-known. They are the
'hows' of managing human resources in a global firm.

How prepared are executives to manage transnational companies? How
capable are firms' human resource systems of recruiting, developing,
retaining, and using globally competent managers and executives? A
recent survey of major U.S. corporations found only six percent reporting
foreign assignments to be essential for senior executive careers, with
forty-nine percent believing foreign assignments to be completely

Which firms are leading in developing globally competent managers and
executives, and which remain in the majority and lag behind? That
majority, according to a recent survey of 1500 CEOs, will result in a lack
of sufficient senior American managers prepared to run transnational
businesses, forcing U.S. firms to confront the highest executive turn-
over in history.

By contrast, it describes the approaches of some of the world's leading
firms that distinguish them from the majority. There is no question that
the world business is going global; the question raised in this article is
how to create human systems capable of implementing transnational
business strategies. Based on their research, the authors support the
conclusion of the recent 21st Century Report that of executives who
perceive their international operations as shelves for second-rate
managers are unsuited for the CEO Job in the year 2000, or indeed any
managerial job today.

           Transnational managers must learn about many foreign
           cultures' perspectives, tastes, trends, technologies, and
           approaches to conducting business.

           Unlike their predecessors, they do not focus on becoming
           an expert on one particular culture.

           Transnational managers must be skillful at working with
           people from many cultures simultaneously. They no longer have
           the luxury of dealing with each country's issues on a separate,
           and therefore sequential, basis.

           Similar to prior expatriates, transnational managers must
           be able to adapt to living in other cultures. Yet, unlike their
           predecessors, transnational managers need cross-cultural
           skills on a daily basis, throughout their career, not just during
           foreign assignments, but also on regular multi country business
           trips and in daily interaction with foreign colleagues and
           clients worldwide.
           Transnational managers interact with foreign colleagues as
           equals, rather than from within clearly defined hierarchies of
           structural or cultural dominance and subordination. Thus, not
           only do the variety and frequency of cross-cultural interaction
           increase with globalization, but also the very nature of cross-
           cultural interaction changes

     Review a range of global business strategies along with each
     strategy's requisite managerial skills.


Qualified managers have become a bottleneck factor in international
competition. Cross border

and interdisciplinary experience is expected and not always available. In
addition, loyalty to the company has depreciated. Headhunters are
poaching the best people. How do companies with international experience
handle this problem? Corporate itself is addressing the subject, human
resource instruments for executives are realigned creating a winning
employee value proposition.


Executives should see themselves as drivers of a common corporate
culture. They travel more, send e-mails around the world, participate in
tele-conferencing, familiarize themselves with business magazines and
business schools and, in short, are part of knowledgeable and mobile elite.
This is reason enough for former barriers to disappear, allowing questions
about comparisons and equity to emerge. The new media make the flow of
information and communication around the world possible. But how and to
what extent this new media can be employed in the development of an
integrated global executive strategy also depends on the individual
strategy and corporate culture. Company networks and very decentralized
structures seem to hinder global standardization, whereas a growing
international business

Responsibility frees a substantial and powerful drive. Finally, the degree
of integrating business areas and the regions will differ.


An improved integrated human resource management is the answer to
changes in the company’s strategies due to increased globalization. The
starting point includes basic values and guidelines being worked out and
formulated by international teams and the appropriate tools. The goal is
to increase the global standardization of appraisal and compensation
systems for executives and at the same time to incorporate local


     Adler, Nancy J. 1983. Cross-cultural management research: The ostrich
     and the trend. Academy of Management Review, 8(2): 226-32.

     & Robert Doktor. 1986. From the Atlantic to the Pacific Century: Cross-
     cultural management reviewed. Journal of Management, 12(2): 295-318.

     Aghion, P., & Blanchard, 0. 1996. on insider privatization. European
     Economic Review, 40: 759-766.

     Edstrom & J.R. Galbraith "Transfer of Managers as a Coordination and
     Control Strategy in Multinational Firms." Administrative Science Quarterly,
     22, 1977, 248-263

     Arnold, D. J. & Quelch, J. A. 1998. New strategies in emerging
     economies. Sloan Management Review, 40(1): 7-20.
Aulakh, P. S., Kotabe, M., & Teegen, H. 2000. Export strategies and
performance of firms from emerging economies: Evidence from Brazil, Chile,
Mexico. Academy of Management Journal 43: 342-361.

Barberis, N., Boycko, M., Shleifer, A., & Tsukanova, N. 1996. How does
privatization work: Evidence from the Russian shops. Journal of Political
Economy, 104: 764-790.

Beamish, Paul & Jiping Zhang. 1991. Hybrid-Skylake case. In Paul
Beamish, Peter Killing, Donald Lecraw & H. Crookell, International
management: Text and cases, 232-48. Homewood Ill.: Irwin.

Blodgett, Linda Longfellow. 1991. Partner contributions as predictors of
equity share in international joint ventures. Journal of International
Business Studies, 22(1): 63-78.

Chan, Wing-tsit. 1986. The individual in Chinese religions. In Charles A.
Moore, editor, The Chinese mind. Honolulu, Hawaii: University of Hawaii

Ch'ien, Mu. 1973. On the systems of academic knowledge. In Philip Shen,
editor, Higher education and university students, 15-32. Hong Kong: Hong
Kong University Press (in Chinese).

Christopher A. Bartlett and Sumantra Ghoshal, "Matrix Management:
Not a Structure, a Frame of Mind" Harvard Business Review, July-August
1990, 138.

C.K. Prahalad and Yves Doz. The Multinational Mission: Balancing Local
Demands and Global Vision, (New York: Free Press, 1987

Conner, K. R., & Prahalad, C. K. 1996. A resource-based theory of the
firm: Knowledge versus opportunism. Organization Science, 7: 477-501

Dan A. Ondrack, "International Human Resources Management in
European and North American Firms," Human Resource Management, 25(1).
1985, 121-
Dan A. Ondrack, "International Transfers of Managers in North
American and European MNEs," Journal of International Business Studies,
16(3). 1985, 1-19;

Dewar, N., & Frost, T. 1999. Competing with giants: Survival strategies
for local companies in emerging markets. Harvard Business Review, 77(2):

Donald C. Hambrick, Lester B. Korn, James W. Frederickson, and Richard
M. Ferry, 21st Century Report: Reinventing the CEO (New York: Korn/Ferry
and Columbia University's Graduate School of Business, 1989), 1-94.

Earle, J., & Estrin, S. 1997. After voucher privatization: The structure
of corporate ownership in Russian manufacturing industry. Center for
Economic Policy Research (CEPR) discussion paper no. 1736, London.

E.L. Miller, S. Beechler, B. Bhatt, & R. Nath, "The Relationship Between
the Global Strategic Planning Process and the Human Resource Management
Function," Human Resource Planning, 9(1), 1986, 9-

European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD). 1998.
Transition report 1998. London: EBRD

Evans, Franklin B. 1963. Selling as a dyadic relationship-A new approach.
American Behavioral Scientist, 6(May): 76-9.

Evans, Doz, & Laurent, (1989) op. cit.; Andre Laurent "The Cross-Cultural
Puzzle of International Human Resource Management," Human Resource
Management, 25(l). 1986. 91-101;

Filatotchev, I., Wright, M., & Bleaney, M. 1999. Privatization, insider
control and managerial entrenchment in Russia. Economics of Transition, 7:
481- 504

Fisher, B. Aubrey. 1974. Small group decision making: Communication and
the group process. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Francis, June N.P. 1991. When in Rome? The effects of cultural
adaptation on inter cultural business negotiations. Journal of International
Business Studies, 22(3): 403-28.
Geringer, J, Michael. 1991. Strategic determinants of partner selection
criteria in international joint ventures. Journal of International Business
Studies, 22(1): 41-62.

& Louis Hebert. 1989. Control and performance of international joint
ventures. Journal of International Business Studies, 20(2): 235-54.

Goldenberg, Susan. 1988. Hands across the ocean: Managing joint
ventures with a spotlight on China and Japan. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard
University Press.

Graham, John L. 1985. Cross-cultural negotiations: A laboratory
experiment. Marketing Science, 4(2): 130-46.

Dong Ki Kim, Chi-Yuan Lin & Michael Robinson. 1988. Buyer-seller
negotiations around the Pacific Rim: Differences in fundamental exchange
processes. Journal of Consumer Research, 15(June): 48-54.

Gudykunst, William B., Ge Gao, Karen L. Schmidt, Tsukasa Nishida,
Michael H. Bond, Kowk Leung, Georgette Wang & Robert A. Barraclough.
1992. The influence of individualism-collectivism, self-monitoring, and
predicted-outcome value. Journal of Cross-cultural Psychology, 23(2), June:

Gunnar Hedlund "Who Manages the Global Corporation? Changes in the
Nationality of Presidents of Foreign Subsidiaries of Swedish MNCs During
the 1980s," Working Paper, (Institute of International Business and the
Stockholm School of Economics, May 1990)

Habib, Ghazi M. 1987. Measures of manifest conflict in international
joint ventures. Academy of Management Journal, 30(4): 808-16.

Hall, Edward T. 1976. Beyond culture. Garden City, N.Y.: Anchor

Hendryx, Steven R. 1986. The China trade: Making the deal work.
Harvard Business Review, 64(July/August): 75-84.

Hofstede, Geert H. 1980. Culture's consequences. Beverly Hills, Calif.:
Hoskisson, R. E., & Turk, T. A. 1990. Corporate restructuring: governance
and control in the internal capital market. Academy of Management Review,
15: 455-75.

Hsu, Francis L.K. 1981. Americans and Chinese: Passage to differences.
Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.

International Finance Corporation (IFC). 1999. Database available from imgOO9.gif

Jensen, M. 1993. The modern industrial revolution: Exit, and the failure
of internal control systems. Journal of Finance, 48: 831-80.

Jensen, M., & Meckling, W. 1976. The theory of the firm: managerial
behavior, agency costs and ownership structure. Journal of Financial
Economics, 3: 305-60.

Khanna, T., & Palepu, K. 1997. Why focused strategies may be wrong for
emerging markets. Harvard Business Review, 75(4): 3-10.

Khanna, T., & Palepu, K. 1999. The right way to restructure
conglomerates in emerging markets. Harvard Business Review, 77(4): 125-

Khanna, T., & Palepu, K. 2000. The future of business groups in emerging
economies: Long-run evidence from Chile. Academy of Management Journal,
43: 268-285.

Lane, Henry W. & Paul Beamish. 1990. Cross-cultural cooperative
behavior in joint ventures in LDCs. Management International Review,
30(Special Issue): 87-102.

Li, Victor. 1979. Human rights in a Chinese context. In Ross Terrill,
editor, The China difference. New York: Harper & Row.

Lyles, Marjorie A. 1987. Common mistakes of joint venture experienced
firms. Columbia Journal of World Business, 22(2): 79-85.

Castells, M. (1997) The Power of Identity, vol. II of The Information
Age: Economy, Society
            and Culture. Oxford: Blackwell

                   Martin K. Welge, Dirk Holtbrügge: Internationales
                   Management, Landsberg/Lech 1998.

      Michael E. Porter, The Competitive Advantage of Nations (New York:
      The Free Press, 1990)

      Moore, Charles A. 1967. The Chinese mind. Honolulu: University of Hawaii

      Nancy J. Adler and Susan Bartholomew "Globalization and Human
      Resource Management" in Research in Global Strategic Management:
      Corporate Responses to Global Change, Alan M. Rugman and Alain Verbeke
      (eds.), Vol. 3, (Greenwich, Conn.: JAI Press, 1992)

      Nancy J. Adler and Fariborz Ghadar "International Strategy from the
      Perspective of People and Culture: The North American Context," in Alan M.
      Rugman (ed.), Research in Global Strategic Management: International
      Business Research for the Twenty-First Century; Canada's New Research
      Agenda, Vol. 1, (Greenwich, Conn.: JAI Press, 1990) 179-205; and "Strategic
      Human Resource Management: A Global Perspective," in Rudiger Pieper (ed.),
      Human Resource Management in International Comparison (Berlin. de
      Gruyter, 1990), 235-260.

      Paul A. Evans, Yves Doz, and Andre Laurent, Human Resource
      Management in International Firms (London: Macmillan Press, 1989), xi-l .

            Peter J. Dowling, Denice. E. Welch, Randall S. Schuler:
            International Human Resource

Management, 3rd edition, Cincinnati, Ohio. 1999.

      Rondinelli, D. 1998. Institutions and market development: Capacity
      building for economic and social transition. IPPRED working paper no. 14,
      Enterprise and Cooperative Development Department, International Labor
      Organization, Geneva

      Rosalie Tung, The New Expatriates: Managing Human Resources Abroad
      (New York: Harper & Row 1988). and "Strategic Management of Human
Resources in Multinational Enterprises," Human Resource Management,
23(2), 1984, 129-143;

Rubin, Jeffrey Z. & Bert R. Brown. 1975. The social psychology of
bargaining and negotiation. New York: Academic Press.

Shenkar, Oded & Yoram Zeira. 1987. Human resources management in
international joint ventures: Directions for research. Academy of
Management Review, 12(3): 546-57. . 1990. International joint ventures: a
tough test for HR. Personnel, 67(1): 26-3 1.

      Shepard, B. and Hayduk, R. (eds) (2002) From ACT UP to the
      WTO: Urban Protest and

Community Building in the Era of Globalization. London: Verso

Shleifer, A., & Vishny, R. 1997. A survey of corporate governance.
Journal of Finance, 52: 737-783.

Stross, Randall E. 1990. Bulls in the China shop, and other Sino-American
business encounters. New York: Pantheon Books.

Ting-Toomey, Stella. 1988. Intercultural conflict styles: A face-
negotiation theory. In Y. Kim & W. Gudykunst, editors, Theories in
intercultural contiitlunuication,21 3-35. Newbury Park, Calif.: Sage.

Thompson, S., & Wright, M. 1995. Corporate governance: The role of
restructuring transactions. Economic Journal, 105: 690-703.

Tse, David K., Katn-hon Lee, Ilan Vertinsky & Donald A. Wehrung. 1988.
Does culture matter? A cross-cultural study of executives' choice,
decisiveness, and risk adjustment in international marketing. Journal of
Marketing, 52(October): 81-95.

Tung, Rosalie I. 1981. Patterns of motivation in Chinese industrial
enterprises. Academy of Management Review, 6(3): 481-89. . 1984. How to
negotiate with the Japanese. California Management Review, (26): 62-77.
Wall, James A., Jr, & Michael W. Blurn. 1991. Negotiations. Journal of
Management, 17(2): 273-303.
     Unilever's "Best Proven Practice" technique was cited by Philip M.
     Rosenzweig and Jitendra Singh, "Organizational Environments and the
     Multinational Enterprise," Academy of Management Review, 16(2), 1991, 354.
     based on an interview that Rosenzweig conducted with Unilever.

     Vladimir Pucik. "The International Management of Human Resources." in
     C.J. Fombrun, N.M. Tichy, & M.A. Devanna (eds.), Strategic Human Resource
     Management (New York: Wiley, 1984

  “We believe growth comes from truly understanding the needs of
                  people to drive relevant change”

                           COMPANY PROFILE

Telenor Group

Telenor ASA is an international provider of high quality
telecommunications, data and media communication services. It ranks as
world’s 7th largest mobile operator with a total of 164 million
subscribers in its mobile operations.

Telenor Pakistan

Telenor Pakistan is 100% owned by Telenor ASA and adds on to its
operations in Asia together with Thailand, Malaysia and Bangladesh.
Telenor Pakistan launched its operations in March 2005 as the single
largest direct European investment in Pakistan, setting precedence for
further foreign investments in the telecom sector. The company has
crossed many milestones and grown in a number of directions, making
Telenor Pakistan a leading telecom operator of the country.

Telenor is the fastest growing mobile network in the country, with
coverage reaching deep into many of the remotest areas of Pakistan. In
the most difficult terrains of the country, from the hilly northern areas
to the sprawling deserts in the south, at times Telenor is the only
operator connecting the previously unconnected.

It is keeping ahead by investing heavily in infrastructure expansion. With
USD2 billion already invested, it has extended agreements with its
vendors for network expansion and services until 2009. The agreements,
with a potential to result in USD750 million worth of orders from Telenor
Pakistan, are some of the biggest of their kind in the industry.

Telenor is spread across Pakistan, creating 2,500 direct and 25,000-plus
indirect employment opportunities. It has a network of 23 company-owned
sales and service centers, more than 200 franchisees and some 100,000
retail outlets.

                         VISION OF TELENOR

             Telenor’s vision is simple: “We're here to help”

  It exists to help its customers get the full benefit of communications
                         services in their daily lives.

                      CORE VALUES OF TELENOR

                             Make it Easy
  We are practical. We don't complicate things. Everything we produce
  should be easy to understand and use. Because we never forget we're
                 trying to make customers' lives easier.
                             Keep Promises
 Everything we set out to do should work, or if it doesn't, we're here to
    help. We're about delivery, not over promising, actions not words.
                              Be Inspiring
     We are creative. We strive to bring energy to the things we do.
   Everything we produce should look good, modern and fresh. We are
              passionate about our business and customers.
                             Be Respectful
We acknowledge and respect local cultures. We do not impose one formula
   worldwide. We want to be a part of local communities wherever we
              operate. We believe loyalty has to be earned.


   In TELENOR the hierarchy is very lean, in general the whole setup is
 centralized, all the matters are to be reported to the main company and
  all the policies and targets are approved at the higher level. But at the
               department level the structure is decentralized.

► TELENOR has following functional departments:-


                             Customer operations


                             Administration & Procurement

                             Human Resource

                             Co-ordination (Govt. relations)


►Current CEO (Chief Executive Officer) of TELENOR is John Eddy Abdullah

HR department of Telenor is in Islamabad head office where it controls
and handles all the HR activities of Telenor.

                              VICE PRESIDENT




                            ASSISTANT MANAGER


►Human Resource department’s

hierarchy is as follows:-

►Current VC (Vice President)


is Ms. Nayab Baig

                            GLOBAL PRESENCE



Telenor’s wholly owned Norwegian mobile operation is the country’s
leading telecommunications operator

           Services:   Broadband, Mobile, Telephone, TV
            Companies: Telenor Norway, Canal Digital, Conax, Norkring,
            Telenor Satellite Broadcasting


Sonofon is the second largest mobile operator in Denmark

            Services:   Broadband, Mobile, TV

            Companies:    Sonofon, Cybercity, CBB, Canal Digital


Telenor is the third largest mobile operator in Sweden

            Services:   Broadband, Mobile, Telephone, TV

            Companies:    Telenor Sweden, Bredbandsbolaget, Glocalnet,
            Canal Digital


Canal Digital is Finland’s leading television distributor

            Services:   Broadband, TV

            Companies:    Canal Digital


Pannon is the second largest mobile operator in Hungary

            Services:   Broadband, Mobile

            Companies:    Pannon


Promonte has more than 450 000 mobile subscriptions in Montenegro
             Services:   Mobile

             Companies:   Promonte


Telenor is the second largest mobile operator in Serbia

             Services:   Broadband, Mobile

             Companies:   Telenor Serbia


Kyivstar is the largest mobile operator in Ukraine

             Services:   Mobile

             Companies:   Kyivstar


VimpelCom is the second largest mobile operator in Russia

             Services:   Mobile

             Companies:   VimpelCom



Telenor is the second largest mobile operator in Pakistan

             Services:   Mobile

             Companies:   Telenor Pakistan

Grameenphone is the largest mobile provider in Bangladesh

           Services:    Mobile

           Companies:    Grameenphone


dtac is the second largest mobile operator in Thailand

           Services:    Mobile

           Companies:    dtac


DiGi is the fastest growing mobile operator in Malaysia

           Services:    Mobile

           Companies:    DiGi


   The best way to see the cultural differences depicting in the work,
 performance, perceptions, attitudes, behaviors and even statements of
 HR of different nations, is to observe the views given by themselves in
  their interviews. Following is such an interview that was taken by two
    employees of Telenor relating to two different cultures and two
                            different nations.

           Name:   Lawrence Ooi

           Position:   Head of Sales, Central Region

           Company:    DiGi

           Location:   Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Q: Describe briefly a typical day at your work

I am responsible for the sales in the central region of Malaysia, which is the area
around Kuala Lumpur. This region accounts for 50 percent of the total sales in
Malaysia. There are approximately 6000 dealers nationwide. I need to make sure
that all our 3000 dealers have enough supplies, that we reach our sales targets and
that our brand has a prominent position in the sales outlets. I have weekly
meetings with my sales staff to maintain the overview and keep myself updated on
new telecom product launches and promotion efforts. I also am required travel to
the other regions to get new impulses and see what our competitors are doing.

Q: Why did you join the Telenor Group?

Before, I worked for a telecom company that had a really strict hierarchy and too
many rules and regulations for my taste. So I wanted to find a new job in the
telecom industry. I had heard a lot of positive things about Telenor, so when my
current position became available – I applied and got the job

Q: What are the best parts of your work?

It is fruitful to work with many skilled people and help them to reach their goals.
In addition, when good ideas are developed into strategies, it is very interesting
and challenging to execute it and see how it progresses. Moreover, there are no
barriers in DiGi as you get to voice out your opinions and all suggestions are taken
into account before plans are being formulated

Q: How would you describe Telenor’s work environment?

It is a great atmosphere here, and our facilities are open and modern. We are given
the flexibility to work where we like, and manage our own time

Q: If you should choose one word to describe Telenor, what would it be?

Dynamic! This is a very dynamic company. We find solutions quickly to problems
that arise. Unlike other companies in which policies are set, plans are derived and
execution is expected. In Telenor, we get to set our own strategies.

Q: Can you describe a special event that you especially enjoyed?
We had a prepaid registration drive last 2 years and my team had to patrol all
dealers outlet in Central region at the last minute before midnight to ensure we
registered as many subs as possible. The next morning, had a breakfast meeting
with Johan (CEO) and committee for an update session and planned on further
action to execute. It was a truly remarkable experience as I got to work with
people of all levels to complete a simple yet important task

Q: Describe your career in Telenor so far

This is my first position in Telenor, which I have had for three and a half years
now. Time passes really fast, and I feel that my career is developing rapidly,
especially due to the several development programs I get access to through
Telenor. I find that the financial workshops and leadership sessions I have
attended enables me to perform better in my job.

Q: What are your professional goals?

I like the responsibility and the challenges being a manager, so I would like to
develop myself further as a leader and take on bigger tasks in the future

Q: What do you enjoy doing in your spare time?

I like to spend time with my wife and children. We often go on longer trips in the
weekends to go shopping, try new food and relax on the beach. Penang Island is one
of our favorite locations.

My hobby is to collect recyclable paper bags from grocery stores. The diversity
fascinates me. They come in all shapes and colors. I have several hundreds paper
bag at home, from all over the world. My wife is not too happy about that, though…

             Name:   Miljana Kijanovic

             Position:   Internal Communication Manager

             Company:    Telenor Group Headquarters and Telenor Serbia

             Location:   Oslo, Norway

Q: Briefly describe your job at Telenor
I work with internal communication – in short, that means I am part of the team
that provides employees with the information they need in their daily work as well
as news about the company. Currently, I am part of the editorial team in the Group
Communications department in Norway. Previously I worked as head of the internal
communications staff in Serbia. Group Communications at Telenor ASA felt that it
would be useful to get different views on internal communication based on my
experience of working for a Telenor operating company in another country. So,
here I am in Norway. This is an exciting opportunity for me and the recognition is
important. At the same time, I am pleased to see that people in Telenor are aware
of the differences that exist across a big international company and are ready to
listen and learn more.

The job I have now does not differ much from the one I had before. Just as in
Serbia, we start the day summing up recent events and news stories. Then, we plan
forthcoming activities. I still write articles and stories for our intranet portal,
which is something I enjoy doing. Besides that, I am involved in the development of
the new intranet, which will be used by tens of thousands of employees worldwide.
Being even a small piece of the puzzle in a complex project like that is exciting.

Q: Why did you join Telenor?

I used to work for Mobtel, the Serbian telecommunications provider acquired by
Telenor in 2006. It was a change for me suddenly to be a part of an international
telecommunications group. The way we do business now is quite unlike my previous
experience. But it has certainly changed for the better. We were used to a strict –
well, old-fashioned hierarchy. That is not what it is like at Telenor. It does not
matter whether you are a manager or not - everyone sits side by side in the office.
That is quite unusual for Serbian companies.

Q: What has your career at Telenor been like so far?

I have been in the telecommunications sector for over 10 years now, and tried
several interesting jobs. My first position with Telenor was also my first role as a
manager and an important opportunity for me. The job I was doing there brought
me to Norway, where I now have the chance to continue working within my
profession and at the same time learn how things look and work from a different

Q: What do you enjoy most about your work?
Internal communications is a new profession in Serbia, so I was fortunate to have
the opportunity to be one of the pioneers and set the standards. During a recent
Public Relations conference in Belgrade, I held a presentation in front of a wide
audience about internal communications

Q: How would you describe the work environment at Telenor?

When I started to work with Telenor in Serbia, we had just moved into a new
building, located in the new part of Belgrade. Our Belgrade offices have a cool,
modern design. Everyone enjoyed the benefits that make it an attractive place to
work, such as free refreshments and massage chairs. Now, I know the concept is
the same here, in Norway. The Telenor headquarters – just outside Oslo - at
Fornebu, has an incredible position just by the sea. The view over the fjord is
different from the grey urban landscapes I was used to. I also admire the Telenor
art collection, both here and in Belgrade.

Colleagues are the most important part of any work environment. I miss my
colleagues in Serbia, our discussions about work, but also the time we spent
together out of the office. Still, I am forming new friendships and getting to know
new people in Norway. Although there is a similar work culture across Telenor,
there are differences in our native cultures that make working together
interesting, sometimes challenging, but certainly enriching for all of us. Working
and living in another country and a new environment, enables me to develop not only
professionally, but also as a person.

Q: If you had to choose one word to describe Telenor, what would it be?

Actually, I would choose two important words: freedom and responsibility. At
Telenor, you are given the necessary tools to do your job, but you are not told how
to perform your tasks. For instance I have flexible working hours, and can take my
laptop down to the lake during the summer to enjoy the sun while I am working. We
have a lot of freedom - as long as you produce the results. I really value this

Q: Can you describe a special event at work that you particularly enjoyed?

I was part of the committee responsible for planning and organizing our one-year
anniversary in Serbia in 2007. It was a big event with activities for both employees
with families, as well as external partners and others interested in celebrating this
milestone. We had an outdoor party with a live DJ, puppet theatre for the
children, sports activities, and a lot more. It was a great success! Everyone loved

Q: What are your professional goals?

I want to develop my career with Telenor further, and strengthen my internal
communications and branding competence. I was tempted to explore international
opportunities and I still am. It really exposes you to new ideas and viewpoints and
helps to open your mind to new ways of doing things

Q: What do you enjoy doing in your spare time?

I like to be active and I enjoy sports. Rollerblading and skiing are my favourites, so
I really look forward to the skiing season in Norway. I also love the gym and I
often go to the one at Fornebu – as an employee here I have almost free access.
The gym is located at the offices, which is very convenient.


The difference in the statements of the two is quite obvious; one is a
woman other is a man. Another difference is that they work in two
different cultures of nations. It is a fact that cultural differences make
difference to the HR practices. It isn’t necessary that what is valuable to
one culture man is also valuable to other culture’s man.

             It is observable that the lady is answering to all the
             questions very descriptively while the man is answering
             precisely and to the point

             Both of them switched to Telenor from another telecom
             company. The lady switched it because she wanted to work in
             an internationally recognized company while our Malaysian
             friend didn’t like the strict environment of former company.

             The lady got promoted due to her learning and the man got
             promoted through workshops.
           The lady has the professional goal to work internationally
           while the man wants to move vertically upward to managerial

           The typical European lady is very sporty while the man is
           truly Asian and want to spend spare time with his family

           The lady loves recreational activities at work while the
           man enjoys work related activities.


In short the cultural differences are quite obvious through their
priorities, likings and dislikings. However the company based ideas are
completely same like

           Both joined Telenor impressed with its freedom of

           Both are provided the career opportunities

           Both are given the environment compatible to their
           cultures so that they may not feel the odds.

           Both have described their company Telenor in the same
           sense of goodness.

           Both have described their work environment as free,
           respect giving as well as responsible.

These similarities are the result of Telenor’s culturally compatible
environment being provided to its human resource.

We discuss Telenor’s strategies which make it culturally compatible to
the human resource of different countries where so ever it has set up its
operations. Following are these strategies:


           Telenor claims “ FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION”

           The hiring criterion in Telenor is same throughout the
           globe. However due to changes in the skills, knowledge and
           abilities of people in different countries , Telenor has varying
           staff hiring priorities eg here in Pakistan university education
           is quite common and cheaper as compared to western
           countries. Pakistan has a pool of graduates and post-
           graduates, so obviously more educated and skilled person is
           hired whereas in western set ups Telenor has mostly
           graduates in job positions.

           Telenor hires young and talented people more as compared
           to experienced elderly in Asian countries. It is due to the fact
           that the creativity and freshness required by service sector
           like Telenor is found in only young talents in Asia. The middle
           aged people in Asian countries are less enthusiastic and fresh.
           However people in western countries remain enthusiastic and
           fresh for a relatively longer period of time. 80% of Telenor’s
           staff is young blood.


           There is a lot of respect given to all employees. Here the
           manager shakes hand with the mop. All the employees self-
           serve themselves. They are not allowed to make the service
           men work in their service
        There are no cabins in any Telenor centre. There is a
        central lobby where the front desk men to the Regional
        Officer (RO) all sit together.

        As a cultural symbol Pakistani Telenor offices have placed
        a big bell with a string on the main door of offices. It is for
        the purpose that any one who feels himself satisfied with
        Telenor can ring the bell. It is in coincidence with the practice
        of Late Mughal King Jahangir who used to listen to the
        petitions of his sub ordinates whoever has any complaint.


        Training system is much vibrant in European Telenor set-
        ups. But owing to the lesser revenues generated in Asian
        markets, Telenor is not carrying out best training here.
        Training is always ignored in Pakistan by all. However Telenor
        keeps on conducting one day training for its employees
        throughout their work life.


        Telenor is carrying out equal and uniform strategies
        everywhere. Its job duties and their requirements are same.
        It offers flexible work hours to all employees in its
        customer’s service call centers. There is no discrimination on
        gender base in Telenor.

        The reward system is same everywhere. Everyone is
        rewarded on good performance in monetary units as well as
        recognition and applaud.

        All employees working in Telenor along with their family
        members are medically insured. They can get up to 10 lakhs on
        medical treatment. Owing to the more health problems among
        aged in Asian countries, Telenor prefers to retain young and
           healthy employees. In western countries mostly young people
           are medically tested for maladies.

           There are no pension plans in Telenor. There are provident
           funds provided in Telenor.


           Telenor do value the culture of its transnational bases eg
           in Pakistan Telenor has the policy to send its 2 employees on
           Hajj every year

           Telenor arranges aftar for its staff in Ramzan.

           In the last annual meeting of Telenor, They have decided
           sherwani as the dress code in Pakistan.

           Even in inter-province culture differences, the example of
           Quetta is interesting where employees aren’t asked to wear
           suits. They wear shalwar kameez


           Referring to the Denmark issue created in Pakistan
           against Telenor, its HR had no impact due to this controversy.
           Not a single employee felt against Telenor. It was a great
           achievement of Telenor that it got in the shape of loyalty and
           concern of its HR towards Telenor.


 Telenor face many challenges with the ever growing need of competent
  Human Resource. It is really hard to hire and retain the best people
 especially around the globe. The global companies face many challenges
regarding the cultural identity of respective nations. They have to adjust
  culturally to the environment of respective countries. And when even
 hiring the HR staff of that very country, the organization is exposed to
           many challenges to make them perform at their best.


By keenly analyzing the Human resource Management of Telenor, we the
group members agree that Telenor is carrying out satisfactory culturally
compatible strategies for its HR. Although it is not promoting the
“cultural identity” agenda that aggressively but even then it is facing
much less cultural conflicts among its HR. It may be due to the reason
that it has divided itself in just two markets: Europe & Asia. The
European market almost holds the same culture and three of its Asian
market countries are Islamic. We came through very unusual facts about
managing any company’s HR. We believe that managing a competitive and
culturally compatible HR in a competitive global market is a tough job.
And Telenor is so far quite successful in hiring and retaining exceptionally
talented HR worldwide.


As students of human resource management, among other things, we
believe that the globalization and the advancement of technology
influences how organizations should react and adjust to the changing
times and economy. Every company will have to find its own route – and
this will depend on the situation and will be different for executive
management and specialized staff. The decisive turnaround within today’s
human resource policy appears to be in the replacement of both local
autonomy and the home country preference. We will not seek to deny the
obvious power of globalized capitalism to distribute and promote its
cultural goods in every corner. Nor will we take up the argument now very
commonly made by critics of the cultural imperialism thesis that a deeper
cultural impact cannot be easily inferred from the presence of such
goods. What we will try to comment is something more specific: that
cultural identity, properly understood, is much more the product of
globalization than its victim.

We as students of HRM can just recommend global companies (in this
case Telenor also) within the sphere of our knowledge, exposure and
literature survey. WE recommend that:-

           A worldwide audit of IHR (International Human Resource)
           programs and plans should be conducted at least every three
           years as a matter of course. While guidelines and an approval
           process help management navigate through obvious change,
           subtle changes within the company, local market practice,
           legislation, and employee demographics can erode programs’
           effectiveness over time. Multinational pools are particularly
           subject to degrading without continuous corporate
           sponsorship and should also be re-evaluated periodically.

           Each organization must decide whether it has the right
           people in the right places to make the changes, whether these
           people have been adequately trained, given the necessary
           resources and focused on the right objectives, and whether
           they believe they will be rewarded for their contributions. HR
           strategy must be consistent with the needs of the
           organization, and its component strategies must provide
           alignment with the organization's objectives.

           Human resource strategies can be powerful tools for
           signaling cultural change and reinforcing those changes once
           they are made. Who is hired and retained, how people are
           paid, and what behaviors are deemed desirable all send strong
           messages about the desired culture. The potential of HR
           strategies and programs for shaping organizational culture
           cannot be overestimated. For HR strategy to realize its full
           potential, the organization must first determine what its
           culture is and what it should be. Then the organization can
           create a plan for aligning culture with its mission and
           environmental or contextual realities by managing the culture
           from what it is to what it should be.

We wish a very best of luck to TELENOR. May it progress and achieve its
desired goals. (AMEEN)

                              OUR VISIT



To top