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					                                                                                                  When we listen, to whom do we
                                     CONTENTS                                                     listen? How do we listen? Why do
                                                                                                  we listen? What do we listen to?
                                                                                                  What are they all talking about?
                                                                                                  We are listening to the same thing
                                                                                                  every day. People are destitute and
ACADEMIC AFFAIRS                                                                                  the country is facing a crisis. We
                                                                                                  stand ashamed before our children
              3 Appointments and Reappointments                                                   and before history for having ever
              4 Professor Geoffrey Mills, New VP for Academic                                     supported their cause, this cause
                  Affairs                                        14 Implementing
                                                                     NGOs Degrees                 that revealed itself as pure
              5 Swiss Hotel School and NDU - Memorandum of                                        demagogy which they used for their
                  Understanding                                      at NDU
              7 NDU Fulbright Recipients                                                          interests at the expense of ours. Yet
              8 New Auditorium                                                                    they still have not understood and
                                                                                                  we still have not learned!
                                                                                                                             The Editor

                                                                                                         July 2006 |         issue 37

                                                                                                      NDU Spirit A periodical about
ACADEMIC AND STUDENT ACTIVITIES                                                                       campus life at Notre Dame
                                                                                                      University - Louaïze.

                                                                                                Tel: (09) 218950 - Ext.: 2477
                                                                                                Fax: (09) 224803
 19 Dr. Elachi's Visit to NDU                                                                   Email:
 22 Mr. Walid Maalouf                                                                 
     24 Women in the New Testament                  OPINION AND CULTURE
           - Dr. Tord Fornberg
     25 Mary's Passion Via Apotheosis                                                                    | Editor-in-Chief
 26 Freud Centenary
 27 Giftedness - Department of English,                                                               Georges Mghames
 Translation and Education                                                                               | English Editor
 LERC ACTIVITIES                                                                                      Kenneth Mortimer
    29 Transnational Lebanese                        54 Hydro-electric Generation - Joseph
           Migration - Methodologies                    Aoun, Elie Aoun and Samer Charabati              | Translation
    32 Migration and Lebanese Stamps                 57 How to Avoid Bad Bankruptcy                   Valérie Aoun
           - Ms. Huda Taleb-Srage                         Attorneys - Wassim E. Beaineh
    36 Brazilian-Lebanese Commerce,                  Dr. Louis G. Hobeika                                | Reporting
           IDAL and LERC                             60 Why Should We Worry about                     Ghada Mouawad
 39 ECCE Department News                                 Inequality in Lebanon and the Arab
    - Dr. Elias Nassar                                   Region?                                         | Arabic Typing
 40 4th Asian Dietetics Congress                     61 Fighting Terrorism Reduces Poverty            Lydia Zgheïb
    - Dr. Najat Yahia, Sandra Chahin                      and Promotes Development
                                                     62 Le Liban Face aux Incertitudes                   | Photographers
 41 Telecom and Computer Seminar, Barsa
 42 Miss NDU 2006                                    64 Solar Eclipse '06: Front-Row Seat for         Abdo Bejjani
 44 Entertainment Club Activities                         NDU - Dr. Bassem Sabra
                                                     68 AUASS Workshop                                   | Layout & design
 44 Accounting Club and Poor Children
 45 German Greens & Cultural Diversity               69 Wireless Sensor Networks and                  Technopub
 46 Rider University-NDU Videoconference                  Intelligent Gardening - Dr. Hoda
                                                                                                         | Print
 47 Présentation du livre de Abdo Kahil                   Maalouf
 48 German Educational Fair Lebanon                  72 Something for your grey matter                Meouchy & Zakaria
 49 Founders' Day 2006
 52 Sports Office News
 53 Social
 53 Stone Museum Visiting
        | A Word from the President

                                      Challenges of Academic Freedom
                                               Rev. Fr. Walid Moussa

             In one of the     I guess this is the kind of challenge that faces us nowadays, whether at the
             interviews with   national, or the regional, or the international level. How far are we ready to
             Professor David   deal with one of the intellectual problems from all its perspectives, from all
             Horowitz, at      the different points of view that surround it? To what extent are we ready to
Columbia University, about     accept other ideas on the issue about which we think we hold the right and
his book The Professors,       proper position? How can we reach a certain truth if we do not accept to
Horowitz said: "In my          analyze it academically, when this analysis requires comparing and
Contemporary Civilization      evaluating all the different, and perhaps contradictory, related factors?
course at Columbia we did
read both Marx and his         I am raising these concerns because they apply not only within a university
critics - e.g., Bakunin and    campus but, more seriously, within the community and within the nation. It
Hayek. So I was indeed         is our academic responsibility to train our students how to face the
challenged, but in an          challenges of academic freedom and make it a part of their research
appropriately academic         activities to consider and study and evaluate the other point of view, the
fashion. Unfortunately, it     other position, if we are seeking the truth and nothing but the truth.
took me twenty years to
benefit from the lesson."      Part of academic freedom is to care about the other situation, the other
One might well ask if          circumstances, even the unexpected other ideas, and perhaps ideologies.
twenty years are needed to     Only then shall we be practicing, in some sense, what we call freedom of
benefit from studying a        pure knowledge.
certain point of view, or
ideology, or a system of
thought, and its critics!
What kind of benefit would
one get from studying the
two opposite faces of the
same issue, the same coin?

  page 2 |     issue 37
                             Appointments & Reappointments   October 1, 06

                                                              Appointments and
                                                             The following information has come from the
                                                             President's Office about appointments and
                                                             reappointments, effective from October 1, 2006:

              Dr. Assaad                                       | Dr. Geofrey Mills,
                                                                 VP, AA
                                                               | Fr. Boutros Tarabay,
Dr. Geofrey                  Dr. Chahine                         Presidential Advisor
Mills                        Ghais
                                                               | Dr. Ameen A. Rihani,
                                                                 VP, SRD
                                                               | Mr. Suheil Matar,
                                             Mrs. Leslie         Presidential Advisor & Director General,
                                                                 Public Relations & Information
              Dr. Elie
              Yachoui                                          | Dr. George M. Eid,
                                                                 Presidential Academic Advisor for Branches
                                                               | Dr. Assaad Eid,
Fr. Boutros                  Mr. Fawzi
                                                                 Dean, FAAD
Tarabay                      Baroud
                                                               | Dr. Elie Yachoui,
                                                                 Dean, FBAE
                                                               | Fr. Bechara Khoury,
                                             Mr. Edgard          Director, SAO
              Fr. Bechara                    Barakat           | Dr. Youssef El-Hage,
              Khoury                                             Dean, FNAS
                                                               | Mrs. Lea Eid,
Dr. Ameen                    Dr. Elias                           Registrar
A. Rihani                    Nassar                            | Dr. Chahine Ghais,
                                                                 Dean, FPSPAD
                                                               | Mr. Fawzi Baroud,
                                                                 Director, DCS & e-Learning Center
                                                               | Dr. Elias Nassar,
                                             Fr. Jean
              Dr. Youssef                    Abou                Dean, FE
              El-Hage                        Chrouch           | Dr. Viviane Naïmy,
                                                                 Director, Admissions & OTME
Mr. Suheil                   Dr. Viviane                       | Dr. Carol Kfoury,
Matar                        Naïmy                               Acting Dean, FH
                                                               | Mrs. Leslie Hage,
                                                                 Director, University Libraries
                                                               | Mr. Edgard Barakat,
                                                                 Director, DCE
              Mrs. Lea Eid                   Fr. Boutros       | Fr. Jean Abou Chrouch,
                                             Bou Nassif
                                                                 Director, NDU-NLC
                                                               | Fr. Boutros Bou Nassif,
Dr. George                   Dr. Carol                           Director, NDU-SC
M. Eid                       Kfoury

                                                                                         page 3 |      issue 37
                  | Academic Affairs

The NDU President,                Dr. Ameen Rihani, VP, SRD, adds the following:
Rev. Fr. Walid Moussa, insists    The new appointments announced by President Walid Moussa, carry the
that the great contributions of   following clear aspects:
their predecessors, which have
made NDU attain its present       1. The new Vice President for Academic Affairs, Dr. Geoffrey Mills, brings with
remarkable standing, will not        him a rich experience in strategic planning, accreditation procedures, and
be forgotten. All are very           curriculum development. Each of these areas represents a new and timely
proud of them and grateful to        professional challenge to NDU.
them for their dedication.
                                  2. some new Deans are quite young and fresh to the job, meaning that they bring
                                     with them the kind of energy, vision, ideas, and imagination needed for the
                                     University Administration.

                                  3. This new team is expected to make a significant academic difference for which
                                     we all applaud.

                                  Congratulations to the newly appointed Deans and Administrators, and to those
                                  who were reappointed to their present posts. Let us hope for the best for the
                                  future of NDU.

                                  Professor Geofrey Mills, Vice President for Acadamic
                                  Affair at NDU
                                  NDU is pleased to announce the new appointment of Dr. Geoffrey Mills as the
                                  Vice President for Academic Affairs, starting October 1, 2006. Dr. Mills enjoys a
                                  rich experience in strategic planning, accreditation, and curriculum development,
                                  within the American system of higher education. He has been the Vice President
                                  for Academic Affairs & Dean of Business Administration at the American College
                                  of Greece, and previously the Associate Dean of Business Administration at the
                                  University of Northern lowa. He was a Fulbright Professor of Commission
                                  Program for International Education. He was also a visiting Professor at the
                                  University of Aalborg in Aalborg, Denmark, University of Bildungswissenschaften
                                  in Klagenfurt, Austria, and the School of Economics and Business Administration
                                  in Helsinki, Finland. Professor Mills taught Economics and Finance, for several
                                  years, at the State University of New York (Suny) at Geneseo. Author of two
                                  books, and of tens of articles published in referred journais in his field of
                                  specialty, Dr. Mills is eager to work at NDU and make a significant addition to
                                  the educational move at the University. He is enthusiastic to get to know more
                                  about Lebanon and the Middle East while he is affiliated with NDU.

                                                                                                     A A Rihani

  page 4 |      issue 37
                                 Appointments & Reappointments       October 1, 06

 Swiss Hotel School and NDU
 Memorandum of Understanding

Mr. Peter Rudling, Director of the        that students are provided with both        The Memorandum
prestigious Swiss Hotel Management        the knowledge and the skills to
School, addressed a large audience at     succeed at executive level within the       The Memorandum affirms that
Notre Dame University on the occasion     industry.                                   NDU aims to provide its
of the signing of a formal                                                            students with competitive
Memorandum of Understanding               The relationship with Notre Dame            advantage in the pursuit of
between the two institutions on April     University will provide a platform for a    Higher Education and to
5th, 2006. Mr. Rudling was delighted      semester abroad program in                  establish a strong level of
to participate in this ceremony, which    Switzerland combined with an                collaboration with SHMS in
he described as the foundation of a       international work placement for up to      Switzerland, with
thoroughly strategic linkage that would   six months. In addition, joint summer       opportunities of academic
benefit both students and staff alike.    programs will be run both in Lebanon        enhancement for faculty and
                                          and Switzerland. This relationship will     students through programs
The Swiss Hotel Management School is      also provide opportunities for faculty      offered by SHMS in both
a world leader in Hotel Management.       to participate in professional programs.    Switzerland and Lebanon.
Each year the School welcomes
students from more than sixty             Both institutions recognize the need        SHMS will provide NDU
countries worldwide to study for          for internationalization as the basis for   students with programs in
Bachelor, Masters and PhD (Doctorate      academic and cultural experience.           Switzerland based on the
level studies). The school combines an    Most importantly, work is already           expressed need of NDU, and
integrated management and practical       under way on several initiatives, which     both parties will consider the
teaching model. This approach ensures     will commence during 2006.                  potential for offering dual

                                                                                         Left to right: Dr. Youssef
                                                                                      Zgheib, Chairman of
                                                                                      Hospitality and Tourism,
                                                                                      Mr. Peter Rudling of SHMA
                                                                                      and Dr. Elie Yachoui, Dean
                                                                                      of BA&E.

                                                                                                page 5 |        issue 37
                   | Academic Affairs

certification whereby students     Speech of Dr. Elie Yachoui
complete a semester program
in Switzerland. The students       Reverend Fathers, dear Vice-Presidents, dear guests, dear colleagues, dear friends:
will also be eligible for          it was a joy and an honor to be asked by Father President Walid Moussa, absent
internship placement in            today because of an unforeseen trip to Algeria, to sign this agreement with the
Switzerland.                       Swiss Hotel Management School, an institution with a worldwide reputation in
                                   the hospitality field, an agreement which sets a strong and wide collaboration
SHMS will provide summer           with Notre Dame University, Faculty of Business Administration and Economics,
programs for NDU students in       and offers great opportunities to our students and faculties.
Switzerland on an agreed fee-
for-service basis upon the         To get its final shape, this agreement demanded around eighteen months of
expressed need of NDU, while       continuous negotiations, correspondence, and meetings when possible. To my
NDU will provide a minimum         mind, it represents an excellent beginning for what we all hope to be a long-
of ten students to a class.        lasting, fruitful and developed relationship between the two institutions.
These however will not be
eligible for internship            According to this cooperation agreement, SHMS will provide semester programs
placement in Switzerland.          to our students in Switzerland without disruption of student academic course
SHMS will provide one fully-       flow. Visiting faculties will participate in our semester programs and in several
funded faculty place for each      seminars for executives. SHMA will provide preferential admission to our students
group of ten.                      to continue their Master in Switzerland. It will supply us with all required
                                   technical supports and will consider with us the launching of joint degree
SHMS will participate in the       programs in Hospitality Management.
programs, seminars and
specialist programs at NDU for
its students and executives
based upon the expressed
need of NDU, with teaching by
SHMS visiting faculties. It will
also give preferential
admission treatment for NDU
graduates holding a BBA
degree and continuing onto
Postgraduate (Master) studies,
subject to normal academic

The two institutions will
consider other levels of
collaboration such as NDU
being provided with technical
support and the launching of                                                           NDU Deans and officials witness
a joint degree program in                                                           the signing ceremony.
Hospitality Management.

  page 6 |      issue 37
                                   NDU Fulbright                         2006-2008

That way, we shall be able to blend FBAE and SHMS education and experiences;
our students will also have the possibility of benefiting from internships in
Switzerland. Executive development programs jointly with SHMS will assure                NDU
professionals' development. At the same time, future projects may also be
considered: visiting chefs will develop laboratory operations, international industry    Fulbright
relations will be set up with Swiss hospitality businesses, and joint academic
projects, joint research and consultancy, and joint ventures in Lebanon and the
Arab region will also be open to serious consideration.
                                                                                        NDU has the pleasure of
This wide range of collaboration projects will certainly boost our competitiveness      announcing the selection of
and enhance our students' skills, aptitudes and abilities inside and outside            three NDU students and two
Lebanon. The tourism sector in Lebanon is one of the most promising in the near         NDU Faculty members as
and far future. At this level, Lebanon benefits from a multitude of comparative         recipients of the Fulbright
advantages, factors that are missing from all other Arab countries. Our                 Scholarship for 2006 - 2008.
collaboration with SHMS will demonstrate and strengthen more and more the
quality of services rendered by the sector. The yearly income of the tourist sector     The recipients are the
in Lebanon amounts to 800 million dollars for one-and-a-quarter million tourists        following:
and participates actively in compensating the gap in our balance of trade. Don't
you know, Mr. Rudling, that Lebanon was, is and always will be known as                  | Ms. Pia Zeinoun for the
Switzerland of the Orient?                                                              MA program,

                                                                                          | Ms. Marie-José Tayah for
                                                                                        the MA program,
Auditorium Building                                                                        | Ms. Pamela Chemali for
                                                                                        the MEPI Summer Program,
The extension and development of Notre Dame University continues unabated,
and now it has an auditorium worthy of its standing. Nobody is better fitted to           | Dr. Dany Badran,
present both the building and the inspiration behind it than its distinguished          Chairperson, Division of
architect, Engineer Habib Salame.                                                       Humanities, Shouf Campus,
In his text, Engineer Salame insists on the role of the University in developing
harmony and equilibrium in the individual, so perfecting the person in the image           | Dr. Ziad Fahd, Assistant
of God. He explains how culture is nurtured through the development of certain          Professor, Department of
relationships and shows the importance of the Auditorium with its various               Social and Behavioral
subordinate spaces in achieving this aim.                                               Sciences.

                                                                                          |Congratulations from
                                                                                        NDU President Fr. Walid
                                       Next pages
                                                                                        Moussa and from all the
                                                                                        NDU family and

                                                                                                 page 7 |        issue 37
                     | Academic Affairs

   | Le Verbe est l'essence même de l'Homme.
   | Avec le Verbe, l'Homme tend à imiter d'une façon
asymptotique l'image de Dieu.
   | Si le Verbe caractérise l'Homme et l'élève à l'image de
Dieu, L'Université, lieu de formation de l'Esprit, lui donne le
moyen d'y accéder et d'espérer pouvoir atteindre ses

   | Dans l'emprise de son Campus, l'Université doit
    assurer la formation et simultanément la culture et
    ceci conformément à certaines interelations qui
    sont la base de la formation:
       | Relations entre Etudiants et Administration.
       | Relations entre Etudiants et Etudiants.
       | Relations entre différentes matières enseignées en
         vue de définir principalement la relation entre
         l'être et soi-même en vue d'acquérir en définitive

   | L'EQUILIBRE, pris au sens le plus large, permet à
    l'être humain de devenir un Homme et d'acquérir à
    l'image de Dieu le sens même de l'HARMONIE.

         C'est un objet qui rencontre un objet.
         C'est une parole qui suit une autre.
         C'est un son qui s'amalgame à un autre.
         C'est .... C'est .... C'est ...

Dans cet objectif de la recherche de l'EQUILIBRE dans
l'HARMONIE, que le bâtiment dénommé Auditorium,
joue principalement ce rôle dans l'emprise du Campus
de la NDU.

   page 8 |       issue 37
   | Si dans les différentes parties du
Campus se constituent les éléments
de base de la formation, en d'autre
termes les spécialisations, c'est ici
principalement que s'exprime la
synthèse de ces éléments de
formation, soit la culture.
   | C'est ici que la Parole s'exprime et
c'est aussi ici qu'elle se discute.
   | C'est ici que les sens se forgent et
c'est ici aussi qu'ils se dégustent.
   | C'est ici que les voix
s'épanouissent et c'est aussi ici
qu'elles se godent.

Parole, Son, Voix, les trois éléments
de base de l'Expression Audio-
Visuelle de la Culture, se
développent et s'expriment ici dans
ce bâtiment - Un espace unique,
composé de plusieurs autres sous-
espaces, a à permettre le
développement de ces activités

En fait, plusieurs activités sont à
  | La Parole:
    - Conférences.
    - Causeries, Débats, Récitations.
    - Représentations théâtrales.
    - Remise de prix, manifestations
     sociales ou religieuses.
  | Les Sons:
    - Musique de solistes ou
    - Musique classique ou moderne.
  | Les Voix:
    - Chant moderne ou lyrique.

                                            page 9 |   issue 37
             | Academic Affairs

                                  LES FONCTIONS:

                                    | Ce bâtiment est formé de deux espaces
                                  distincts ayant chacun ses accès propres:
                                    | Salle de conférences au niveau inférieur.
                                    | Auditorium au niveau supérieur.
                                  reliés entre eux par un espace commun composé
                                  d'un Foyer avec ses sanitaires.

                                  A. SALLE DE CONFERENCES:

                                     | C'est une salle elliptique en gradin où les
                                  sièges contournent d'une façon radiale un espace
                                  pouvant permettre:
                                     | Les débats autour d'une table elliptique aussi ou
                                  entre spectateurs.
                                     | Les conférences avec un emplacement sur un
                                  côté long de l'ellipse pour le conférencier.
                                     | Les jeux télévisés.
                                     | Les représentations musicales et de chants pour
                                  solistes ou pour groupes.
                                     | Un pianiste, un défilé de mode ou un poète
                                  peuvent très agréablement développer parfaitement
                                  leurs activités, enrobés entièrement par le public.

                                  Annexes de cette salle:
                                     | 2 accès indépendants au niveau de l'Entrée
                                  Principale du Campus du Côté Nord.
                                     | Une salle de Régie.
                                     | Une salle pour interprètes.
                                     | 4 salles pour les groupes de travail durant les

                                     | Les équipements Audio-Visuels viennent en
                                  appui à toutes ces activités et permettent leur
                                  transmission à l'extérieur.

page 10 |   issue 37

   | C'est un grand espace composé de:
   | Une salle destinée à recevoir un total de 800
places assises (600 places au niveau inférieur et 200
au niveau supérieur).
   | Une scène de 16 x 18m d'ouverture avec une
hauteur de 16m aussi et une arrière scène tout
   | Ce complexe est destiné lui aussi à tant
d'activités qui nécessitent des configurations
physiques et spaciales ainsi que des équipements
spécifiques différents. A savoir:
   | Réprésentations théâtrales:
   | La scène doit être droite du côté du public avec
récitation directe sans moyens audios équipée de tous
les moyens visuels.
   | Chant lyrique ou opéra:
   | La scène doit être droite mais séparée du public
par la Fosse de l'orchestre et toujours sans moyens
audios mais avec tous les moyens visuels.
   | Manifestations mondaines, religieuses,
remise de prix, messes, conférences,
représentations théâtrales, opéra, orchestre,
concert de solistes ou d'orgue etc...
  | La scène doit prolonger la salle et doit être
équipée de tous les moyens Audio-Visuels.
  | Pour ces activités multiples et variées
exigeant des besoins techniques (Audio-Visuels) et
d'absorbtions acoustiques différenciées et
contradictoires, cet espace doit être équipé:
  | Régie pour régler toutes les représentations
  | Une scène entièrement amovible au niveau du sol
   et du plafond qui doit permettre tout
   mouvement vertical et horizontal.
  | Des loges pour la préparation des artistes et les


  | En annexes à ces espaces de représentations
sont placés tangentiellement les espaces de
soutien :
   | Administration avec plusieurs bureaux et accès
   | Les différents Halls d'Entrée.
   | Le Foyer placé à cheval entre les deux salles
(Auditorium - Salle de Conférence)
   | Batteries sanitaires au niveau du Foyer.

                               page 11 |       issue 37
             | Academic Affairs

page 12 |   issue 37
page 13 |   issue 37
                   | Academic Affairs

                                     Implementing              NGOs           Degrees at         NDU
                                     The whereabouts of NGOs and their
                                     need in the Arab world

In its preparation for the conference to      The speakers at the conference             and economic development.
      launch the NGOs Degree Program,         included Dr. Ameen A. Rihani, NDU          As things are today in the
 which took place at Friends Hall, Main       Vice-President, Sponsored Research         Arab World, civil society is
  Campus, on 24 May 2006, the Faculty         and Development, H. E. Mrs. Nayla          weak; the democratic
              of Political Science, Public    Mouawad, Minister of Social Affairs        structures are scarce and/or
          Administration and Diplomacy        and President of René Mouawad              non-existent. Most NGOs are
conducted the following steps: sending        Foundation, Dr. Abdel-Hussein              controlled by political and/or
 invitations to some 300 NGO contacts         Shaaban, Representative of AGFUND,         religious factions and
   in Lebanon, some 200 former course         Dr. Michel Nehme, Dean of Faculty of       organized mainly on sectarian
    participants at NDU workshops, the        Political Science, Public Administration   lines. Short-term objectives,
     Ministry of Education, surrounding       and Diplomacy, NDU, Dr. Hassan             linked to political
        municipalities, all universities in   Krayem, Policy Specialist, UNDP,           considerations, mark most of
         Lebanon, schools, NDU board of       Ms. Darine El-Sabeh, Regional              the existing NGOs. The scope
   trustees, all NDU faculties, staff and     Manager for Volunteering and Youth in      of work is more charity- than
                        enrolled students.    MENA, International Federation of Red      development-oriented. The
                                              Cross and Red Crescent, Mrs. Elisabet      dependence on international
                                              Sundström, Communication and               aid is almost complete.
                                              Advocacy Officer, Save the Children        Incentives for teamwork,
                                              Sweden, MENA Regional Office,              democratic structures and real
                                              Ms. Nina Jamal, Member of Executive        grass-roots organization are
                                              Committee, Greenline, Dr. Raed             rare. There is a need to change
                                              Charafeddine, Member of the Board,         the concept of leadership and
                                              Imam Sadr Foundation, Mrs. Faikaa          organization development in
                                              Turkiyeh, President, Lebanese Council      the MENA region and to
                                              of Women, Mrs. Ruba Khoury, Area           expand the networks between
                                              Development Programs' Coordinator,         NGOs and faith-based
                                              Mr. Nassib Rahhal, Human Resources         organizations, as they have
                                              Office, World Vision                       different organizational set-
                                                                                         ups and orientations. The list
                                              The need to strengthen NGOs has many       of needs in our Arab World
                                              causes. Referring to a specific one, I     societies is endless and as a
                                              would say that in the Middle East and      university committed to
                                              the Arab world there is a lack of          contributing to the best of our
                                              sustainable structures and a bottom-up     ability, we thought that the
                                              approach to meet pressures of social       third sector should be given

 page 14 |       issue 37
                                  NGO at NDU                             24 May 06

its due attention in the          4. CONSTRUCTIVE SKILLS, i.e., planning,     through university degree formulation
measure of the means              participatory (circular) management,        should play a major role in the
available to us and with the      accounting and book-keeping,                initiation and development of NGOs
help of AGFUND we devoted         marketing and purchasing, negotiation,      and, if positive social energy can be
our efforts to the                monitoring and record keeping,              generated, it will find forms and tools
establishment of an NGO           technical skill in micro-computers,         to act. The NGOs are an important
concentration degree.             organizing cooperatives/credit unions,      preparatory ground, and with their
                                  handling labor problems, and                alternative insights they are able to
The task of starting a program    understanding legal aspects.                attract indispensable allies and pursue
that offers NGOs degrees at                                                   their mission in the deeply distorted
NDU was not an easy one.          5. DOCUMENTATION, DISSEMINATION             Arab societies. They need consolidation,
Among the many problems to        OF INFORMATION, i.e., small-group           supportive infrastructure building,
be dealt with were the            formation, clarification of values and      networking, coordination, and common
following:                        vision, group dynamics, different kinds     action. They need strong institutional
                                  of media production, communication          academic and educational support.
1. Preparing the curriculum at    skills and visual aids, conscientization-   With help, NGOs could become a
a time when a critical-           senticizing skills, advocacy, networking    positive factor in the Arab societies,
thinking approach is sweeping     and linkages.                               and the future measure of their success
the United States educational                                                 is their contribution to its
institutions, impacting Europe    We at NDU, acting in cooperation with       transformation.
and beginning to concern          AGFUND, believe that education
academicians in Lebanon and
Egypt, with all that it entails
from courses to essentials
related to admissions and
                                                                                          From left to right: Dr. Georges
                                                                                     Labaki, Dr. Abdul-Hussein Shaaban,
2. Group dynamics,                                                                         Dr. Ameen Rihani, H.E. Nayla
community integration,                                                                 Mouawad and Dr. Michel Nehme.
problem identification,
community investigation,
facilitation, mobilization,
communication, role-playing,
objectivity, monitoring and

RESEARCH, i.e., identification
of research problems,
identification of different
research tools, data gathering,
analysis of data, consultation
with the community and
validation of data, drawing of
conclusions, and making of

                                                                                                page 15 |       issue 37
                   | Academic Affairs

Goals of the NGOs                   |   3. Facilitating Communication         scheme to innovate with activities that
                                  NDU has been able to educate a              need to be carefully documented and
Program at NDU                    selected group of NGOs to use               shared, for effective participatory
Among the wide variety of         interpersonal methods of                    monitoring will permit the sharing of
possible goals to be achieved,    communication, and to study the right       results with the people themselves as
NDU has been able to fix the      entry points whereby they gain the          well as with the project staff.
following six objectives which    trust of the community they seek to
can be identified as important:   benefit. Likewise they were oriented so       | 6. Advocacy for and with the
                                  that they should also work in the           Poor
  |   1. Development              direction of having a good idea of the      NDU has been able to forecast to all
      Appropriate for             feasibility of the projects they take up.   organizations hosted for workshops
      Operation                   The significance of this role to the        that NGOs will be able to become
Community-based                   government is that NGOs can                 spokespersons or ombudsmen for the
organizations and                 communicate to the policy-making            poor and attempt to influence
cooperatives have been            levels of government information about      government policies and programme on
identified. We have contacted     the lives, capabilities, attitudes and      their behalf. This has already been done
several of these entities and     cultural characteristics of people at the   and it could proceed on a higher level
realized that they need           local level.                                through a variety of means ranging
technical assistance or advice                                                from exhibitions and pilot projects to
from universities,                NGOs can facilitate communication           participation in public forums, in the
governmental agencies or          upward from people to the government        formulation of government policy and
higher-level NGOs. We have        and downward from the government to         plans, and in publicizing research
designed and developed a          the people. Communication upward            results and case studies of the poor.
course work that fits their       involves informing government about         Thus NGOs play roles ranging from
operations.                       what local people are thinking, doing       advocates for the poor to implementers
                                  and feeling while communication             of government programs; from
  |2. Supporting                  downward involves informing local           agitators and critics to partners and
Innovation, Demonstration         people about what the government is         advisors; from sponsors of pilot
and Pilot Projects                planning and doing. NGOs are also in a      projects to mediators.
Through different seminars,       unique position to share information by
NDU has been able to help         horizontally networking with other
NGOs in selecting particular      organizations doing similar work.           General Annotations
places for innovative projects
and in specifying in advance        | 4. Technical Assistance and             For the last several years there have
the length of time which they     Training                                    been mounting comments on the
will be supporting the project,   NDU has developed a scheme by which         status and place of the NGOs as a
so avoiding some of the           its facilities can train institutions and   "third sector" around the globe and
shortcomings that                 NGOs to develop technical skills and        specifically in the Arab World, the first
governments face in this          capacity and use this to assist both        such sectors being governments and
respect. NGOs can also be         capacity-building organizations and         the second being profit-seeking private
pilots for larger government      governments.                                business establishments. Is this a sign
projects by virtue of their                                                   that the institutions of the "first" and
ability to act more quickly         |5. Researches, Monitoring and            "second" sectors are not fulfilling their
than the government               Evaluation                                  expected respective roles in society?
bureaucracy.                      NDU has been able to advance a              Or, more specifically, are they a

  page 16 |       issue 37
                                      NGO at NDU                            24 May 06

reflection of the crisis of the                participation different from traditional   developed since the
contemporary state whose functions             forms (parties, unions of employers,       eighteenth century (Isaiah
have increasingly overlapped with              trade unions), pursuing public purposes    Berlin).
supranational structures of                    outside the formal apparatus of the
administrative power, transnational            state. Many informal interest and          These values have been
business structures, and the growing           lobbying groups have had a                 fundaments of the emerging
aspirations of local communities? Are          tremendous influence upon public           civil society. The NGOs rely on
they a supplementary mechanism for             processes throughout history. But          these values and, in many
mobilization of the social energy that         NGOs are different: they are               respects, introduce new values
would otherwise be lost because of the         organizations operating in the formal      and principles such as self-
imperfections of the state and the             framework, acting publicly, with           expression, self-help,
market? Have the problems usually              transparent activities, cooperating or     participation, mutual aid,
solved by the existing institutions            competing on the open stage with           flexibility, and networking.
acquired unknown forms, or have new            other social actors.
problems appeared, demanding a new                                                        Benefiting from new
type of institution to meet them?              There is a new experience of personal      technologies, they promote
                                               responsibility and capacity to protect,    new forms of social
As nongovernmental organizations               develop and change the immediate           organization, and new forms
appear in various fields (ecology,             social and natural environments,           of development, that is,
human rights, development,                     accompanied by an awareness of the         participatory development,
professional and other interest groups,        implications of many of those activities   overcoming the limited
etc.), at different levels (local, regional,   for the whole planet.                      capacities of the state and
state, global), with different scopes of                                                  profit organizations as agents
interest and activity (issue-specific,         "Among the laws that rule human            of development.
field-specific, general issues) and            societies, there is one that seems more
strength (small groups, specialized            precise and clear than all others.         Many problems of the
organizations, social movements), it is        If men are to remain civilized or          contemporary world have
not easy to give simple answers to the         become so, the art of associating          been simultaneously
above questions.                               together must grow and improve in the      approached by NGOs, states,
                                               same ratio in which the equality of        and international
It is evident that there is a crisis of the    conditions is increased." (Alexis de       organizations and agencies.
welfare state in the developed world,          Tocqueville).
of the developmental state in the              But many of the values of modern civil     Conferences of state and
developing world, and of the                   society were not appreciated until         government representatives
articulation of the state in the world in      recently. Honesty and frankness were       are often followed by
transition. In each of these worlds            not highly esteemed in ancient or          meetings of NGOs considering
there is a deep change in the nature of        medieval times. The value of diversity,    the problems of peace,
relationship between state and citizen.        the perception of uniformity as            environmental protection, the
                                               monotonous, the possibility of different   role of women, and the
The spectacular growth of organized            truths existing at the same time, the      problems of the young and of
voluntary activity and the creation of         value of tolerance as a virtue, not just   national and racial minorities.
private, nonprofit or nongovernmental          as a means to escape conflicts, the        Furthermore, many highly
organizations could be characterized as        contemporary attitude to freedom and       influential international
an "associational revolution". The NGOs        human rights, are all relatively new       organizations, such as the
establish new forms of social                  achievements that have been                OECD or the World Bank, have

                                                                                                  page 17 |      issue 37
                  | Academic Affairs

identified NGOs as major          economic actors in the national             However, independent NGOs have
collective actors in              economies. In 1994, for example, some       many difficulties and (self) constraints
development activities,           250,000 charities were registered in        in developing their activities in the
matching their explosive          the United Kingdom, with an income          Arab World and the MENA region at
emergence with special            approaching five percent of the gross       large. The NGO network is not evenly
programs and some                 national product.                           developed and spatially distributed.
institutional adjustments.                                                    There is no clear and supportive legal
                                  There is not only pressure from below       environment. They are fragmented,
There are differences in the      (groups of citizens, local communities),    limited in scope by the narrow circles
legal status, treatment and       or from outside (international NGOs,        of activists and users of their services,
real position of NGOs from        various public and private institutions),   lacking a coordinated performance, and
country to country. There are     but also from above (the state) to form     often mutually competing. There is an
many states with long             nonprofit organizations. In many            almost total media silence about the
traditions of the voluntary       countries, official government policy       third sector in the Arab World, as well
sector, which is widely           circles have been supporting NGOs. In       as a lack of funds, weak infrastructure,
accepted and appreciated by       some cases it has been an indirect way      and meager international support.
public opinion. A good part of    of reducing government social
the infrastructure and many       spending, while in others NGOs were         Through coordination and the
activities of the NGOs have       perceived as good mediators between         development of a common
been financed through private     citizens and the state, or as a way of      infrastructure, NGOs can significantly
and state foundations,            ensuring popular participation in           develop their strengths. They should
endowments, grants,               development.                                diversify their approach to policy-
membership fees, etc.. The                                                    making, the building of a parallel
state also provides support by    The development of a significant third      society, confrontation, and even issue-
tax exemption for NGOs and        sector (NGOs) is not possible without a     specific cooperation. Attracting allies
for donations by their            sizable urban middle class, which           should prevail in their strategy. They
sponsors.                         usually becomes more active when            can act in the decision-making process
                                  threatened by an economic crisis. But       by "anti-political" means, changing the
In some domains, such as the      NGOs can be instrumentalized both by        political culture and building a new
humanitarian one, NGOs have       the government and the public at            social project outside a mere power
been showing superior             large.                                      struggle.
performance (higher efficiency
and cheaper services) than        The NGOs' role is to complement,            I believe that NDU in cooperation with
expensive and bureaucratic        substitute, influence, and improve the      AGFUND could promote all of the
state agencies and social         state's activities. In "normal" societies   above in the best possible way. After
services, which spend more on     the mutual relationship is inevitably       all, we are educators and have among
self-maintenance than on          competition and cooperation. The state      our highest objectives in universities
servicing their clients' needs.   should provide proper legal and             the commitment to produce better
That is why in some countries     financial support to the third sector.      societies.
NGOs have obtained access to      But in some cases, NGOs have had to
public tenders open for the       opt for support from a "parallel                                      | Prepared by
state agencies. Although they     society" of donors, acting outside the                    Prof. Michel Nehme
are nonprofit organizations,      system.
NGOs have become important

  page 18 |      issue 37
                                     Dr. Elachi at NDU                   23/05/2006

 Dr. Charles Elachi
 His Visit to NDU Adds to the International
 Dimension of NDU Engineering                                                               | By   Dr. Elias Nassar

On Tuesday May 23, 2006, NDU hosted           After making a tour of the NDU            NASA administrator Dan
       Lebanese-American Professor of         campus with Father Walid Moussa,          Goldin for example called
   Electrical Engineering and Planetary       President of NDU, and NDU                 Dr. Elachi "both an effective
Science Dr. Charles Elachi. Dr. Elachi is     administrators, Dr. Elachi gave a         administrator and visionary".
      the Director of the Jet Propulsion      lecture in the NDU New Auditorium         Also the Jet Propulsion
  Laboratory and Vice-President of the        entitled The Excitement and               Laboratory (JPL) employees
     California Institute of Technology.      Challenges of Space Exploration.          where Dr. Elachi serves as
                                                                                        Director called him "a breath
     Dr. Elachi received his Engineering      Mr. Suheil Matar, Director General,       of fresh air" when JPL was
degree from the Ecole Polytechnique in        Public Relations and Information,         ruffled with problems. Quoting
 France and his PhD from the California       welcomed Dr. Elachi to NDU by stating     from Dr. Elachi himself,
                 Institute of Technology.     that the presence of Dr. Elachi was an    Dr. Khoury said that Dr.
                                              honor for the University and that his     Elachi's desire is "to make JPL
  In the following we give a brief report     position at NASA was an honor for         a better place to work, where
              of Dr. Elachi's visit to NDU.   Lebanon as a whole.                       top scientists want to come
                                                                                        instead of leave and to create
                                              Then Dr. Shahwan Khoury, Dean of the      an environment of excitement
                                              Faculty of Engineering, introduced        where everybody looks forward
                                              Dr. Elachi by quoting what US             to coming to work every day
                                              scientists and engineers say about him.   like I do." Finally Dr. Khoury

                                                                                                    Dr. Shahwan Khoury
                                                                                                   introducing Dr. Elachi

                                                                        The audience

                                                                                                page 19 |        issue 37
  | Academic and Student Activities

thanked all those who had         who were spread all over the world. He      In his talk he emphasized the
contributed to the preparation    stressed that Dr. Elachi was more           importance of having persistence and
of this event, namely the         helpful to Lebanon then some                curiosity when doing exploration. Then
President of Diwan Ahl            politicians; therefore if students really   he proceeded to state some of the
AlKalam, Dr. Salwa AlKhalil       loved their country they should take        major steps taken so far in planetary
AlAmin, the NDU                   Dr. Elachi as an example and look for       exploration. He pointed out the
Administration, the Student       the truth and not for empty and             similarities between planet Mars and
Cabinet and the Professional      deceiving appearances. Father Moussa        Earth and mentioned the strong
Societies, namely the IEEE, the   reiterated NDU's pleasure at receiving      possibility of finding water on Mars.
ASME and the ASCE as well as      Dr. Elachi and hoped for continued
the Astronomy Club.               contact and cooperation with him.           Then Dr. Elachi showed two movies
                                                                              made during the landings of two
In his address, Father Walid      Finally Father Moussa thanked Diwan         spacecrafts on Mars. The first movie
Moussa, said that it was a        Ahl AlKalam for hosting Dr. Elachi.         illustrated the excitement of the space
great honor that the first                                                    exploration team after a successful
lecture to be given in the new    Dr. Elachi started his talk by stating      landing. The following movie included
Auditorium after its              that he was proud to be Lebanese and        information about the development
inauguration should be that of    quoted from Theodore Roosvelt in order      stage of the spacecraft and the many
Dr. Charles Elachi, the           to describe work in space exploration:      challenges and disappointments faced
scientist distinguished by his                                                by JPL engineers and scientists.
education, drive and                | "Far better is it to dare mighty        Dr. Elachi made the point that one
nationalism. Father Moussa        things, to win glorious triumphs - even     learns more from failure than from
noted the pleasant                though checkered by failure - than to       successes. He therefore urged students
coincidence between the           rank with those poor spirits who neither    to take the tough courses because one
Asteroid named after              enjoy much nor suffer much; because         does not learn much from an easy
Dr. Elachi as Asteroid 4116       they live in the gray twilight that knows   course.
and the NDU establishment         not of victory, nor defeat."
decree 4116.

Father Moussa said that the
goal of the University was the
search for truth, as expressed
by the motto on its entrance
Gaudium de Veritate.
Addressing the students,
Father Moussa stated that
Lebanon was not a
demonstration or a political
slogan or a minister or a
deputy or a president, but                                                                               Dr. Elachi
                                                                                                      addressing an
Lebanon was Charles Elachi                                                                            attentive
and his Lebanese colleagues                                                                           audience.

  page 20 |      issue 37
                                    Dr. Elachi at NDU                   23/05/2006

Dr. Elachi then explained the               satellites to detect earthquakes from     international journals and
importance of exploring Saturn and its      space before they happen is an            conferences.
moon Titan due to very strong evidence      ongoing field of research.
that it may contain frozen ice. Comets                                                The Faculty of Engineering has
are also interesting targets for            Finally Dr. Elachi showed a three-        reached agreements with
exploration since it is believed that       dimensional image of Lebanon made by      several universities for student
they were the source of water on            superimposing data from satellites.       and faculty exchange; these
earth.                                                                                agreements were the results
                                            Father Moussa then presented              of the excellent performance
Future plans at JPL include sending a       Dr. Elachi with the NDU Medal, while      of Engineering students at
probe to the north pole of Mars to look     Mr. Matar offered Dr. Elachi four books   those universities. In the
at the layers of ice which contain          from the NDU series.                      Electrical, Computer and
historical temperature information                                                    Communication Engineering
about this planet in the same manner        Receiving a distinguished engineer        Department two such
that is done in Antarctica and              such as Dr. Elachi illustrates the        agreements have been
Greenland. Also a rover will be sent in     excellent image of NDU and the            reached, with the University of
2009 that is able to do chemical            international dimension of NDU            ULM in Germany and Ohio
analysis in order to find out if there is   Engineering.                              University in the United
organic material on Mars.                                                             States. In the Mechanical
                                            NDU Engineering under the leadership      Engineering Department an
Dr. Elachi concluded by saying that         of Dr. Khoury has in recent years         agreement with Vaxjo
information obtained from space             received recognition from local and       University in Sweden has also
exploration is used to improve life on      foreign reputable universities due to     been signed.
earth. Currently the big challenge is to    the quality education of its students
conserve the ozone layer that protects      who enroll in graduate studies and the
the earth from radiation. Also using        publications of faculty members in
                                                                                                  A large crowd listens
                                                                                                          to Dr. Elachi.

   Father Walid Moussa presenting
Dr. Elachi with the NDU Medal. In the
photo also are Dr. Salwa AlKhalil
AlAmin, President of Diwan Ahl
AlKalam, and Mr. Suheil Matar.

                                                                                              page 21 |       issue 37
| Academic and Student Activities

                        Mr. Walid Maalouf
                        U.S. Agency for International Development

                       In Friends' Hall on Friday, June 16, 2006, Mr. Walid Maalouf, Director of the Public
                       Diplomacy for Middle Eastern and MEPI Affairs, of the US Agency for International
                       Development, gave a lecture on American Experience: A Land of Equal Opportunity.

                       The distinguished speaker was presented by Dr. George Eid, NDU Vice President
                       for Academic Affairs, and welcomed in a speech by NDU President Rev. Fr. Walid
                       Moussa. Father Moussa asked Mr. Maalouf for three things, referring to his
                       position as an American and to his love for Lebanon: 1) to remain a Lebanese and

page 22 |   issue 37
                                   Walid Maalouf visit                  16/06/2006

to keep Lebanon's interests above all others, 2) to ingrain in the American mind      Mr. Maalouf, were in Iraq to
the need to ensure justice and peace in Lebanon and the region, especially in         help the Iraqi people; also, the
Palestine and Iraq, without which nothing but war and destruction could lie           USA was a safe place for Islam
ahead, and 3) to be a bridge between East and West, a bridge drawing strength         to flourish and grow, as there
from justice, faith, truth and equality.                                              one's religion was not
                                                                                      questioned and the law was
The guest speaker thanked the University for its invitation and said he was going     against discrimination. He
to talk about his own experience in the USA and about how anyone might                thought that when people
succeed in that land of opportunity. He referred to the principles enshrined in the   understood America they
American Constitution, ones which Americans are striving to live up to, their full    would not hate her. America's
realisation being a work in progress. Because of this, during the past twenty-six     generosity was shown by the
years when Mr. Maalouf was building a family and professional career, he did not      establishment of the Agency
forget Lebanon. He hoped Lebanese would unite, speak with one voice, help each        for International Development.
other, and be truthful with themselves as with others. These were the values that
would make a new Lebanon.                                                             Mr. Maalouf then referred to
                                                                                      how Lebanese Americans had
Mr. Maalouf insisted that Americans are ready to unite in the national interest,      been working for a free and
especially when catastrophe strikes, and to follow sound leadership, in which         independent Lebanon. He
connection he made special mention of Mr. George Bush after 9/11. Their success       referred to the problems
was due to their hard work. In America he himself had learned to be a team            raised with the Palestinians
player, persistent, thankful, and both forgiving and dreaming, for dreaming led to    and militias by UNSCRs 1559
achievement. Also, being both Lebanese and American made him a typical                and 1680, saying that the
American as all Americans had come from another country to which they                 international community
remained emotionally tied.                                                            expected to see progress. He
                                                                                      once again spoke of the
After UNSCR 1559, a new Lebanon was born, but much work remained to be                positive role of the Lebanese
done. State-building took time, as the American example showed, but a free and        Diaspora and the need for
democratic Lebanon was in American interests. The Arabs in general wanted             Lebanese unity.
democracy, sound economics and prosperity, and for this the rule of law was
needed, with political, economic and social reform. US forces, claimed

                                              | ... keep Lebanon's interests above all others...

                                                                                              page 23 |      issue 37
  | Academic and Student Activities

                                  5th Millennial Lecture Series,

                                                                           The theme this year has been
                                                                           Veils of Eve.

                            Women in the New Testament
                            by Tord Fornberg, Uppsala University

Talk given in Friends' Hall on   Dr. Tord Forberg kindly sent us this       women missionaries such as Junia and
Thursday, March 9th.             summary of his lecture from Uppsala:       Prisca add to the picture. But the
                                 In this paper I want to show that          development of an organized
                                 women played a much more important         priesthood led to a strictly male
                                 role in the early Church than could be     hierarchy as is witnessed in the
                                 expected from their marginal place in      Pastoral Epistles and later on by
                                 the Old Testament and contemporary         Ignatius of Antioch. The emergent
                                 Jewish sources. Already in the birth       Catholic Church, however, was never
                                 narratives of Jesus several women are      influenced by the disregard for the
                                 mentioned, also foreign women like         female sex so often to be found in the
                                 those in his genealogy. The Gospels,       Gnostic movement.
                                 especially the Gospel of Luke, when
                                 read carefully, reveal that Jesus was      The author:
                                 surrounded not only by his twelve male     Tord Fornberg, born in 1943, associate
                                 disciples but also by a number of          professor of New Testament Exegesis at
                                 women, some of whom later on               Uppsala University (Sweden). Guest
                                 became the crown witnesses of his          teacher in Hong Kong, Bangalore and
                                 Resurrection. The important role played    Jerusalem. Member of the Commission
                                 by women in the life of Jesus              for Inter-religious Dialogue of the
                                 continued in the early Church. Women       Catholic Diocese of Stockholm.
                                 such as the lady from Sychar and rich
                                 business women such as Lydia and

  page 24 |      issue 37
                 5th Millennial Lecture Series                          2005-2006

Mary's Passion Via Apotheosis
  | By   Dr. Boulos Sarru'

In Friends' Hall on Tuesday, April          will. Her obedience was the               alone was taxing enough and
11th, the series continued with a           counterpart to Eve's disobedience and     his actual crucifixion would be
lecture by Dr. Boulos Sarru', NDU           it redeemed Eve.                          more so. When she had been
Dean of Humanities, taking as his                                                     told she would conceive, she
subject the sufferings of Mary,             Dr. Sarru' then developed the theme of    knew her son would perform
Mother of Christ.                           the miracle at the marriage at Cana,      miracles and would be
Dr. Sarru' first referred to the Holy       where Mary's confidence in Christ's       crucified, and then she
Virgin as the archetype of monotheistic     ability to perform a miracle shows that   advanced in her faith and in
divine maternity and second Eve, as         through the physical bond between         her suffering.
she appears in secular and liturgical       them Mary was aware of his divinity
literature. But as a suffering human        and of his mission of salvation. His      A parallel was drawn by the
being she is always left in second place    answer about his time not yet being       speaker between Mary's
in relation to her son. It was the          come revealed his certainty about his     astonishment, and then
speaker's intention to follow the theme     coming passion. One could only wonder     submission to God's will at the
of Mary's suffering from the                how Mary bore the torture of the          time of the announcement by
Annunciation to the Resurrection.           progressive realisation of the coming     Gabriel, and Christ's prayer,
                                            passion on both the physical and          agony and submission in the
The first phase of the passion was          psychological levels.                     Garden of Gethsemane, which
foreshadowed in the prophesy of                                                       reflected the natural human
Isaiah: Behold, a virgin shall conceive,    The speaker then treated marriage as      fear of death. Subsequently,
and bear a son, and shall call his name     the symbol of leaving behind              the climax of Mary's suffering
Emmanuel. (7: 14) The child was to be       individuation when humanity was           as she witnessed that of her
born of the full grace of the soul and      awaiting the Son of God and of            son was also the climax of her
not of a sin of the flesh. But despite      entering the phase of union with          reconciliation through faith,
Mary's innocence, its conception,           salvation, celebrated with the new        and consequently her
according to the Law, brought her a         wine. With the New Covenant,              apotheosis.
burden of danger and fear.                  represented by the marriage, Mary
                                            became the mother of the Church.          The double crucifixion was
The visits of angels had been                                                         concluded by its reward, for it
overwhelming experiences for Old            The march to Calvary was now              was not purposeless but an
Testament prophets, and the visit of an     beginning, for the ceremonial wine        exaltation full of hope in
angel invading the privacy of an            signified Christ's sacrificial blood.     God's promise of salvation,
inexperienced maiden must have been         Christ and Mary both knew that new        which is why, after being
even more so. Mary was afraid,              life was to be gained by losing the old   entrusted to the care of John,
especially as she had been betrothed to     one and Dr. Sarru' showed that their      the Beloved Disciple, she fades
Joseph. But Gabriel reassured her,          passion was not meaningless suffering,    into the background.
citing how Mary's barren cousin             but a sublime ecstasy.
Elizabeth had conceived in her old age,                                                 | Questions & discussion
and Mary courageously accepted God's        Mary's knowledge of her son's destiny     followed the talk.

                                                                                              page 25 |     issue 37
  | Academic and Student Activities

                                       Freud Centenary

   On the occasion of the 150th       Father Walid Moussa, President of Notre      psychoanalysis teaches us the virtues of
 anniversary of Sigmund Freud's       Dame University, gave the opening            compromise, prudence, endurance and
    birthday, in cooperation with     speech. He pointed to the importance of      courage. Dr. Charabati described the
        the Lebanese Institute for    Freud's thought as a means to                development of psychoanalysis within the
             Societal Research, the   understand and solve the psychological       context of client-therapist relationships.
        Department of Social and      problems of violence during our times.       Dr. Adel Akl focused on the development
          Behavioral Sciences, the    Dr. Boulos Sarru', Dean of the School of     of psychoanalysis and its contemporary
      Psychology Program of the       Humanities, stressed the importance of       consequences: one may not do with
  School of Humanities at Notre       psychoanalyzing psychoanalysis in the        Freud, but one cannot but refer to him.
         Dame University, Louaize     hope of reaping all the benefits
  (NDU), organized a conference       psychoanalysis can provide us with.             | The second session included
          about the contemporary      Dr. Doumit Salameh, Chairman of the          Dr. Mounir Chamoun, a practicing
           development of Freud's     Social and Behavioral Sciences               psychoanalyst and a Professor of
 psychoanalysis. This conference      Department, gave an overview about the       Psychology at St. Joseph's University.
 took place on May 19, 2006 at        identity and the development of the          Dr. Adnan Hubballah, a practicing
      the auditorium of the main      Psychology Program at NDU.                   psychoanalyst and a professor of
  campus. The participants were                                                    psychology at the Lebanese University
     practicing psychoanalysts as        | The first session included three        and Dr. Edward Alam, an Associate
well as academicians from Notre       speakers: Dr. Youssef Yacoub, Assistant      Professor of Philosophy at NDU. The
   Dame University, St. Joseph's      Professor in the Psychology Program at       moderator was Mr. Simon Abou Jawdeh
    University, and the Lebanese      NDU, Dr. Mona Charabati, a practicing        a practicing therapist and a Senior
                        University.   psychoanalyst and a Professor of             Instructor in the Psychology Program at
                                      Psychology at St. Joseph's University, and   NDU.
                                      Dr. Adel Akl, a practicing psychoanalyst.
                                      The moderator was Dr. Abdo Kai,              Mr. Abou Jawdeh vibrantly introduced
                                      Director of the Lebanese Institute for       each speaker according to his merits, in
                                      Societal Research at NDU.                    addition to his wishing a Happy Birthday
                                                                                   to Freud as if Freud were present for the
                                      Dr. Kai commented on the time when           celebration. Dr. Chamoun presented the
                                      psychoanalysis was born. It was a time of    different biographers of Freud. He
                                      splendid scientific and philosophical        pointed out why and how each
                                      productivity, when each productivity         biographer was for or against Freud.
                                      grew out of the other contribution.          Dr. Hubballah showed how Freud's
                                      Dr. Yacoub presented the issue of            itinerary started as the background of all
                                      whether Freud is still needed during our     the developments in psychoanalysis.
                                      present time. His point was that             While psychoanalysis was with Freud

   page 26 |       issue 37
                                                  Department of English Translation and Education

concerned with neurosis, its development,
particularly with Lacan led to another concern,    Giftedness
namely psychosis. Dr. Alam provided the
audience his reading of David Bakan's writings,
which locates the origin of Freud                                                      Awareness
psychoanalysis in the Jewish mystical
traditions, the Kabballah.

                                                                In an age of advancing globalization and continued
   | The Third Session presented two speakers,                  international competition, the focus is no longer on the
Dr. Mozayane Osseiran-Hubballah, a                              myth of individual genius but on the identification of
practicing psychoanalyst, and Dr. Norman                        educational options available for gifted children. The
Nikro, an Assistant Professor of Literature at    Group of the Gifted was launched by the Faculty of Humanities at
the English Department NDU. The moderator         Notre Dame University in 2003, with Dr. Sami Samra as advisor. The
was Dr. Doumit Salameh.                           Group brought into educational focus the lack of significant changes
                                                  in attitudes toward giftedness.
Dr Salameh opened the session by introducing
the two presenters. Dr. Osseiran-Hubballah's      With the purpose of discussing issues related to giftedness, the
presentation was about "Freud the Man". She       Department of English, Translation and Education organized a
talked about his childhood, his youth, and his    series of seminars addressing Giftedness in the Context of our
adult-married life as well as his profession.     Schools, scheduled January to June 2006 on NDU's three
Dr. Nikro stressed that the unconscious is a      campuses. The goal in putting together this series, as Dr.
process that we develop as we "gather" up our     Christine Sabieh, Chairperson of the Department, has declared,
own self-understanding in our relationship        was: "to rethink aspects of the field of gifted education, to look
with the world.                                   at where we have been, and at where we ought to go."

   | The conference ended at 2:15 PM with         This series on Giftedness has been organized to serve a wide
many commentaries, which was followed by a        audience - researchers, teachers, principals, school counselors,
lunch offered by the University to all the        special-needs educators - who are concerned with nurturing
guests.                                           school children's potential.

                                                  Dr. Boulos Sarru', Dean of the Faculty of Humanities, launched
                                                  the series with an opening address in which he touched on the
                                                  educational gravity of giftedness and the continued need to keep
                                                  it under close observation, so as to guard against any
                                                  misconception of the phenomenon and, consequently, against
                                                  causing more harm than good: "Taken at face value, giftedness is
                                                  a welcome bliss; but a close scrutiny of such 'gifts' puts such a
                                                  bliss in grave jeopardy."

                                                                                                page 27 |       issue 37
  | Academic and Student Activities

The first seminar in the series,           Intelligence and Giftedness
delivered by Mr. Simon Abou Jaoude
(Senior Lecturer in Social and
Behavioral Sciences) focused on
Raising Awareness on Giftedness.
Mr. Simon Abou Jaoude hoped that           Intelligence and Giftedness was the topic of the second Department
gifted children will get the attention     of English, Translation and Education seminar from this year's series
they deserve, so as to bring together      of Giftedness in the Context of our Schools. Mrs. Mona El Abed
basic information about gifted             Faraj gave the seminar presentation during the Mondays of March
children: who they are, how we can         across NDU's three campuses, serving an audience that totaled close
identify them, and what we can do          to 200 educators, administrators and counselors. The purpose of the
for them.                                  seminar presentation was to address specifically questions relating
                                           to identifying gifted and intelligent people, deciding on whether
Mr. Abou Jaoude opened with a              intelligent people are gifted or gifted people intelligent, and looking
historical background on the subject.      at the relationship between intelligence and giftedness. The seminar
He then speculated about a definition      reflected on selected theories of intelligence to show that
for giftedness. An important segment       intelligence was an important increment of giftedness whether
of the lecture assembled specific          intelligence was considered a global entity as to Binet and Wechsler
characteristics about how to identify      or a specific one as to Sternberg and Gardner. Then, Gardner's ideas
gifted school children and how to          on the Multiple Intelligences (MI) Theory were related to the
develop practical options for teaching     teaching learning process, namely the learning environments in
them. Mr. Abou Jaoude concluded:           school settings.
"People concerned with giftedness
continue to persevere, because to          Mrs. El Abed Faraj noted that Gardner considered giftedness as the
each generation are born brilliant         potential a person showed for making a remarkable and valued
children to impress us with their          contribution to human condition. As such, each intelligence, be it
talents. It is enough for us realize how   musical, logical-mathematical, interpersonal, etc., had its own type
promising the gifted are, how they         of giftedness. Thus, it was important that the educators in the
need sustained and special schooling,      school settings should establish an MI learning environment to meet
how varied successful stimulation can      students' need: Giftedness. In that regard, participants in the
be, and that progress becomes              seminar were exposed to samples of lesson plans and engaged in a
imperative.                                number of activities including coming up with ideas, strategies,
                                           methods or materials tailored to each domain of intelligences.
"One of the joys of this seminar," as      Moreover, participants were presented with informal measuring
Mr. Abou Jaoude puts it, "is derived       tools on identifying giftedness in students.
from presenting it on NDU's three
different campuses to three different      In short, it was significant to note that giftedness was a form of
challenging audiences." Each campus        exceptionality. It was the role of educators in the school settings to
presentation was rewarding and             deal with the issue of giftedness while developing plans for the
unfailingly a source of satisfaction.      students in order to increase their intellectual potential and
                                           advance their contribution in one or more areas.
  | Mr. Abou Jaoude expressed
appreciation of the contributions of
Doctors Amal Yazigi, Amal Malek
and Dany Badran, and Mr. M. Hage.

  page 28 |      issue 37
                 Lebanese Emigration Research Center Activities                LERC

    Transnational Lebanese Migration:

                                                                                                            LERC's Activities
                             Using Traditional, Alternative, and
                             Information Communication Technology
                             (ICT)-Based Methodologies

On the occasion of the 3rd anniversary of the founding of LERC and under the
patronage of His Excellency A. K. Alli Assayouti, Ambassador Extraordinary and
Plenipotentiary of the Federal Republic of Nigeria to Lebanon, the Friends of the
Lebanese Emigration Research Center (LERC) at Notre Dame University (NDU) called
for a forum to discuss the use of traditional, alternative, and information
communication technology as methodologies in the study of transnational Lebanese
migration on April 5, 2006.

The forum began with an opening note       however, I would mention just three        presses that distribute the
by Guita Hourani, Associate Director of    that can be traced. First, LERC has        information; librarians and
LERC, stating that "April 2003 markes a    made itself the reference for anything     archivists who link the
milestone for NDU. It was in that year     related to migration from, to, and         operation of this structure to
that NDU decided to establish LERC,        through Lebanon; two, LERC was able        the scholars who use it; and
the world's premier academic center on     to twin Lebanese migration with NDU,       scholars, students,
Lebanese migration. This was a             so when people in Lebanon and abroad       businessmen, etc., who benefit
courageous undertaking. I say              think of Lebanese migration they           from it to promote research,
'courageous' because of the magnitude      associate it with NDU; and third, LERC     disseminate knowledge,
of the Lebanese migration, past and        was able to amass the largest and          formulate and evaluate
present, 'courageous' because of the       most diverse collection on Lebanese        policies, and enhance social
diversity of subjects and geographic       migration anywhere."                       and economic networking."
areas to be researched both at home
and abroad, and 'courageous' because       She declared, "Prior to LERC, a            Ms. Hourani then announced,
the need for information, data,            researcher on Lebanese migration           "because of its determination,
research, policies on migration in         would have to suffer martyrdom to          LERC has been working on
Lebanon is overwhelming for a              conduct research on the subject. But       establishing an electronic
government body to undertake, let          when LERC was founded, LERC began,         archive and database that will
alone to be tackled by a research          quietly but diligently, building           soon be made public. LEAD is
center."                                   infrastructure for scholarly work on       the Lebanese Emigration
                                           Lebanese migration. In general, the        Archive and Database, LEAD is
Ms. Hourani then added that,               basis of this infrastructure consists of   a tool that encompasses not
regardless, "NDU went ahead and for        libraries, archives, and museums that      only books, articles, papers,
the past three years LERC has been         preserve information; bibliographies,      monographs, photos,
germinating from an idea into a center.    search engines, and databases that         documents, manuscripts,
The accomplishments of the foundation      make that information retrievable;         journals, newspapers,
years are hard to demonstrate;             websites, journals, and university         pamphlets, posters, postcards,

                                                                                              page 29 |     issue 37
  | Academic and Student Activities

audio and video recordings,        Ms. Hourani then ended her                 development. Well before this date,
films, stamps, jokes,              introduction by saying, "LERC is now       some Lebanese had already settled in
caricatures, paintings,            indispensable in the field of Lebanese     the Ivory Coast. Among them were Said
sculpting, cultural material,      migration research because it has          and Assaad Mansour, who originated
etc., but also businesses,         made itself a repository of resources,     from a small village in Shoueifat and
institutes, associations, clubs,   data, and information and a hub for in-    who disembarked in Senegal in 1907.
organizations, religious           house experts and a network of             They established a company called the
institutions, personalities,       international researchers."                African Commercial Company."
migrants, and genealogical
information."                      H. E. Ambassador A. K. Alli Assayouti of   She then discussed the methodology
                                   Nigeria, who was the patron of the         used during her study. She mentioned
Ms. Hourani acknowledged,          event, said that the Lebanese              that in her own research in the '80s
"LERC is happy with what it        community in Nigeria played an             technology was not as advanced as
has accomplished, but this is      important role in strengthening the        today, so her work was based on
only the beginning. LERC is        relations between Nigeria and Lebanon.     qualitative and quantitative analysis.
determined to carry on             He also stressed the significant role      Beside consulting newspapers,
research and capacity-building     that the Lebanese business                 magazines, the national archives and
in the field of migration in       entrepreneurs made to Nigeria's            the Lebanese embassy in the Ivory
general and migration in           economic development. He ended his         Coast, Dr. Taan's quantitative analysis
Lebanon in particular. Among       speech by commended NDU for                was based on interviews and the use of
others, LERC is committed to       creating LERC and for inviting Dr.         questionnaires which affected more
studying the relationship and      Peter Adebayo to be a visiting             than 5% of the Lebanese migrant
the networks between               researcher to further his studies on the   population.
Lebanese immigrant                 Lebanese-Nigerians. He then promised
communities in the world and       to work closely to secure academic         She ended by saying that her study
the growth and development         agreements between NDU and                 was available in French and that it was
prospects of Lebanon."             universities in Nigeria.                   being translated into Arabic to be
                                                                              published by LERC in the coming
                                   Dr. Dunia Fayad Taan, Associate            academic year.
      President Felix
    Houphouet-Boigny               Researcher at LERC, began with an
                                   overview of the Lebanese migration to      "There are Lebanese who have been
                                   the Ivory Coast. She declared,             living here for more than one hundred
                                   "Migration towards the French and          years. Some of them settled in our
                                   British colonies of West Africa was        country well before my birth. One must
                                   fuelled by the growing global demand       remember that Lebanon was a French
                                   for tropical products, the French          colony. The first Lebanese who came
                                   mandate, and the annual quota of           here settled …in the hinterland. They
                                   migrants instituted by the USA at the      worked in trade and no one complained
                                   beginning of 1921. The Ivory Coast was     of their presence… After the eruption of
                                   among the colonies targeted by             war in Lebanon, many Lebanese came
                                   migrants; and since 1924 it has            here seeking refuge. I believe that we
                                   witnessed an unprecedented                 should welcome them…It is God who

   page 30 |      issue 37
                  Lebanese Emigration Research Center Activities                  LERC

has sent them to us." - Felix               repertoire of alternative methods."          tools were almost non-
Houphouet-Boigny, late President of                                                      existant in Nigeria. He said
Ivory Coast, October 14, 1985.              He then ended by stating, "Modern            that the most valuable tool
                                            technology has not altered, but              was the use of Colonial
Dr. Eugene Sensenig-Dabbous,                actually accelerated and intensified         Records and the Intelligence
Professor of Political Science at NDU       already existing patterns and methods        Reports of the National
and Associate Researcher at LERC            of linking the diaspora with the 'old        Archives of Nigeria, as well as
spoke about the methodology that he         country'. Email, cheap flights and           the ground survey that was
and LERC's team used in researching         telephone calls, the rapid transfer of       done with the assistance of
the right of Lebanese migrants to vote      money and the use of blogs and               students to document
in absentia in the parliamentary            websites have added a new dimension          Lebanese-owned companies.
elections. He said that "although the       to the way immigrants influence their
study of migrant populations has            countries of origin."                        Dr. Akram Khater, Director of
developed radically over the last 100                                                    Middle East Studies Program,
years and the methods have changed,         Dr. Peter F. Adebayo, Lecturer in            Associate Professor of History
the behaviour of diaspora communities       History at the University of Illorin in      at North Carolina State
has remained relatively constant.           Nigeria and Associate Researcher at          University and Member of
Immigrants have always attempted to         LERC, spoke about the methodologies          LERC's International Advisory
act politically, economically and           he used during his research on the           Board, spoke about the use of
culturally, both in their newly adopted     Lebanese migrants in Nigeria and their       high-tech in the course and
home and in the village, town or urban      role in the economy of the country. He       research he is proposing as a
centre from which they originate."          said that "Lebanese started arriving in      joint venture between NCSU
                                            Nigeria, in Lagos, in 1890 from Miziara      and LERC. Dr. Khater said,
He then assured that "today we can          in the north of Lebanon. They worked         "Trans-nationalism is a
use a variety of methods to study           by peddling mainly coral beads, which        growing phenomenon that is
migrant behaviour, which all run            gave them the nickname 'Coral'. After        transforming global economies
parallel to the tools at the disposal of    twenty years of petty trading, they          and local societies. Yet, most
the diaspora communities themselves.        began diversifying into produce,             studies of this historical
Along with traditional sources - such       livestock and general merchandise and        dynamic have been limited in
as the records of border officials,         into wholesale. They eventually moved        scope and theoretical
shipping companies and the courts -         into property development and the            framework. Specifically, most
alternative migration studies began         production of beverages and                  such scholarship focuses on
paying attention to the day-to-day          confectionaries, followed by iron, other     the transplanted community
lives of migrants as early as the 1960s.    metals, plastics, and the like." He then     and only rarely on the
Photos, letters to home, the minutes of     affirmed, "Outside the public sector,        influence of immigration on
immigrants' cultural and sports clubs,      the Lebanese remain the largest              the 'home' country. However,
baptismal records and the lyrics of         employer of labour in Nigeria."              it is only by studying the two
popular songs were collected and                                                         communities in tandem and
evaluated. More recently, so called         Dr. Adebayo then summarized the main         by exploring their relationship
'material culture,' e.g. the way families   methodological tools he used in his          to each other that we can
furnish their homes or dress their          research, which were mainly traditional      fully understand the past,
children, has also been added to the        and alternative since technological          present and future of

                                                                                                 page 31 |      issue 37
      | Academic and Student Activities

    immigration and its impact on      understanding immigration, as well as      He ended by saying that "the main
    cultures, societies and            studying specific historical examples of   project in the course will be for the
    economies. To that end the         immigrants from the Middle East.           students at both universities to
    project 'Tracing Immigrant         Moreover, the course will require both     conduct detailed and videotaped
    Lives' that I am working on        sets of students to share with each        interviews of immigrants and their
    with LERC is to teach a course     other their different perspectives on      families. These interviews will form the
    at my university and at LERC       immigration. Structurally, this will be    beginning of a database about the
    simultaneously and to conduct      accomplished through the use of high-      immigrants, about the transformative
    a study of Lebanese                tech such as on-line chat-rooms            nature of the immigration process and
    immigrants in North Carolina       dedicated to the class where the           experience, about those who stayed
    and their families and             students will have to provide              behind, and about the course of their
    communities in Lebanon."           substantial weekly commentary on the       relationship. This database will be
                                       readings. Then, every four weeks the       digitized and housed at NDU's
    He then explained that             students from both universities will       Lebanese Emigration Research Center
    "students enrolled in both         hold a 1-hour videoconference centred      and at NCSU and made available on
    classes will acquire the           around one of the themes of the            the web."
    theoretical framework for          course."

             Visualizing Lebanese Migration:

                                                                                                                   LERC's Activities
                      Lebanese Stamps as Political Messengers
                                                   | By Mrs. Huda Taleb-Srage

    "Philately," Mrs. Srage said, "is the      unnoticing. However, for those who
    branch of knowledge that studies           have attended the presentation of
    postal stamps and/or studies all forms     Mrs. Srage, this can no longer be the

    of franking used in the postal service.    case.
    Philately is one of the most
    sophisticated and wide-reaching            To celebrate the 3rd anniversary of the
    hobbies created in the contemporary        founding of LERC and the first
    world. Classically it was understood for   Lebanese philatelic exhibition at the
    its close connection to the surprising     headquarters of the Universal Postal
    twists and turns of history. Within a      Union in Berne, Switzerland, the
    more contemporary view, theme-             Lebanese Emigration Research Center
    collecting has created new paths for       (LERC) organized a lecture entitled
    philately, which is now considered not     Visualizing Lebanese Migration:
    only as a clear auxiliary science of       Lebanese Stamps as Political
    history, but one which also takes          Messengers, on May 24, 2006.
    history as its own aid."
                                               The lecture began with a welcoming              The lecturer Ms. Huda Taleb-
                                                                                            Srage and the moderator
    A postage stamp is a piece of art in       note by Ms. Diane Mikhael, Graphic           Ms. Diane Mikhael.
    miniature form that most of us pass by     Design instructor at Notre Dame

      page 32 |      issue 37
                  Lebanese Emigration Research Center Activities                 LERC

University. Ms. Mikhael introduced          stamp exhibitions.                             this way an iconic object and
Mrs. Srage with the declaration:                                                           it is in this precise sense that
"Mrs. Srage is a researcher in postal       Following the introduction, Mrs. Srage         we shall study it."
history and philatelic iconography. She     defined Philately and then gave a brief
is an AUB graduate. She published           historical overview on the history of             | Lebanese Stamps
Lebanon Through Its Stamps - Chafic         stamps. She emphasized that "since its         According to Mrs. Srage,
Taleb Collection (Dar An-Nahar, Dec         birth in Great Britain in 1840, the            Lebanese stamps are a source
2001), which is classified as an elite      postage stamp has fascinated a large           of modern Lebanese history
book. In addition, she has published        segment of the public and played a             that reflects the political and
numerous articles and a lengthy study       vital role in the history, politics and        ideological processes that
about The Stamp and its Images. She         culture of the world. The stamp is no          have occurred during the last
has contributed to seven philatelic         longer a private postal document,              80 years. The stamps are
exhibitions in which her father             which is collected for its historic-           investigated against the
Mr. Taleb exhibited, three of which         documental purpose, but is the                 background of historical
had her signature on the                    accessory or elemental piece of a              events and developments that
documentation, presentation, and            theme that is chosen. Postage stamps           are necessary for
creativity. The most recent one was in      are a very political, territorially            understanding these stamps.
April 2006 in Berne, Switzerland, at the    grounded and yet overlooked part of            The examination of 1,440
Universal Postal Union headquarters.        visual culture. Furthermore, in 1947,          Lebanese stamps issued
Her first solo exhibition was Women in      the Canadian artist Charles Comfort            between 1924 and February
the Stamps of the Arab World presented      argued that the postage stamp was 'a           2006 shows that the desired
at AUB in December 2006, one that is        valuable instrument of discreet                visual representation of the
considered a pioneer work. Mrs. Srage       national publicity'."                          Lebanese state, nation and
and Mr. Taleb are working on                                                               society has not dramatically
establishing a Philatelic Museum to         She summarized by saying, "The postal          evolved over time along with
house Mr. Taleb's precious collection       vignette, besides its function (name of        the changing outlook of the
(above 100,000 stamps covering              the issuing country, value, etc.) has          national elite, and its
complete and semi-complete                  developed a formal structure with              relationship with ordinary
collections from 60 countries). This        figures, events, ideologies, and diverse       citizens and the country's
Museum will hopefully comprise              symbols in the form of graphic                 geopolitical context.
facilities for a research unit, a           representations, which can be infinitely
specialized library, and permanent          varied. The postal object becomes in           The appearance of illustrated

   Ms. Taleb-Srage explains about the

                                                          Part of the keenly interested audience.

                                                                                                    page 33 |      issue 37
  | Academic and Student Activities

Lebanese stamps with              commemorative; these stamps install a     which were commemorative.
Lebanese geography (1925-         symbolic presence of ideological
1929) (thirteen different         fundamentals of statehood as an           From the Taef Agreement until today,
images were issued and            instrument of structural modernization.   (1989-2006), the revival of the
reprinted with different                                                    Lebanese stamp has continued; but the
additions in addition to          The period 1943-1976 witnessed the        process of issuing stamps is still in
Chiffre Tax- Postage Due          issuance of 208 sets, out of which 143    intensive care. A major feature is the
stamps depicting six              sets were commemorative. These            Commemoration of Independence every
additional places) was a          stamps were issued during five            10 years (1993, 2003). The existence of
symptom of the efforts made       presidential mandates. Stamps             themes related to Women, Human
for the realization of the        continued to appear following the         Rights and Celebrities is a positive
newborn state "Liban", its        basic pattern concerning geographical     indication, yet there has still been no
stamps being issued to            identification like those from the        indication of concern about emigrants.
identify and consolidate its      previous period. Technical progress in
newly gained territories.         picturing and printing was                  | Visual Presentation
Thirteen stamps representing      implemented and resulted in the           Mrs. Srage showed seven sets
the Cedar Tree plus nine other    evolution of the stamps' features. The    commemorating Emigrants as the first
historical places were first      repeatable prevailing discourse of the    category (total of 23 stamps):
issued and thus established       stamps was built on an ideology that is   Lebanese Emigrants' Congress (1950);
the first contextual icons. The   summarized by saying that a State's       Tourist Propaganda, The Summer of
Lebanese identity was born        political legitimacy is gained through    Emigrants (1955); Emigrants'
parallel to the iconic            its achievements.                         Conference (1959); World Lebanese
parameters focusing on                                                      Union Meeting (1960); World Lebanese
geography.                        The period 1975-1989, which saw           Union Congress, Beirut (1964); 3rd
                                  political conflicts that led to the       World Lebanese Union Congress, Beirut
Between 1930 and 1943,            retreat of the State, was a time when     (1968); World Lebanese Union (1971).
sixteen series were issued,       new issues were rare or even lacking.
seven of which were               Only 26 sets were issued most, of         The second category she showed was

  1950 issue.

                                    1955 issue.                                       1960 issue.

  page 34 |      issue 37
                 Lebanese Emigration Research Center Activities                 LERC

The Abduction of Europa by Zeus and a      She stated that "Lebanese emigrants          'banal' and exclusive in
Phoenician Sailing Ship, which are         were commemorated in Lebanese                character. The stamps, for
considered two icons of Lebanese           stamps mainly through emigrants'             their part, were not used to
emigration (11 stamps).                    congresses in Lebanon. This implies          play their central role in
                                           that the 'State' overlooked emigrants        citizenship education."
The third category was Lebanese            as an important economic power. Each
Emigrants in Brazil and Uruguay for        of the five presidential mandates, from      Dr. Charles Rizk, representing
the Anniversary of Brazil's                Independence up to the mid-seventies         Naamatallah Abi Nasr, M.P.;
Independence and World Festival of         of the last century, corresponded            The Public Affairs Officer at
Lebanese Youth in Uruguay (3 sets).        positively to this philatelic pattern. One   the US Embassy in Lebanon
                                           can consider these sets as a rich            Ms. Juliet Wurr; the Head of
The fourth category was Lebanese           subject, rather than a poor one, by          the Cultural and Commercial
Celebrities who lived abroad, such as      merely comparing them to other               Section at the Mexican
Hassan Kamel As Sabbah, Gebran Khalil      philatelic themes."                          Embassy Mr. Javier Góngora
Gebran, and Mikhail Neayme.                                                             and his wife; former
                                           Her analysis led her to conclude that        Ambassador of Lebanon to
Mrs. Srage concluded by saying that        "by focusing on the socially                 Nigeria Mr. Gilbert Aoun,
"in this study of the politics of          constructed visual qualities of the          Dr. Najwa Jammal,
commemoration through stamps, we           Lebanese stamps, we argue that their         Dr. Mohsen, Nader Srage
point out that public memories and         'reading' as political, socio-cultural and   from the Lebanese University;
identities are socially constructed and    specific texts offers valuable insights      Dr. May Kadoura; Dr. Ameen
are embedded in complex power              into the evolution and outlook of            Rihani Vice President for
relationships that determine what is       'Lebanon' the state, and the 'imagined       Research and Development at
remembered or forgotten. In general,       community' within its boundaries."           NDU; Ms. Guita Hourani,
the Lebanese identity was shapeless, all                                                LERC's Associate Director, and
through the collection, which explains     She remarked that "over the course of        many professors, researchers
the absence of emigrants as a basic        the last thirty years, Lebanese              and an interested public
component of the nation."                  nationalism has grown increasingly           attended the lecture.

                                    1968 issue.

                                                                                                              1971 issue.

                                                                          Correction: An error appeared on page 24
                                                                          of issue 36. The figure given at the top of
  1964 issue.
                                                                          the page should have been $250,000 and
                                                                          not $250.
                                                                                                page 35 |      issue 37
  | Academic and Student Activities

                                 Brazilian-Lebanese Chamber
                                 of Commerce, IDAL, and LERC

                                 On May 29, 2006, at the invitation and under the auspices of LERC's partner the
                                 Investment Development Authority of Lebanon (IDAL), an introductory meeting was
                                 held between the Brazilian-Lebanese Chamber of Commerce and LERC. The meeting
                                 was attended by Mr. Nabil Itani, IDAL's Chairman and General Manager, and Mr.
                                 Laurent Aoun, Advisor to IDAL's Chairman, Mr. Guilherme Mattar, Mr. Mitri
                                 Moufarrege and Mr. Nasser Nasr of the Brazilian-Lebanese Chamber of
                                 Commerce, and Ms. Guita Hourani of LERC.

The participants introduced      to interact with Lebanon not only on the commercial and investment levels, but
their entities and activities    also on the cultural level.
and addressed needs for
information pertaining to        Mr. Mattar spoke of Mont Lebanon Club's digitization project 'Maktoub'. The Club
investments, trade, and data.    is one of the oldest in Brazil and he explained that the digitization of its archive
                                 is an effort to safeguard its history as part of the history of Brazil and that of the
Chairman Itani summarized        Lebanese.
IDAL's work and its ability to
propose policy changes to        Mr. Nasr, who will be heading the Chamber's office in Lebanon, expressed concern
facilitate trade with Lebanon    about the stability of Lebanon as the major challenge for any investment.
and promote interest in
investment there.                Mr. Moufarrege stressed the need to do more for the young generations abroad to
                                 improve and strengthen their cultural attachment to Lebanon.
Ms. Hourani introduced LERC's
process of populating its        Ms. Hourani spoke about the NDU Summer Arabic and Cultural Program that
archive and database             attracts young Lebanese descendents mainly from Mexico and the possibility of
(Lebanese Emigration Archive     accommodating the program to the needs of Lebanese-Brazilian youth.
and Database-LEAD), which
will have a sub-database on      Mr. Mattar offered to send LERC a copy of Mont Lebanon Club's digitized material
businessmen and Lebanese         and to continue discussion as to future cooperation.
businesses abroad. She
explained the agreement
                                                                                                           From left to
signed between LERC, NDU,
                                                                                                        right: Mr. Nabil
and IDAL to cooperate on                                                                                Itani and
sharing information related to                                                                          Mr. Laurent Aoun
trade by the Lebanese                                                                                   of the IDAL,
                                                                                                        Ms. Guita Hourani
diasporic communities.                                                                                  of LERC,
                                                                                                        Mr. Guilherme
Mr. Moufarrege discussed the                                                                            Mattar, Mr. Mitri
repeated initiatives                                                                                    Moufarrege and
                                                                                                        Mr. Nasser Nasr of
undertaken by the diasporic                                                                             of the Brazilian-
Lebanese community in Brazil                                                                            Lebanese Chamber
                                                                                                        of Commerce.

  page 36 |      issue 37
                 Lebanese Emigration Research Center Activities                 LERC

 New Researchers at LERC

Rita Stephan, MA, PhD                       professional experience includes working    Steven Hyland, MA, PhD
Candidate                                   for former Texas Governor George W.         Candidate
                                            Bush as the Education Grants Analyst.
Ms. Rita Stephan is a Ph.D. candidate in    Her publications include several            Mr. Steven Hyland is a doctoral
Sociology with a specialization in          contributions to the Encyclopedia of the    candidate in the Department of
Political Sociology and a portfolio in      Modern Middle East and North Africa,        History at the Ohio State
Gender Studies. Her dissertation topic is   edited by Philip Mattar. She has an         University. His dissertation topic
Becoming Women's Rights Activists: The      article forthcoming in Hawwa Journal of     is Margins of the Mahjar:
Case of Lebanese and Lebanese-American      Women of the Middle East and the            Arabic-speaking immigrants in
Women. She is currently a lecturer at St.   Islamic World on "Arab Women Writers        Argentina, 1880-1946. His
Edward's University in Austin, Texas, and   Reclaiming the Sexual Discourse" and a      research project examines the
an Assistant Instructor at the University   chapter on "The Veil and Sexuality: The     internal dynamics, multiple
of Texas. She earned her Master's degree    Perspective of Arab Christian Women" in     strategies, and incongruent
from the American University in             The Veil: Women Writers on the History,     priorities within the Arabic-
Washington, D.C. in International Peace     Lore and Politics of the Head Covering,     speaking immigrant group that
and Conflict Resolution Studies. Her        from Burqas to Hijab, Wigs to Wimples,      was engaged with the realities
educational background includes a           edited by Jennifer Heath, University of     of life in Argentina during the
Bachelor degree in International Studies    California Press.                           first half of the twentieth
and Jewish Studies. She was the recipient   []                century. In order to understand
of the Seeds of Peace Young Peacemaker                                                  the migration of Arabic-
Award in 1995 and the Reem Kabani           During her fellowship with LERC,            speaking people and their
Peace Research Award in 1997. Her           Stephan will continue her Ph.D. research.

                                                                                                 page 37 |       issue 37
  | Academic and Student Activities

adaptation to and integration in   Andrea Stanton, MA, PhD                      provide a media overview of the issue as
Argentina, Hyland scrutinizes      Candidate                                    it appears in Lebanese diaspora and
the intersection of local                                                       mainstream media throughout the
Argentine realities and            Andrea Stanton is a doctoral student in      Arabic-, English-, and French-speaking
transnational politics, of         Middle Eastern history at Columbia           world. She will also contribute in the
competing value systems and        University and is currently an affiliated    same manner to work undertaken by Ms.
socially-defined gender roles,     researcher at the American University of     Guita Hourani on financial, skill, and
and of economic opportunities      Beirut's Center for Arab and Middle          social remittances of migrants as they are
and limitations based on social    Eastern Studies. Her dissertation entitled   portrayed in the major Lebanese printed
and economic class. He is          "A little Radio is a Dangerous Thing:        newspapers. []
currently a Fulbright Scholar in   State Broadcasting in Mandate Palestine"
Damascus, Syria. He chaired a      examines the social impact of mandated       Nathalie Malhame, MA
panel on Harems, Veils, and the    Palestine's radio station, which broadcast
Nation: Western & Ottoman          during the 1930s and 1940s. Her              After graduating from McGill University
Feminisms, at the Thirteenth       research indicates the mixed and often       in Sociology and English Literature, Ms.
Berkshire Conference on the        overlapping state of media in this period:   Nathalie Malhame has decided to return
History of Women, Claremont,       it relies heavily on local Arabic            to her roots and help do something for
California, June 2005. He          newspapers' extensive coverage of the        her country of origin. A fresh graduate
authored several papers,           radio station as a means of discerning       from the American University of Beirut,
including "El Eco de Oriente:      local reception of, and interest in, the     she has just completed her masters thesis
Perspectives on Arabic-speaking    PBS. Stanton has presented papers and        in sociology. Entitled Lebanese
immigrants' experiences in the     served as panel organizer and co-chair at    Returnees: Reasons for Return,
interior of Argentina, 1890-       the two major United States conferences      Adaptation and Re-emigration, her thesis
1930", 119th Annual Meeting        in her field: the American Historical        sheds light on the return of Lebanese
of the American Historical         Association (AHA) and the Middle East        migrants across two generational groups,
Association, Seattle,              Studies Association (MESA), as well as at    the adaptation process they go through
Washington, January 2005 and       the 2006 World Congress for Middle           and their thoughts on re-emigration.
"Peddling to Proprietorship:       Eastern Studies (WOCMES) in Amman.
Arabic-Speaking Commercial                                                      During her internship at LERC, Ms.
Networks in Interior Argentina,    During her fellowship with LERC, Stanton     Malhame will assist Ms. Hourani with her
1890-1930" XXV International       will contribute to the Center's scholarly    research on return migration and
Congress, Latin American           monograph on overseas Lebanese               development.
Studies Association, Las Vegas,    citizenship and voting rights. She will
Nevada, October 2004.

During his fellowship with
LERC, Hyland will continue his
Ph.D. research.

  page 38 |      issue 37
                           Electrical, Computer & Communication Engineering

                      Faculty of Electrical, Computer and                                   FE
                  Communication Engineering Department                                      Faculty of Engineering

                              ECCE Department

                              Dr. Elias Nassar, Chairperson of the Electrical, Computer and
                              Communication Engineering Department, has been elevated to
                              the grade of Senior Member in the Institute of Electrical and
                              Electronic Engineers (IEEE).

                              The IEEE is the world's largest professional organization and
                              consists of more than 367,000 members worldwide. The vision of
                              the IEEE is to advance global prosperity by fostering
                              technological innovation, enabling members' careers and
                              promoting community worldwide. The IEEE promotes the
                              engineering process of creating, developing, integrating, sharing,
                              and applying knowledge about electro- and information
                              technologies and sciences for the benefit of humanity and the

Dr Elias Nassar               The IEEE is divided into geographical regions and sections.
                              Lebanon is part of Region 8, which includes Europe and the
                              Middle East.

                              Senior Member is the highest professional grade for which
                              application may be made and requires experience reflecting
                              professional maturity. Approximately 7.6% of the 367,000 IEEE
                              members have achieved this grade.

                              Information about the IEEE can be found at

                                                                                            page 39 |   issue 37
| Academic and Student Activities

                        4th Asian Dietetics Congress

                       NDU participation
                       Between April 23rd and 26th, 2006, the 4th Asian Dietetics Congress was held in
                       Manila in the Philippines, hosted by the Nutritionist-Dietitians' Association of the
                       Philippines. The theme this year was Nutrition and Dietetics in a Borderless
                       Society. NDU was represented by Dr. Najat Yahia, who with Sandra Chahin BS
                       presented a paper entitled The Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome among Notre
                       Dame University Students and its Relation to the Mediterranean Diet. An abstract
                       of the paper is presented below.

                       Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a condition characterized by clustering of central
                       obesity, hyperglycemia, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Each abnormality promotes
                       atherosclerosis independently, but, when clustered together, these metabolic
                       disorders are increasingly atherogenic and enhance the risk of cardiovascular
                       morbidity and mortality. Since the prevalence of MS is increasing, especially in
                       young individuals, and there is evidence that the onset of MS in adulthood has its
                       roots early in life, universities are an important setting for surveillance and
                       prevention. A nutrition survey was conducted among 100 students (62% male and
                       38% female) aged 18 to 27, selected randomly from NDU. Parameters measured
                       were weight, height, waist circumference, percentage body fat, blood pressure,
                       and fasting blood glucose. Dietary intake was assessed by using a food frequency
                       questionnaire. Measurements of blood lipids including triglyceride level, total
                       cholesterol, HDL and LDL were measured for half of the students. The results
                       showed that 56% of the students had at least one component of the MS as such,
                       4 % of students had three components of the MS, 22% had one component and
                       30% had two components. The 4% of the students who had the MS were all
                       males with BMI of 26.

                       48.5 % of the male students were overweight compared to 21% females. Analysis
                       of the food frequency questionnaire in respect to the traditional Mediterranean
                       pyramid revealed higher intake of red meat (22 servings per month vs. fewer times
                       in the Mediterranean pyramid), higher consumption of sweets (25 servings per
                       week) and a low consumption of legumes and nuts. These finding revealed the
                       discrepancies in conforming to the "Mediterranean diet" and urged us to advise
                       students to change their eating habits in a way that meets the criteria of the
                       traditional Mediterranean Pyramid.

page 40 |   issue 37
                                  Barsa Seminar                       06/06/2006

  TELECOMMUNICATION & COMPUTER                                SEMINAR
                                                           From Public Relations Office, Barsa

On Tuesday June 6, 2006, NDU, North Lebanon campus, in collaboration with Azm
and Saadeh Association and IEEE, held its second annual electrical, computer, and
communication engineering workshop. The workshop was held under the patronage        communication researches
of the President of the Council of Ministers Mr.Fuad Siniora, who was represented    commenced with Microsoft,
by Mr. Jean Ogasapian, Minister of Administrative Reform. The opening session        Motorola, Samsung, and
was presented by Mr. Edgar Merheb, Harb, Public Relations of NDU - NLC, who          Formatech.
gave a warm welcoming speech. Then came the turn of Dr. Ali Harmoush, the
coordinator of the event, who also welcomed the guests and gave a quick preview      Around 100 people were
of the workshop. Then the word in turn was left to Dr. Abdul Ilah Mikati, from Azm   gathered in the conference
and Saadeh Association, Fr.Walid Moussa, President of NDU, and Mr. Jean              room, from students to
Ogasapian.                                                                           teachers and staff, along with
                                                                                     personnel from various
The conference was divided into three     Army, ISF (Internal Security Forces),      companies. The conference
sessions, each with a certain topic       and EDL (Electricité du Liban). After a    was successful due to the
elaborated through various                short coffee break, the workshop           number of people present and
presentations by many important           continued in its second session, which     the importance of the
companies specializing in                 was focused on the reality of              companies whose
telecommunication and engineering.        telecommunication in Lebanon. To           representatives were ready for
The first session was mainly about the    elaborate on this topic were Ogero,        any questions and were able
interrelation between the university      MTC-Touch, and Ericsson. After the         to provide students with
and governmental institutions. The        lunch break, the third and final session   ample information about the
main speakers were from the Lebanese      concerning computer and                    developed topics.

                                                                  | We are hoping for a third conference
                                                                       on telecommunication next year.

  MRI equipment.

                                                                                             page 41 |     issue 37
  | Academic and Student Activities

                                   MISS NDU 2006

Organized by the Student           The panel of the Jury included nine        Cherine Najjar Maalouf, Miss NDU
Cabinet headed this year by        personalities with acknowledged            1998, shared with the audience some of
Joe Saliba, the 15th Miss          experience and qualifications in the       her NDU memories, particularly her
NDU Beauty Pageant was             world of beauty and elegance namely;       experience as Miss NDU.
held on Friday June 2, 2006 at
St. George's Yacht Club and           | Mr. Suheil Matar, representing        The show promised the standard fare:
Marina with GS as the              NDU.                                       twelve of NDU's most beautiful girls
Diamond Sponsor and                   | Mrs. Katia Mondalak, TV               presented themselves in the hope of
Commercial Insurance, Nestle       Presenter, LBCI.                           winning the coveted crown. The
Fitness as the Pearl Sponsor,         | Mr. Nichan, TV Personality, NTV,      glamour of the evening gowns specially
and Lebanese Canadian Bank         and Journalist.                            designed by Mireille Dagher, the make-
and Fiordelli as Main                 | Miss Chahinaz Abdallah, TV            up touch by Nazir Daccache, the
Sponsors.                          Personality, Future TV.                    hairdressing by Kamal Richa, and the
                                      | Mrs Mireille Dagher, Fashion          mounting tension of the interview
The hosts were two TV              Designer.                                  competition led the jury to choose six
personalities, Youssef-El-Khal        | Mr. Rodrigue Najarian, Lebanon #      finalists. They were Lara Azar, Vestula
and Rania Sabeh, who added         1 Photographer                             Azan Gbiok, Khouloud Al-Taweel,
the visual sizzlee, greeting the      | Mr. Kamal Richa, Hairdresser and      Carol Hannoun, Fadia Matta and
audience in three languages.       Relook Expert.                             Georgina Watson. The remainder
To get to the heart of the            | Mr. Nazir Daccache, Make-Up           joined the five hundred spectators
pageant there was the well-        Artist.                                    cheering on their favorites.
dealed man Michel Sanan,              | Miss Gabriella Bou Rached, Miss
who interviewed the six            Lebanon 2005                               Next, Deal or No Deal Michel Sanan
finalists. It so happened that                                                stepped on the stage with six boxes to
the three hosts were NDU           To continue in the tradition of honoring   interview the finalists, each of whom
graduates.                         chronologically former Miss NDUs, Mrs.     drew a question from a box.

                                                                                        The candidates for the title
                                                                                     Miss NDU.
                                                                                          Michel Sanan
                                                                                     interviewing the finalists.
                                                                                        Mrs. Cherine Najjar
                                                                                     Maalouf, Miss NDU 1998.

  The panel of the Jury.

  page 42 |       issue 37
                                  Miss NDU                                    2006

                                                                                           First runner-up Carol

                                                                                          From left to right: 1st
                                                                                      runner-up, Miss NDU, 2nd

                                                                                         Miss NDU 2006, Lara Azar.

All that was left was a happy ending -     photographer in Lebanon, gained this       word of gratitude to the many
the crowning of Miss NDU 2006.             year by Georgina Watson.                   people who assured the
                                                                                      triumph of the event: Fr.
The envelope, please, to Mr. Souheil       Miss Congeniality, chosen by the           Walid Moussa, NDU President,
Matar, head of the jury:                   contestants themselves and gained this     Fr. Bechara Khoury, Student
                                           year by Vestula Azan Gbiok. The            Affairs Office, Fr. Boutros Bou
   | "2nd Runner-Up: Khouloud Al-Taweel.   contestants considered her as the most     Nassif, Br. Abdo Sleiman, Mr.
Business Marketing, Shouf Campus.          friendly, helpful and kind.                Frederick Dakouny, Mr. Roger
   | "1st Runner-Up: Carol Hannoun,                                                   and Chirine Keyrouz of
majoring in Radio/TV. And the crowd        Miss Audience Popularity, voted by         Fiordelli, Mr. Max and Roger
cheered -                                  the audience, who marked on the their      Zaccar of Commercial
   | Miss NDU 2006: Lara Azar, Banking &   entry card their favorite contestant. In   Insurance, Mr. Fady
Finance.                                   this case, the audience and the jury       Mennassa, Mr. Fouad Faysal,
                                           agreed on Lara Azar, who won the           Mrs. Grace Boutros, Mr.
According to the custom of national        Miss NDU title.                            Michel Farhat, Mrs. Rose
and international beauty pageants,                                                    Madi, Mr. Victor Sawma, Mr.
contestants were awarded four titles       Celebrities Joanna Mallah, Iwan,           Elie Hanna, Mr. Habib Rahal,
according to specific criteria:            Nisrine and Tony Farah sang items of       Miss Mirna Karam, Miss
                                           their latest albums. Many thanks to        Tania Nasr, Mr. Hisham Bou
Miss Elegance, title awarded for the       Melody Art Management for its              Habib, Mr. Samer Frem and
highest score in the evening gown and      assistance.                                Mr. Fouad Haddad.
gained this year by Lara Azar.
                                           As we end the 15th Miss NDU beauty               | Information supplied by
Miss Photogenic, title voted by            pageant, the organizers cannot think of        Simon Abou Jaoude, who
Rodrigue Najarian, the # 1                 a better way to do so than by saying a          warmly congratulates and
                                                                                         wishes the best to Miss NDU
                                                                                        2006 and the Student Cabinet
                                                                                               for an event well done.

                                                                                         Michel Farhat, former NDU

                                                                 Miss NDU with
                                                              the Student

                                                                                              page 43 |       issue 37
| Academic and Student Activities

                                Entertainment Club Activities
                                   | The Crowning of Miss NDU Clubs        Her crowning took place at Jeepers
                                2006. Pascale Azzi, 19 years old, CCE      Jeita, on Saturday June 3, 2006.
                                student and member of the                  Valuable prizes were distributed by
                                Entertainment Club, was elected by the     Jeita Country Club, Jeepers Restaurant,
                                students as Miss NDU Clubs with 932        Bookstop, Decathlon Sports Club,
                                votes on, the        Magic Touch Salon, La Tige Flowers,
                                students' web community.                   Rima's Agency.

                                Many Clubs participated in this event:        | The Karaoke Competition. this
                                Debate Club, Social Club, Discovery        event took place at NDU campus on
                                Club, Camping Club, Music Club and         June 5 with the collaboration of
                                Entertainment Club.               Sami Gabriel,
    Pascale Azzi with the                                                  the Karaoke Lebanese champion, was
Entertainment Club. To the                                                 the judge. Six winners were selected
left, George Tarabay, Club                                                 and got valuable prizes: a professional
Vice-President, and, to the
right, Ziad Taouk, President.                                              recording session at Peak Hall,
                                                                           invitations to number one karaoke pub
                                         Pascale Azzi
                                      (Entertainment                       'Drink and Sing' and an opportunity to
                                    Club) - Miss NDU                       participate in the International Karaoke
                                          Clubs 2006.                      Competition at Habtour Land.

                                Accounting Club

                                                         As part of its activities, the Accounting Club visited the
                                                         association at Btedii-Bekaa that helps poor children in
                                        Accounting       need of entertainment. After being contacted, the
                                     Club members        association asked for some books and other stationery
                                     with the good       items. We of the Accounting Club organized the book
                                                         donation on campus and collected books from students.
                                                         On Sunday June 4, 2006 we went up with the advisor of
                                                         the club, Mrs. Norma Frayha, and spent a pleasant day
                                                         with the nuns who are in charge of the association. In
                                                         addition to the books collected, we presented them with
                                                         stationery equal in value to $100, also provided by the
                                      and books for      Accounting Club.
                                      the poor
                                      children.                                                | Joseph Atallah
                                                                                             V.P. Accounting Club

page 44 |       issue 37
                        Events                                        NDU

       German Greens & Cultural

    At the present day, cultural        Mr. Laher provided the                added, was that the artists
    diversity is one of the             interviewers with condensed           were mentioned, but their
    outstanding controversial issues,   information regarding the             problem was not reflected in
    and the Heinrich Böll               Convention and his experience         the way it should have been,
    Foundation, a German Green          within it. He said he considered      as it was more produce-
    NGO chose Beirut for its            the Convention as a step in the       oriented.
    conference on the subject,          right direction, for it gives
    being aware that Lebanon is an      governments the right to draw         When asked his opinion
    open and diverse society where      conclusions from its activities.      regarding the future of
    views may be expressed freely       But the drafting of the               cultural diversity in the Middle
    without restriction.                Convention was not enough, for        East, he was hesitant in
                                        it required both a vigilant civil     responding to the question.
    This conference, held at the        society and international             He asserted that it was very
    Crown Plaza Hotel on May 12th,      networking.                           hard to make a guess, but that
    2006, brought together speakers                                           without cultural diversity as a
    from the East and the West          He further gave our students an       topic on the agenda, and
    representing various cultures.      insight into his role in the          without dialogue between the
    Among them was Ludwig Laher,        UNESCO Convention, according          many segments in the Middle
    President of the Executive          to which he started in Austria,       East, it would be impossible to
    Committee of the European           so rich in its cultural traditions,   achieve its further objectives.
    Council of Arts (ECA), a            and became involved in the            In a complicated world, there
    cornerstone of the foundation       cultural debate. In 1999 he was       was a need for considerable
    of the UNESCO Convention on         asked by the National Council of      self-esteem in order to take
    Cultural Diversity. The occasion    Artists to represent Austria in       part in any dialogue.
    gave International Affairs and      the European Council of Artists.      This issue concerned
    Diplomacy students from NDU         Then in the year 2000 as ECA          everybody in society, for it
    an opportunity to interview Mr.     representative he joined the          was impossible to discuss
    Ludwig Laher concerning the         International Network for             diversity in an isolated society
    Convention, its issue being part    Cultural Diversity (INCD) and         and it was crucial to discuss it
    and parcel of their curriculum      cooperated in the drafting of         as part of the whole social
    as well as influencing              the Convention. An important          movement.
    everybody's daily life.             element in this Convention, he

                                                                                      page 45 |      issue 37
  | Academic and Student Activities

                                                            Rider Uni.-NDU

In its Objectives and Principles, the UNESCO Convention    On April 11, 2006, we Political Science, Education
included the principle of international solidarity and     and Freshman students of NDU held a
cooperation and that of sustainable development, both      videoconference jointly with Rider University, USA.
of which attracted our students' attention insofar as      The two main topics were curriculum development
they were implemented in Third World countries             and cultural diversity, which are two outstanding
particularly in the Middle East. Mr. Laher pointed out     controversial issues of today.
that there were complicated aspects, among which were
those of language and of keeping arguments relevant.       The conference started off with a definition of
In this Convention there were rights and obligations       both terms from each perspective and cultural
concerning every nation, with the consequences of          background, followed by several questions related
which they had to deal.                                    to curriculum development and cultural diversity.
                                                           In fact the videoconference was an amazing
Then regarding the principle of sustainable development,   experience enabling each to figure out the real
Europe tended to be more interested in this issue as it    impression of the other party.
concerned the Middle East region than was the USA and
it was from Europe that most of the initiatives came.      Everyone is aware of the impact of the September
Usually the development was within Europe.                 11th attack on the Americans' attitude towards the
Sustainable development was not a widely accepted          Arab World; however, it was perhaps surprising to
value and there was little devotion to it, but in some     find out that this tragic event did not affect the
areas it was an absolute necessity.                        relationship between NDU and Rider University
                                                           students. As a result, this conference shortened the
Policy analysis involved three major steps, namely (1)     distances between the two parties, allowing them
agenda setting, (2) decision making, and (3)               to communicate freely without inhibitions.
implementation and monitoring. When relating these
steps to the UNESCO or any other Convention, it was        With further e-communications, we were able to
evident that the process stopped at the stage of           receive the feedback of Rider University Students
implementation and monitoring. So the UNESCO               concerning this event. They sincerely believe that
Convention needed not only to be ratified but also to be   this experience was very beneficial and they
put into effect and then most importantly to be            encourage further contacts with our NDU students.
monitored. Mr. Ludwig Laher declared his opinion on        In short, the videoconference was a remarkable
this issue, namely that monitoring needed to be done       experience for both parties, who will be enriched
both by UNESCO and by civil society. As to what extent     by anything done to follow up.
this was being done, this question remained open to
discussion, but at least the ratification of the                                           | Prepared by
Convention was a first step towards promoting cultural                             Chantal SOUAID and
                                                                                Sara MOKDAD - IAF 402
                              | Report prepared by
                 Sara al Mokdad, Carole Karam,
                   Layal Haje and Alain Salhab.

  page 46 |      issue 37
 LCSR                            2005-2006

Centre Libanais des Recherches Sociétales

 Présentation du livre
 Le Silence, gestuelle de la vie
            A l'occasion de la tenue du colloque organisé par le Centre
            Libanais de Recherches Sociétales, Notre Dame de Louaizé, une
            conférence donnée par M. Olivier Mongin, directeur de la revue
            Esprit, France, et animée par M. Abdo Kahi, a eu lieu au Centre
            Culturel de l'Ambassade de France. Cette conférence a été suivie
            par la signature par M. Abdo Kahi de son nouveau livre qui vient
            de paraître aux éditions Dar An-Nahar, sous le titre Le Silence
            gestuelle de la vie. Ce dernier a présenté à cet effet son ouvrage
            comme suit :

            "Ce livre est le troisième maillon d'une réflexion quadrilogique
            qui a pris naissance à partir du regard, et qui avant d'échouer
            dans la solitude, s'est penchée sur la parole pour explorer les
            avenues de la création du sens à l'instant même de la
            stimulation des sens, à ce moment-éclair du gémissement de la
            vie qui ne se produit que dans le silence total et loin du bruit de

            Cette exploration est partie donc en fait de moi-même, comme
            sujet aspirant à la liberté, et œuvrant à sa conquête à travers
            l'épreuve qu'il a à mener pour passer de son état de "servitude" à
            son état de " maître souverain " capable de se donner dans un
            acte d'amour qui peut déclencher l'envie de la libération chez les

            C'est alors que dans le livre Le Regard dialogue du sujet, qui a
            paru à Dar An-Nahar en 2003, je me suis évertué à décrire, avec
            l'aide de ma muse, qui m'a accompagné par la suite dans tous
            mes périples, les cinq étapes par lesquels passe le sujet dans sa
            démarche de libération et les perspectives du regard qui les
            accompagnent :

              | l'étape de la servitude et de la non-épreuve, où le regard se
            contente d'observer ce qui est regardé ;

               | l'étape de l'annonciation, où le regard se découvre dans ses
            propres perspectives et s'expose au regard des autres

                                                          page 47 |       issue 37
  | Academic and Student Activities

   | l'étape de la prononciation,    Parole promesse du dire qui a paru,          Je me suis ainsi déterminé dans ce
où le regard s'ouvre sur le          toujours à Dar An-Nahar, en 2004, j'ai       voyage à aller à la rencontre du Verbe
monde environnant et se              essayé, tout d'abord, de relever les         avant son incarnation dans des états
reconnaît dans une pluralité de      multiples médiations que le sujet doit       existentiels propres. Je me suis surtout
perspectives;                        apprendre à effectuer entre le Verbe,        entêté à vouloir visiter, toujours en
                                     comme source du sens, et la parole,          compagnie de ma muse, ce monde où
   | l’étape du dialogue, où le      comme construit symbolique, pour qu'à        le monde est encore en gestation. J'ai
regard se plaît à reconnaître le     travers une structure syntaxique             voulu en fait explorer le monde du
monde en lui ;                       définie il puisse prononcer un dire          silence, où j'ai pu apprécier les
                                     propre, se distinguant, par son              moments exceptionnels d'éclosion des
    | l'étape de l'effacement, où    authenticité et sa spécificité, au sein      arts dans un mouvement qui relie ciel
le regard se laisse inonder par la   d'un champ sémantique particulier.           et terre, à travers des lignes que seul
naissance de la lumière dans le                                                   l'homme avançant vers le silence de la
regard des autres.                   J'ai essayé ensuite de faire encourir au     création peut percevoir puis
                                     dire humain la dure épreuve de la            transformer en musique, poésie,
Suite à ce périple vers les          médiation, à travers un travail              sculpture, danse, théâtre, etc.., etc.
zones inexplorées du regard, je      d'assainissement des attitudes et des
me suis intéressé aux champs         valeurs, pour que ce dire puisse devenir     Reste, que je n'ai pas fini mon périple
syntaxiques et sémantiques de        une parole capable de revitaliser la         avec ce livre, car c'est seulement en
la parole, pour m'éprouver           promesse du Verbe dans un acte de vie.       explorant la solitude, que l'on peut
dans mes capacités de porter                                                      vaincre la souffrance de l'exil et de
ces champs à se développer           Tout ceci m'a conduit au Silence, et         l'isolement au sein de l'épreuve du
comme des promesses qu'on            c'est ainsi que dans ce dernier livre qui    sujet, pour gagner la sérénité et la paix
accorderait les uns aux autres       vient de paraître sous le titre Le Silence   que promet la quête du sens.
davantage que comme des              gestuelle de la vie, Dar An-Nahar, qui
menaces qu'on scande les uns         n'est en fait que le troisième maillon       Et c'est ce chemin que je commence à
dans la face des autres.             de la quadrilogie annoncée ci dessus, je     baliser aujourd'hui qui va être l'objet
                                     me suis permis d'oser partir tout            d'une nouvelle production demain".
C'est ainsi que dans le livre La     carrément en voyage vers le Verbe.

                                                   German Educational Fair Lebanon
                                                                                       DEUTSCHE BILDUNGSTAGE

                                                   The “Deutsche Bildungstage: Research and training opportunities in
                                                   Germany, Switzerland, Austria and South Tirol/Alto Adige (Italy)” was
                                                   organised on 05 April 2006 at NDU with the support of the Lebanese
                                                   Emigration Research Centre (LERC), the NDU Faculty of Political
                                                   Science, Public Administration and Diplomacy (FPSPAD), the NDU
                                                   Faculty of Natural and Applied Sciences (FN&AS) and the NDU Office
                                                   of Research and Development under Vice President Dr. Ameen Rihani.

                                                   It included stands by the Goethe Institute Beirut, German Academic
                                                   Exchange Service (DAAD) Damascus, Deutsches Orient-Institut Beirut,
                                                   German Educational Server Frankfurt (on-line chat), UNESCO
                                                   International Centre for Human Sciences Byblos and the Austrian
                                                   Embassy, Beirut.

   page 48 |       issue 37
                                     Founder's Day                      12/05/2006

 Founders' Day 2006
 Active, Creative and Joyful
                                                                                 Theme: 'Min Zaman'

  For two days, the NDU Open-Area was        Kais wa Layla Period, Ghandi, Einstein,   A- The Youth Mass at 11:00,
    transformed into a construction site     Gypsies, Phoenician Era, Hippies Era,     celebrated by Rev. Fr. Fadi
   where all clubs were working hard to      Advertisement during the 'Sixties,        Bou Chebel, NDU Chaplain,
         build their stands, creating and    Beginning of the Cinema's Fame, Gauls     with the participation of other
    decorating according to the subjects     and Romans, Bulgarian Circus, History     NDU priests and members of
related to the main theme "Min Zaman"        of Armenia, History of Soccer, and Rio    Medjugorje Choir, after which
                                  such as    Carnival.                                 NDU President Rev. Fr. Walid
                                                                                       Moussa, deans and instructors
                                             May 12, the 19th Founders' Day, was       went down to the festival
                                             divided into three slots:                 place.

     Collecting the anti-smoking prizes.

                                                                                                               A large
                                                                                                           and happy

                                                                                                               All join in
                                                                                                           the Debkeh.

                        The Advertising Club stand.

                                                                                               page 49 |       issue 37
  | Academic and Student Activities

Fr. Bechara Khoury delivered           participating clubs were:
the speech of the SAO,
congratulated clubs and                  | Accounting, Advertising, Entertainment, Discovery and RED.
advisors and gave orientations
for next year.                         The winning clubs received awards as follows:

Time was given to all Club             1st Prize, $300: Entertainment Club, a video entitled: 'Smoken hearted'.
Presidents to talk about their
clubs, and their future plans.         2nd Prize, $200: Advertising Club, a portfolio of 8 posters: 'Don't be an Ash-
Afterwards, prizes were
distributed to the winners             3rd Prize, $100: Accounting Club, game. During the lunch break, after throwing
who participated in the best               away their cigarettes, the students got hints from the organizing team in
artistic and cultural activity             order to win valuable prizes.
related to the Anti-Smoking
Contest organized by the
Connection Society. The

                                                                              Father Beshara speaks on behalf of Student

    George Khabbaz with First Aid.

    Grace Dib brings a silver voice.

    Fadi Harb in action.

                                                                                                             Rio Carnaval!!!

  page 50 |        issue 37
                                  Founder's Day                       12/05/2006

B- The second slot was devoted to the     Finally the winners were:                   Grace Dib with her beautiful
student activities from 15:00 until       1- Social Club                              voice charmed the audience
22:00: Karaoke, dances, music groups,     2- RED                                      and was the shining star of
singers, juggling and fire show, and      3- Camping Club                             the night.
poetry contest..
                                          C- The third slot from 22:00 until          The NDU Radio/TV hosted all
Throughout the day, The SAO provided      24:30 was for the guests, who wound         the sequences and Wissam
a number of interesting games such as     up this joyful day, namely-                 Breidy was the smiling host of
a "Sumo" competition using inflated                                                   the invitees' slot.
costumes and a competition with a           | Poet: Rafik Rouhana,
Flight Simulator machine to add             | Comedian: George Khabbaz,
adventure and excitement. Six teams         | Dance groups: Khanito, Nameless,
were involved in the walking Paper        Decathlon
Rally, a cultural game that required         | Professional Singer: Fadi Harb put
general knowledge, logic, quick           fire into the proceedings with Lebanese
thinking and physical fitness.            traditional songs, which led the crowd
                                          to dance on stage

                                                                                The hot-
                                                                           air balloon
                                                                           goes up.

  The Khanito Group.

                                                                                                          Sari smiles
      Wissam and Jessica hosts.                                                                        on the Pastoral


                                                                                              page 51 |     issue 37
  | Academic and Student Activities

 Closure of the NDU Schools
 Challenge                                                                            Sports Office News
 (28 March - 10 May, 2006)

The First NDU Schools              The results were as follows:                      | Volleyball, men: 1. ND, Louaize 2.
Challenge Tournament ended            | Basketball final, men: St. Joseph's,      Central College, Jounieh 3. Antonine
in a sporting and joyful           Aintoura/Antonine Sisters, Ghazir - 64/55      Sisters, Ghazir - St. George's, Zalqa
atmosphere in the presence of         | Basketball final, ladies: St. Joseph's,      | Volleyball, Ladies: 1. Sisters of
a distinguished crowd of           Aintoura/Antonine Sisters, Ghazir - 43/35      Charity, Dar el-Nur 2. Jesus and Mary
students from participating           | Volleyball final, ladies: Sisters of         | Football: 1. Hripsimianitz 2. Apôtres,
schools with their families.       Charity, Dar el-Nur/Jesus and Mary -           Jounieh 3. ND, Louaize
The finals and the closing         2/zero                                            | Cross-country, men: 1. Sts. Vincent
ceremony were marked by the           | Football: Center ¾: Notre Dame            and Louis 2. ND, Louaize 3. St. Joseph's,
attendance of Judge Nasri          Louaize/Antonine Baabda - 3/zero               Aintoura 4. Montana 5. Hripsimianitz
Lahoud, President of the              | Final: Hripsimianitz/Apôtres, Jounieh        | Cross-country, ladies: 1. ND, Louaize
University Sports Federation,      - 7/6 penalty (play 1/1)                       2. St. Joseph's, Aintoura 3. Sts Vincent
Rev. Fr. John Sfeir, Director of                                                  and Louis 4. Montana
St. Joseph's College, Aintoura,    The final classification was as                During the closing ceremony, Father
Rev. Fr. Beshara Khoury,           follows:                                       Beshara Khoury, as representative of
Director of the NDU Student           | Basketball, men: 1. St. Joseph's,         NDU President Father Walid Moussa,
Affairs Office, representing       Aintoura 2. Antonine Sisters, Ghazir 3.        spoke of how the University was
NDU President Rev. Fr. Walid       ND, Louaize                                    offering new sports facilities to be at
Moussa, and representatives           | Basketball, ladies: 1. St. Joseph's,      the disposition of students and
and sports instructors from the    Aintoura 2. Antonine Sisters, Ghazir 3.        families, and thanked the directors of
schools taking part.               ND, Louaize                                    the schools taking part in the

                                                                             The Men's Basketball team from St. Joseph's,

                                                                            Students from the Antonine Sisters. Ghazir

  page 52 |       issue 37
                                 Social                                    NDU

                                                | Karim Refaat Nasr: we have pleasure in announcing the birth
                                             on 11th April, 2006 at Kfarhim al-Shouf of Karim, son of Mr. Refaat
                                             Nasr, General Services, NDU Shouf Campus, and of Manal Nasr, NDU
                                             student majoring in Education/Learning Disabilities.

tournament, who in turn
expressed their thanks, with
the promise of further new
sports in the new school year,
starting this autumn. The
official personalities then                           Congratulations
distributed the awards to the
winners, after which there                
was a show of various forms
of artistic dancing presented             
by members of the Decathlon
Club of Adonis.                                                                  | We wish much
                                                                             happiness to Marina Bou
The events were supervised by                                                Karroum, Secretary,
the NDU Director of Sports                                                   Admissions and
Mr. George Nader, Mr, Elias                                                  Registrar's Office, Shouf
Boutros, Mr. Elias Murr,                                                     Campus, and Mr. Raed El
Mr. Elie Salameh, Mr. Roy                                                    Beainy, whose wedding
Melkoun, Mr. Zakhia                                                          took place in Mount
Mansour and Mr. Joseph                                                       Lebanon on 20th May,
Matta.                                                                       2006.

                                          Stone Museum
                                          Visiting Days
                                          To mark National Patrimony Day, on 18th May,
                                          2006, Notre Dame University organised an Open
                                          Day for groups from schools and universities to visit
                                          the Stone Museum in the Abou Khater Building. The
     The Women's                          Museum was open to staff, faculty members,
Basketball team from                      students, visitors, guests and the general public on
St. Joseph's, Aintoura.                   May 18th and 19th.

                                                                                            page 53 |    issue 37
              | Opinion and Culture

 Hydroelectric Generation

                    Samer Charabati, CCE

Three senior engineering         Overview of Hydroelectric Power           Types of Hydropower Plants
students, Joseph Aoun, Elie      Generation                                There are three major types of
Aoun and Samer Charabati,        A hydroelectric power plant captures      hydropower plant, classified according
joined forces under the          the energy of moving water, be it         to the form of water supply:
supervision of Dr. Rabih Jabr,   flowing or falling, to generate           impoundment or storage, pumped
to build a portable hydropower   electricity. Water moves with a kinetic   storage, and diversion or run-of-river.
generator. Hydroelectric         energy sufficient to push against the     The first two involve a dam.
power, or more shortly           blades of a turbine, causing the latter
hydropower generation, is the    to rotate. The turbine converts the       Impoundment or Storage Plants
process of generating electric   kinetic energy of moving water to         This is the most common type of large
power using the energy of        mechanical energy.                        hydropower plant (the sizes of
moving water. Developed in                                                 hydropower plants are defined next). It
this essay is an overview of     The turbine in turn drives a generator    uses a dam that serves a dual function.
hydroelectric power              connected to it by shafts and possibly    The dam creates the reservoir which
generation, while the design     gears so that, when the turbine spins,    stores water for use as needed, and
and the construction of the      it causes the generator to spin also.     creates the necessary head, which is
generator are available in the   The generator converts the mechanical     the difference in elevation between the
final report of the project.     energy from the turbine to electric       reservoir surface and the tailwater
                                 energy. The facility that houses the      immediately downstream from the
                                 turbine and the generator is called the   powerhouse (Stout, 2000). Water is
                                 powerhouse (Hydroelectric Power,          conducted from the reservoir to the
                                 1998).                                    powerhouse in pipes called penstocks
                                                                           (Hydropower Basics, 2005).
                                 Next, a transformer changes the AC
                                 low-voltage power from the generator      Pumped Storage Plants
                                 to a higher voltage suitable for          This type is designed specifically for
                                 distance transmission. Transmission       supplying electric power during hours
                                 lines conduct electricity from the        of peak demands. It adds to the
                                 hydropower plant to market areas          impoundment plant that part of the
                                 (How Hydropower Works, 2000).             used water that is pumped back during

  page 54 |      issue 37
                                    Hydroelectric Generation       Samer Charabati

off-peak hours from a lower reservoir       A small or micro hydropower system         (evaporation then
to the upper reservoir for re-use during    produces enough electricity for a home,    precipitation, driven by the
the next peak-demand period (Stout,         farm, or village (Hydropower Basics,       sun), thus it's a sustainable
2000).                                      2005).                                     power source. Water used in
                                                                                       hydroelectric power
Diversion or Run-of-river Plants                                                       generation is neither reduced
A diversion or run-of-river facility uses   Advantages and Disadvantages of            nor used up in the process
the natural streamflow. It may not          Hydroelectric Power Generation             (Hydropower Basics, 2005).
require a dam, and the reservoir has        Moving water is one of the three major     Hydropower is the leading
storage capacity sufficient only for        sources of energy used to generate         source of sustainable energy.
daily or weekly storage (Stout, 2000).      electric power, the other two being the    Until 1996, it provided more
                                            heat energy of fossil fuels, principally   than 97% of all electricity
                                            coal, gas and oil, and atomic energy       generated by renewable
Sizes of Hydropower Plants                  (Stout, 2000). Hydropower has certain      sources. Other renewable
The U.S. Department of Energy defines       advantages over these other sources        sources include solar, wind,
three categories of hydropower plants       but it faces some challenges.              geothermal, and biomass
according to their capacity. (Definitions                                              energy (Facts about
are only illustrative; they may vary        Cleanliness                                Hydropower, 2004).
from reference to reference.)               Hydropower is fueled by water, so it is
                                            a clean source. It prevents the burning    Cost Considerations and
Large hydropower plants have a              of 22 billion gallons of oil or 120        Efficiency
capacity of more than 30 megawatts.         million tons of coal each year (Facts      Hydropower is a very efficient
                                            about Hydropower, 2004). What is           way of generating electricity.
Small hydropower plants have a              more, it produces neither thermal nor      Modern hydro-turbines can
capacity of 100 kilowatts to 30             particulate pollution (Hydroelectric       convert as much as 90% of
megawatts.                                  Power, 1998).                              the available energy into
                                                                                       electricity. The best fossil fuel
Micro hydropower plants have a              Sustainability                             plants are only about 50%
capacity of up to 100 kilowatts.            Hydropower relies on the water cycle       efficient (Facts about
                                                                                       Hydropower, 2004).

                                                                                                page 55 |      issue 37
                 | Opinion and Culture

As for cost, the cost of                 life (Hydropower Basics, 2005).                    Worldwide, hydropower represented
running a hydroelectric plant                                                               19% of the total energy generated in
is less than that of fuel for a                                                             1999, the most recent year for which
steam-powered generating                 Brief History, Current Facts, and                  data are available (Landis, 2003). The
plant, but because the                   Future Challenges                                  portion of the electric energy produced
development of a hydropower              Flowing or falling water was mankind's             by hydropower plants ranges from
plant requires a large capital           first source of mechanical power. The              almost all in some countries to none in
investment, it is often                  origin of waterwheels can be traced to             others (Stout, 2000). Norway derives
uneconomical for a region                ancient Egypt, China, Persia, and                  99% of its electricity from
where coal or oil is cheap               Greece, where they were used for the               hydroelectric plants, New Zealand 75%
(Landis, 2003).                          milling of grain as well as for raising            (Facts about Hydropower, 2004). It is
                                         water for irrigation and supply                    Canada who is the largest producer of
Disadvantages                            (Goodman et al.). But it was not until             hydroelectric power in the world with
Although clean and                       two centuries ago that hydropower                  340.3 billion kilowatt-hours (kwh) in
renewable, hydroelectric                 began to step into the realm of                    1999, constituting 60% of the nation's
energy may have a negative               science. From 1735 to 1753, French                 electric power. Second to Canada is the
impact on local environment              military and civil engineer Bernard                United States with 305.6 billion kwh in
and humans. Hydropower                   Forest de Bélidor published his famous             1999, but this figure constitutes no
facilities may compete with              four-volume work Architecture                      more than 10% of the electric energy
other uses for the land. Those           Hydraulique covering engineering                   produced (Landis, 2003; Hydropower
alternative uses may be more             mechanics, mills and waterwheels,                  Basics, 2005).
highly valued than electricity           pumps, harbors, and sea works (Belidor,
generation. Humans, flora, and           Bernard Forest de, 1988). A century                In some industrial countries, the
fauna may lose their natural             later, precisely in 1882, the first                proportion of energy produced by
habitat. Local cultures and              hydroelectric facility began producing             waterpower is decreasing due to
historical sites may be                  125 kW of electricity in Appleton,                 environmental issues, energy
affected. Some older                     Wisconsin, USA (Goodman et al.).                   economics and the rise of nuclear
hydropower facilities may                Between the two events, in the 1830s,              power plants. The U.S.A for example
have historic value, so                  Faraday in the U.K. and Henry in the               will reduce its share of hydropower
renovations of these facilities          U.S.A. independently announced the                 production to 6% in 2020 from 10%
must also be sensitive to such           principal of electromagnetic induction,            today (Hydropower Basics, 2005).
preservation concerns and to             which led directly to the development
impacts on plant and animal              of the AC generator.

   | Belidor, Bernard Forest de. (1988). In The New Encyclopedia Britannica. (Vol. 2, p. 63). Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica.
   | Facts about Hydropower, (2004). Retrieved Mar. 23, 2006, from Wisconsin Valley Improvement Company Web Site:
   | Goodman, L., Hawkins, J. & Love, R. (Eds.). (1981). Small Hydroelectric Projects for Rural Development.
   | How Hydropower Works, (2000). Retrieved Mar. 23, 2006, from Wisconsin Valley Improvement Company Web Site:
   | Hydroelectric Power. (1998). In The New Encyclopedia Britannica. (Vol. 6, p. 191). Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica.
   | Hydropower basics, (2005). Retrieved Mar. 23, 2006, from U.S. Department of Energy - Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Web site:
   | Landis, F. (2003). Waterpower. In Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2003 [CD-ROM]. Microsoft Corporation.
   | Stout, J. (2000). Hydroelectric Power. In Encyclopedia Americana (Vol. 14, pp. 646-651). Danbury: Grolier.

   page 56 |        issue 37
                                    13 ways to avoid...               Wassim Beaineh

                                      13 ways to avoid a bad
                                      bankruptcy attorney
   | Wassim E. Beaineh Major: CCE

What's worse than declaring bankruptcy? Hiring the wrong attorney for the job!          1-   Don't dawdle.
                                                                                        "Contemplating hiring a
Handling bankruptcy filings has become a volume business for many lawyers,              bankruptcy attorney has all
leaving some of them overworked and unable to attend to the details of all their        the allure of selecting your
cases.                                                                                  mortician," explains Ray R.
                                                                                        Graves, who served twenty
Bankruptcy mills - storefront operations offering cut-rate services - have set up       years as a federal bankruptcy
shop in many places. All this activity means that individuals facing the ultimate       judge for the Eastern District
financial decision too often find themselves with legal services that are inferior to   of Michigan. He now works
what they expect or need.                                                               for BBK Ltd., a business
                                                                                        consultancy headquartered in
"I've seen cases where the lawyer hired to represent the client didn't show up at the   Southfield, Mich.
bankruptcy hearing," says Vince Slusher, a shareholder and attorney with Davis
Munck, a Dallas-based law firm.                                                         "People don't want to deal
                                                                                        with it. They put it off beyond
Nobody wants a no-show or incompetent attorney, especially when it's your               the last minute when the wolf
financial future in the balance. That's why you need to do some research before         is at the door."
hiring a bankruptcy lawyer.
                                                                                        Waiting until the last minute
Here are thirteen tips to help you find the best attorney to handle your bankruptcy     won't give you the time you
filing.                                                                                 need to find a good attorney.

                                                                                        And it won't give a good
                                                                                        attorney enough time to
                                                                                        adequately prepare for your

                                                                                        2-  Don't ask friends for
                                                                                        Unless your fellow churchgoer
                                                                                        or golf buddy has gone
                                                                                        through a bankruptcy, he or
                                                                                        she won't have any leads for

                                                                                                page 57 |      issue 37
                | Opinion and Culture

you. Asking will just waste         5- Spend a day at a                         well organized it is. Is it neat, or are
time, says Graves. "This is a       bankruptcy court.                           there 25 folders spread around the
closed club," he explains.          Observing the attorneys in action can       floor?" asks Judge Graves. "You
                                    give you an idea of the lawyer you          wouldn't go to a doctor with a dirty
3- Do ask for                       want representing you. At the court         examining room and you don't want to
suggestions from legal              you also can find out which locals          go to a lawyer with a disorganized
professionals.                      specialize in this form of law. And you     office."
Consider who among your             can get a chance to talk to the debtors
circle of acquaintances might       and can ask them whether they felt          8-   Ask questions.
know a bankruptcy lawyer. If        their lawyers did a good job, says Rick     Once you have some candidates,
you have a personal attorney,       Mitchell, partner with Iseman,              interview them or someone at the law
start there. Keep in mind,          Cunningham, Riester & Hyde in               firm. Be sure to ask:
however, that bankruptcy law        Poughkeepsie, N.Y.
is a specialty, so if your lawyer                                                 | How many bankruptcies do you
offers to handle the case as        6- Find out who sits on local               handle in a month or in a year?
part of your usual retainer,        bankruptcy court panels.
make sure he knows his way          Mitchell says to check out the trustee        | How many of those bankruptcies are
around bankruptcy court.            panel. "These are attorneys who are         consumer or personal rather than
                                    regularly in bankruptcy court and are       business filings?
Also check local or state bar       well enough respected to be put on the
associations or professional        panel," he says.                               | How much access will I have to an
organizations. Good places to                                                   attorney during my bankruptcy filing?
ask include the Association of      Graves recommends you also get the
Consumer Bankruptcy                 names of lawyers on the local                  | If I'm not working directly with you
Attorneys, the American             bankruptcy court's debtor or creditor       (the lawyer), who will I be working with?
Bankruptcy Institute and your       committees. "People on these
local legal aid society. (Legal     committees do it to attract business,         | Can I interview the person with
aid societies won't handle          but they also take their work seriously,"   whom I would be working?
bankruptcies, but many keep a       says the former judge.
running list of bankruptcy                                                        | What time frame do you have for this
attorneys.)                         7-  Check out the law firm's                bankruptcy?
4-  Investigate                     You're not looking for how tastefully a       | How will the procedure work?
certifications.                     lawyer's office is decorated, but how
Attorneys who are certified by      well-organized an office is, as well as     This is a critical decision, so if you get
the American Bankruptcy             the general environment. This office        evasive answers, it's probably a red flag
Institute have had to meet          appraisal can give you vital clues as to    that this is not the firm for you.
additional standards. See if        how a lawyer would handle your case.
your prospective attorney has
this added training.                "Look around the office and see how

  page 58 |       issue 37
                                   13 ways to avoid...             Wassim Beaineh

9-   Evaluate the responses.                10-     Understand your role.             12-    Get fee specifics.
Because bankruptcy law is a volume          Go over time frames and filing            Find out exactly what the
business, the time you'll actually be       requirements with the firm, says Rick     costs of bankruptcy are.
working with a specific attorney may        Hoagland, a partner and shareholder       What's included in your
be small. In fact, with most consumer       with the CPA firm of Moore, Ellrich &     lawyer's fees? What's not? In
bankruptcies, the client works with a       Neal in Palm Beach Gardens, Fla. Make     some complicated
clerk or a paralegal; your actual           sure you know what is expected of you     proceedings, for example, a
attorney won't come into play until         because if you do your part, you'll       forensic accountant may be
your day in court.                          increase your chances of a successful     needed, says Hoagland. If
                                            filing. So a lawyer who briefs you on     that's the case, is it included
"In the end, 90% to 95% of people           your role is probably a keeper.           in your charges or is it an
who file for bankruptcy don't have                                                    additional fee?
complicated issues and their filings can    11-  Don't hire the cheapest
satisfactorily be handled by most           lawyer.                                   13-    Stay involved.
attorneys or their paralegals," says        You're obviously filing because you       Once you hire a lawyer, don't
attorney Mitchell. That's why, he says,     don't have a lot of cash to spare. But    be content to let him or her
it's important to use the interview         like most things in life, taking the      handle it alone. Double check
process to determine whether you can        cheap route in bankruptcy could cost      all filings. Did any of your
work well with the whole firm as well       you even more in the end if a bargain     creditors get dropped off the
as a particular attorney.                   attorney makes mistakes.                  list? Staying on top of your
                                                                                      bankruptcy filing will help
Consider whether candidates answered        "When it's all said and done, you want    ensure that the proceedings
you fairly and in enough detail so that     a lawyer who knows the system and         go smoothly and will keep
you can make an informed decision on        will do the best job of representing      your lawyer on his or her toes.
who to hire.                                you," Graves says. That may end up
                                            costing a little more.                    "When you're hiring a
Make sure the attorney (and firm) has                                                 bankruptcy attorney, you
the expertise that you need. Someone        Verify what the going rate is in your     should remember that it's not
can be a great attorney who handles         area. Your local bar association          just who you know, but what
60 business bankruptcies a month, but       probably can help you determine           you know and what you're
that probably isn't the attorney you        whether a proposed fee is fair and in     willing to learn," says Attorney
want to handle your personal                line with local standards. Anybody who    Slusher. (For more on
bankruptcy.                                 charges too much or too little probably   surviving a bankruptcy, read
                                            shouldn't be your lawyer of choice.       Liz Pulliam Weston's column,
And while you want an experienced                                                     "Bounce back fast after a
lawyer, you want to make sure the                                                     bankruptcy.")
attorney doesn't have too much work.
"You have to make sure that they are
not spread too thin," says Vince
Slusher, a shareholder and attorney
with the firm of Davis Munck in Dallas.

                                                                                              page 59 |       issue 37
               | Opinion and Culture

                                                                                       In these two articles
                                                                                       Dr. Hobeika expresses
                                                                                       his concern for the
 Why Should We Worry about                                                             people of Lebanon and
                                                                                       the Arab World.
 Inequality in Lebanon and the
 Arab Region?
                                   Dr. Louis G. Hobeika1

Any great inequality of            unless combined with the reform of         In market economies, statistics show
income and wealth in any           governance and improvement in              that the less favored make slower
society implies deep poverty       poverty targeting, will be insufficient    progress. Redistribution can foster
and discontent of a significant    to reduce inequality. Public policies in   growth and the growth process will
portion of the population.         this domain remain quite weak in the       affect inequality. In the Philippines, the
Perfectly equal societies do       region, implying a significant level of    ratio of the income share of the top
not exist and may not be           poverty in urban and rural areas. It is    20% to the bottom 40% of the
desirable. Some degree of          widely believed that 16.8% of the Arab     population is almost twice as large as
inequality may be necessary        population are living in conditions of     in South Korea. During the last 30
as a stimulant to production,      poverty. 14% of the children in the        years, fast growth in South Korea has
achievement and growth. The        Arab region are severely or moderately     resulted in a fivefold increase in the
role of government is to           underweight. 20% of children of            output level, while that of the
improve the distribution of        primary school age are not enrolled        Philippines has barely doubled. Overall,
income and wealth through          and some 44 million adult women            the nature of the relationship between
fiscal tools (e.g. taxes and       cannot read or write. 9.5% of the          inequality and economic development
grants) and financial policies     population of the Arab region is           is quite complex as it involves
(e.g. negative taxation and        undernourished.                            numerous variables and economic
subsidized loans to the poor).                                                actors.
Empowering a poor man to           Economic growth during the past
own a house or a small shop        twenty years has been closely              Nobel prize Laureate Simon Kuznets
will bring him into the official   associated with three phenomena:           said that income inequality increases
economy and contribute to          trade liberalization, technological        during the early stages of development
fighting crime and all             change and the emergence of new            and decreases later on. It shows the
underground activities.            organizational structures. Technical       existence of a virtuous cycle, meaning
Peruvian economist Hernando        change is the most important factor        that lower inequality will foster
de Soto recommends giving          since both trade liberalization and        growth, which in turn will reduce
property rights to the poor as     organizational change affect inequality    inequality. According to World Bank
an effective policy to combat      through technology. Technological          and ESCWA studies, the negative
poverty, hunger and insecurity.    change explains the recent upsurge in      impact of inequality on growth can be
                                   wage inequality, as poor countries have    reduced by redistribution. When
Although correct and               not been able to integrate it              looking at the effects of inequality on
transparent statistics are not     successfully in their economies.           growth, we are interested in the ways
available, it is widely believed   Inequality of income and wealth is         in which distribution of wealth can
that Arab societies, including     important not only for social and          affect aggregate output and growth
that of Lebanon, suffer from a     humanitarian reasons, but especially       through its impact on individual
high degree of inequality in       for its negative impact on economic        investment in human or physical
income and especially in           growth.                                    capital. When looking at the effect of
wealth. Public resources,                                                     growth on inequality of wages, we

  page 60 |       issue 37
                                   Why should we worry...?        Dr. Louis Hobeika

distinguish between changes in labor       which is the case in the Arab region,       both long-term security and
earnings and the sources of income.        there is not necessarily a trade-off        prosperity.
                                           between equity and efficiency and
Anyway, there are at least three           therefore both variables can be             Terrorists have been hitting
reasons why inequality may have a          improved.                                   civilian targets across the
negative effect on growth. Inequality                                                  globe. The events in New York,
decreases investment opportunities for     2- They imply lower macroeconomic           Madrid, London and Sharm el
the poor and consequently for the          volatility as the general social and        Sheikh show the dangerous
whole economy; it reduces borrowers'       political climate improves. The Arab        reach of the agents of
incentives as profitable opportunities     middle class and poor will feel more        terrorism. Terrorism is often
diminish; and it generates                 secure about their future.                  linked to political causes all
macroeconomic volatility due to                                                        over the world. Fighting
insecurity and stressful social life.      3- They imply lower volatility of the       terrorist activities implies
Consequently more equal income and         growth rate due to generous and             finding solutions to just
wealth are beneficial to growth for the    continuous investment in physical and       causes in the Middle East and
following reasons:                         especially human capital. The Arab          elsewhere. Costs arising from
                                           region needs continuous and stable          terrorist activities can be
1- They imply greater credit               growth to improve its standing on the       direct, indirect and of long-
availability for all economic agents.      general international economic map.         term nature. The direct costs
When capital markets are imperfect,                                                    of the 9/11 attacks in New
                                                                                       York were estimated at
                                                                                       $27.2b. The indirect or
 Fighting Terrorism Reduces                                                            medium term effects

 Poverty & Promotes Development                                                        undermined for a while
                                                                                       consumer and investor
                                                                                       confidence. The long-term
The recent killings in Sharm el Sheikh     The world is interconnected and the         consequences are related to
in Egypt brought back the issue of         life anybody enjoys, anywhere, depends      the negative effect of
terrorism and its impact on economic       on making the whole world a better          terrorism on economic
development. Terrorism could be            place. All development agencies agree       productivity. Terrorist actions
defined as "warfare deliberately waged     now that security is a necessary            in Lebanon in 2005 continue
against people with a purpose of           precondition for development. Security      to negatively affect the
destroying their will (and others') to     is an investment in poverty reduction       economic situation. Direct
support leaders or policies that the       and economic growth. Failure to             investment needs to pick up
agents of such violence oppose".           achieve significant political, social and   before the Lebanese economy
Recently terrorism has shifted from        environmental progress in the               goes back to continued
military to civilian targets, especially   developing world will have an impact        economic growth.
business activities.                       on the developed world in terms of

                                                                                               page 61 |     issue 37
               | Opinion and Culture

Terrorism cannot continue or       2- Financial institutions can be            The official response to any terrorist
survive without sufficient         specially set up to support terrorism.      attack is critical for limiting the
funding. Financial institutions,   They may take the form of NGOs,             negative consequences. In the USA in
therefore, can be involved in      charitable organizations and suchlike.      2001, the Federal Reserve Board played
terrorist activities in three      They are now closely watched by             a crucial role in safeguarding the
ways:                              international authorities such as the       stability of the financial system. The
                                   IMF, the BIS and the Group of 7 (G7).       Fed. under Greenspan opened the
1- Financial markets can be        Many financial institutions or branches     discount window to meet liquidity
directly or indirectly the         have been shut down all over the            needs. It ensured that the payment
victim of terrorism. 74% of        globe. Obviously, more remains to be        systems remained operational. Also,
the total civilian casualties in   done.                                       domestic and international authorities
the World Trade Center attack                                                  cooperated to limit the losses.
were from the financial            3- Financial institutions can be used       Authorities in the USA introduced fiscal
industry. The US stock             to channel terrorist funds. The growing     stimulus to bail out industries affected
markets were down during the       size of the shadow economies                by the attacks. The insurance and
first day of trading and           contributes to the financing of terrorist   airline industries received for example
continued to drop the              organizations. The size of the shadow       direct government assistance.
following days. Between            economy as a share of GDP is about
September 17 and 21, the           70% in Egypt, 40% in Morocco, 50%           Fighting terrorism includes finding
S&P's 500 index fell by 11.6%      in Mexico, 30% in Brazil, 70% in            solutions to just political causes,
and the NASDAQ index by            Thailand and 40% in South Korea. Al-        supervising funding activities of
16.1%. It took thirteen days       Qaeda for example operates with an          suspected terrorist organizations,
for the NYSE to return to the      estimated budget of 35 million dollars      coordinating the proper responses to
pre-attack level.                  channeled through several formal and        limit losses and punishing severely the
                                   informal institutions.                      people involved.

                                   Le Liban Face Aux Incertitudes
                                              Dr. Louis G. Hobeika

Le gouvernement libanais fait      gouvernement ne pourrait bien               rationalisation des dépenses
face à une série de défis          fonctionner avec notre administration       budgétaires et l'amélioration de la
internes et externes qui           publique actuelle. Une réforme visant à     collecte de tous les impôts et recettes
risquent d'affecter                combattre la corruption sous toutes ses     sont requises.
sérieusement le bien-être          formes est requise d'urgence. Il s'agit
general de la population. Les      surtout de ramener le pays sur le           Dans son discours récent à la London
problèmes de tout genre            chemin de la croissance et résoudre         School of Economics, le Premier
s'accumulent depuis des            progressivement les problèmes               Ministre Fouad Siniora a bien noté
années et les solutions            financiers de l'Etat à travers une          qu'en 1975, le PIB par tête libanais
requises sont difficiles et        privatisation qui dimunuerait le poids      était équivalent à celui du Portugal et
coûteuses. Aucun                   et le service de la dette. La               assez proche de celui de l'Irlande.

  page 62 |       issue 37
                                    Le Liban face aux...            Dr. Louis Hobeika

Actuellement il est le cinquième de          par conséquent la croissance. Les          5- Malgré les efforts
celui du Portugal et le dixième de celui     déséquilibres budgétaire et de la          importants de son Directeur
de l'Irlande. Les réformes sont requises     balance courante affaiblissent le Dollar   Général Pascal Lamy,
dans les domaines politiques,                et risquent de déstabiliser l'ordre        l'Organisation Mondiale du
économiques et sociaux pour aboutir          mondial. Les financiers fuient la          Commerce n'a pas réussi à
en 2010 à un surplus budgétaire              monnaie américaine et investissent         clôturer en avril la "Doha
primaire équivalent à 8% du PIB et à         dans les autres devises ainsi que dans     Round". Des conflits sérieux
un taux de dette équivalent à 137% du        les matières premières y compris l'or et   demeurent entre les pays
PIB. Les remèdes classiques ne suffisent     l'argent. Le rôle du Dollar en tant que    industrialisés et les pays
plus. Seule une vision claire commune        monnaie de réserve est sérieusement        emergeants et pauvres dans
des objectifs économiques et financiers      menacé.                                    les secteurs de l'agriculture,
et des intérêts politiques nationaux                                                    des biens industriels et des
peut nous sauver.                            2- L'or, connu pour être un actif          services. Un accord
                                             refuge, se renchérit durant la période     commercial est indispensable
Grace à l'ouverture croissante des           actuelle. George Soros, investisseur       pour préserver l'ouverture des
marchés de biens et services ainsi           renommé, prevoît que le prix de l'once     frontières et éviter un retour
qu'aux politiques économiques                d'or atteindrait les mille dollars cette   aux politiques de subvention
nationales adéquates, l'économie             année étant donné son offre                et de protection.
mondiale connait une croissance solide       potentielle limitée et l'augmentation de
depuis 2004. L'augmentation du PIB           la demande asiatique. La Chine             Le Liban est directement
réel était en effet de l'ordre de 5,25%      consomme entre 25 et 35% de la             concerné par les
en 2004 et de 4,5% en 2005. Selon les        production mondiale de métaux.             développements rapides cités
prévisions des organisations                                                            ci-dessus et qui influenceront
internationales, l'économie mondiale         3- Le prix du pétrole s'est élevé de       les déséquilibres économiques
pourrait croître aux taux de 4,25% en        plus de 20% depuis le debut de l'année     et financiers internes. Une
2006 et de 4% en 2007. Bien qu'une           (son plus haut niveau depuis 1980)         réaction vigilante de la part de
forte croissance est nécessaire pour         affectant ainsi négativement le bien-      notre gouvernement ainsi que
combattre la pauvreté et favoriser le        être des pays pauvres. Le prix du baril    des autres institutions
développement, elle risquerait de            n'atteindra probablement pas le niveau     publiques est requise pour
même d'alimenter l'inflation. Etant          des cent dollars prévu par le President    éviter une détérioration de la
donné son économie ouverte et les            Chavez du Venezuela. L'augmentation        situation générale et peut-être
déséquilibres économiques et financiers      du prix est due à la demande forte de      l'améliorer.
qu'il traverse, le Liban est directement     la part de l'Asie et surtout de la Chine
concerné par les dévéloppements de           ainsi qu'aux dévéloppements politiques
l'économie mondiale.                         en Iran, Irak, et Nigérie et au            References
                                             Venezuela.                                    | 1- Professor of Economics and
                                                                                        Finance at NDU - Louaize.
1- Aux Etats Unis d'Amérique, les                                                          | 2- Voir “Lebanon’s Economic
pressions inflationnistes créées par la      4- Les flux énormes de capitaux aux        reform and Prospects for the Future”.
croissance ainsi que l'incertitude           pays émergeants rappellent les             Discours du Premier Ministre à la LSE
politique et économique mondiale             événements douloureux des années '90.      Mardi 9/5/2006.
poussent la Banque Fédérale à hausser        Les pays émergeants restent menacés
successivement le taux d'intérêt de          par les attaques financières
base. Les coûts de financement               spéculatives contre leurs monnaies
s'élèvent ainsi et peuvent influencer        pouvant nuire à leur stabilité
négativement les investissements et          économique et sociale.

                                                                                                 page 63 |         issue 37
               | Opinion and Culture

                                  Solar Eclipse '06: A Front-Row
                                  Seat for NDU

   |By Dr. Bassem Sabra

Introduction:                     eclipse. For a solar eclipse to occur,      Moon covers the inner disk of the Sun,
Lebanon witnessed on March        several necessary conditions must be        leaving out an annulus of light.
29, 2006 its most spectacular     satisfied simultaneously. An eclipse        Whether these observers will witness a
solar eclipse in many years.      depends necessarily on perspective.         total or annular solar eclipse depends
The eclipse started at 12:40      You can make your thumb appear to           on the apparent sizes of the Sun and
p.m. and lasted till 3:00 p.m.,   completely cover a distant object if you    Moon. The Moon's orbit around Earth
with the maximum occurring        close one of your eyes, the right eye       and the Earth's orbit around the Sun
at 2:00 p.m., when the Moon       say, and place your thumb at some           are elliptical (egg-shaped). The
covered about 88 percent of       distance in front of the left eye. Now if   implication of this is that the Moon-
the solar disk. NDU was well      you close your left eye and open the        Earth and Earth-Sun distances vary. It
prepared to follow this           right then your thumb will no longer        sometimes happens that these
extraordinary event and I will    appear to be covering that background       distances will be such that the
present below a narrative of      object. In the case of a solar eclipse,     apparent size of the Moon on the sky is
the activities on that day. But   the Moon plays the role of the thumb        roughly the same as that of the Sun.
before that, let me tell you a    and the Sun is the distant object.          When this occurs then observers in the
little bit about the rudiments    Different locations on Earth will play      umbra will witness a total solar eclipse.
of a solar eclipse.               the role of the right and left eyes.        When the Moon is slightly farther from
                                                                              us (appears smaller), and the Sun is
Solar Eclipse ABC:                Observers who lie exactly on the line of    slightly closer to us (appears larger),
                                  nodes, i.e., those who are located on       then the Moon cannot completely
In a nutshell, a solar eclipse    the same line that joins the Sun, Moon,     cover the solar disk and observers in
happens when the Moon             and Earth, will witness a total or          the umbra witness an annular solar
occults the Sun, as viewed        annular solar eclipse. In other words,      eclipse; keep in mind that nearby
from specific places on Earth,    these observers lie smack in the middle     objects appear larger than more distant
i.e., not all locations on the    of the Moon's shadow, in the "umbra".       ones. Observers located on the edges of
dayside will observe a solar      An annular solar eclipse is when the        the Moon's shadow, the penumbra, will

  page 64 |      issue 37
                                   Solar Eclipse '06                  Bassem Sabra

see a partial solar eclipse, i.e., the      and the beginning of autumn. Hence,        that NDU may have witnessed
Moon covers only a portion of the disk      you can bet your life on the fact that     the greatest variety of safe
of the Sun. The solar eclipse we            Earth will witness at least two solar      ways for eclipse viewing in a
witnessed from Lebanon on March 29          eclipses a year. In general, Earth may     single place: the usual solar
was a partial solar eclipse, while          witness up to four solar eclipses in a     viewers shaped like
observers in South America and some         single year.                               sunglasses, telescopes with
parts of Africa, Libya, and Turkey saw a                                               home-made filters, a telescope
total solar eclipse.                        Solar Eclipse Activities at                with special solar filter, home-
                                                                                       made X-ray film filters,
Perspective is not the sole necessary
                                            NDU:                                       pinhole camera and its poor-
condition for a solar eclipse. An eclipse   I would mince no words about it: NDU       man's cousin of hand and
critically depends on the Moon coming       had a field day on March 29th, 2006.       fingers slits, mirror projection,
between Earth and the Sun. This only        The NDU community came out to the          TV camera with direct video
occurs on new moon, the first of the        open space outside Registration Hall to    feed, and digital cameras with
lunar month. So why does Earth not          witness the solar eclipse. From the        filters. The trick with filter-
witness a solar eclipse at the beginning    beginning freshman students to             based methods is that the
of every lunar month? The answer lies       University President Father Walid          filter must be 100% opaque.
in the fact that the plane of the           Moussa, all were there to view this        The filters that really fill the
Moon's orbit around Earth is inclined       beautiful event that will not be           bill are over-exposed x-ray
by about 5° with respect to the plane       repeated in this splendor till the year    film. The ideal over-exposed
of the Earth's orbit around the Sun.        2060.                                      film that can serve as a safe
Therefore, a solar eclipse will be likely                                              solar filter is the one that you
when the Sun, Moon, and Earth all lie       The undeclared theme of the day was        cannot see through.
on a straight line, the so-called line of   "do it yourself". There was no single      Astronomy club members had
nodes. This condition is satisfied twice    way to safely observe the solar eclipse.   provided some of these filters
a year, around the beginning of spring      I won't be boasting too much if I say      with enough film for students

                                                                                               page 65 |       issue 37
               | Opinion and Culture

to construct for themselves. I    principles behind a solar eclipse and       telescope; he was really using his
was going around freely           the various ways to safely view the         telescope for the first time, equipping
borrowing the filters from        Sun.                                        it with the ubiquitous home-made X-
people I did not know and                                                     ray film filter of the day, and sharing
testing the films by putting      The NDU astronomy club was out in           the telescope with the NDU
them close to my face and         full force. Club members installed two      community. I used a small mirror to
eyes. Some people probably        telescopes: Dr. Roger Hajjar's white        project the eclipsed Sun on the outer
thought that I was behaving       telescope with special solar filters, and   wall of the pink building and together
oddly that day.                   the big black telescope that was built      with other Astronomy Club members
                                  by NDU students with the home-made          passed the Sun through our fingers to
By "cosmic coincidence", my       x-ray film filters. Astronomy Club          project its eclipsed image on the
introductory astronomy class      member and physics student Issam            ground. There were several carton
happened to be scheduled          Shibany operated the white telescope        boxes with holes, but their images
around the peak of the            taking pictures through the telescope       were not that impressive and
eclipse. Or was the eclipse       with his digital camera at regular          consequently these boxes had other
scheduled at the time of the      intervals (the eclipse pictures used in     uses. Dr. Hajjar was on LBC providing
class? We may never know.         this article). Various other club           instantaneous commentary on LBC's
But whichever way it was, I       members, in particular Bashir el            live broadcast from Libya (were they
held my class outside on that     Youssef and Natalie Bachour, made           saw a total eclipse), while Astronomy
day. I asked all my students to   sure that the black telescope was           Club President Jean el Hakim was in
be present to experiment with     always pointing at the Sun and              Virgin Downtown spearheading the
the different ways of             snapped some pictures of the Sun, and       activities of the Lebanese Astronomy
observing a solar eclipse         of the audience too. Audience members       Group. Jean had also appeared on TV
safely. Prior to that, I had      took turns looking at the Sun. An NDU       the previous day.
explained to my students the      student also deployed his brand-new

                                                                                          Round-the-world path of the
                                              Diagram of an eclipse.
                                                                                       total eclipse, March 29, 2006.

  page 66 |      issue 37
                                  Solar Eclipse '06                      Bassem Sabra
                                                                                              Photographs: Dr. Leila
                                                                                              Khalaf Keyrouz and Issam
                                                                                              Shibany (eclipse series)

The Radio and TV studio members were       before what would happen at                        For me personally, this was
also at their finest. Studio members       maximum, would it turn dark, would it              the first eclipse of this extent
installed a camcorder with a direct        become cold. I would answer them that              that I had witnessed. I was
feed to a large screen TV that was         it would turn neither completely dark              overflowing with joy, going
showing the eclipse in real time. An       nor very cold, but light would decrease.           like a joyful child from one
animation in real time was also            From the start of the eclipse some                 telescope to the other,
running on a laptop. Photographers         were coming and asking me if it were               chatting with people, stopping
took various photographs of the eclipse    turning cold or darker and I would say             at times to project the Sun on
that were later featured on the NDU        not yet. People were really excited and            the wall, or passing the Sun
website, and also of the spectators.       could not wait for maximum to see                  through my fingers. For me,
                                           "what will happen." But when finally               this was a day I will remember
The climax of the day was at 2 p.m.        the Moon covered about 80% of the                  as long as I live. The solar
when the solar eclipse reached its         solar disk the changes in the ambient              eclipse of March 29, 2006 in
maximum. Ambient light decreased as        light and the temperature became                   Lebanon will only be eclipsed
if a cloud had covered part of the Sun     perceptible, and people asked me "wa               by the 95% partial solar
and the temperature dropped, making a      halla2 shou?!!?". It was really quite an           eclipse of March 30, 2060.
warm day feel cooler for several           experience.
minutes. Students were asking me

                                   A large
                                crowd in
                                the court to
                                watch the
                                                                                                 NDU President Father Walid
                                                                                               Moussa uses protective glasses to
NDU students in the court.                                                                     watch the eclipse.

                                                                                  Radio and TV students
                                                                                operating their equipment.
  students with                                     Student with a
  the Newtonian                                   home-made solar filter.
  telescope.                                                                    Reflection
                                                                                     of the
                                                                                eclipse on
                                                         Real-time TV             an NDU
                                                      view of the                     wall.
                                                      eclipse by radio
                                                      and TV.

                                                                                                      page 67 |      issue 37
               | Opinion and Culture

    20 - 24 August 2006
    Notre Dame University          "The First AUASS Pan-Arab Amateur
             (NDU), Zouk
                                   Astronomy Workshop 2006"
                                   Organized by
                                   "The Arab Union for Astronomy and Space Sciences" (AUASS)
                                   And the "Lebanese Astronomy Group" (LAG)

Participants:                                               Accommodation:
   | Open to all professional and amateur astronomers.        | Double bedroom     = $10/night (bed and breakfast)
   | Various workshops are available to the following         | Single bedroom     = $15/night (bed and breakfast)
levels: Beginner, Intermediate and Advanced                   | Suite bedroom      = $35/night (bed and breakfast)

Guest speakers:                                             Advisory Committee:
  | Dr. Alan Hale (USA, discoverer of the Hale-Bopp           | Dr. Roger Hajjar              | Dr. Bassem Sabra
  | Mr. Mike Bennett (Executive director of the             Contact information:
Astronomical Society of the Pacific (ASP))                  Jean El Hakim
  | Dr. Jan Hollan (International Dark-Sky Association)        | President, committee of Arab Astronomy Amateurs
  | Dr. Gerardo Avila (European Southern Observatory)       in the AUASS
                                                               | President, Lebanese Astronomy Group
Topics:                                                     Email:
  | Astrophotography (Film and digital)                     Mobile: 00961-3-790382
  | Building your own Telescope
  | Comet and Asteroid Observations                         Hani Sherry
  | Observational Techniques                                  |Head of P.R. and Media committee, Lebanese
  | Educational Astronomy (School teachers)                 Astronomy Grou
  | Astronomical Instrumentation                            Email:
  | Naked Eye Observation                                   Mobile: 00961-3-782156
  | Light Pollution
                                                            Mailing address:
                                                            Astronomy Club, HB219, Yellow Bldg., NDU,
Program includes: 8 major lectures, 24 brief talks, 15      P.O.Box 72 Zouk Mikayel, Zouk Mosbeh, Lebanon
workshops, 3 scheduled observing nights and 2 optional.
Lecturers: If you are interested in giving a lecture or a                   Sponsored by:
workshop, contact us before July 15th, 2006.

Registration fees: (Includes: Lunch, dinner, coffee
breaks, transportation & scheduled activities)
   | $80 for 5 days program
   | $30 for 1 day program

  page 68 |      issue 37
                                    Wireless Sensor...             Dr. Hoda Maalouf

 Wireless Sensor Networks and
 Intelligent Gardening
                                                          By Dr. Hoda Maalouf
                                                   Department of Computer Science

Nowadays, many environmental                 impractical to install data and power      Backyard gardening is very
applications use Wireless Sensor             lines. They are usually liberally          often part of people's daily
Networks (WSN) technologies. These           distributed and closely spaced, yielding   lives, and it is usually the
include tracking the movements of            fine-grained pictures of phenomena         outgrowth of a pleasant
birds and animals, forest fire detection,    they are monitoring. And because they      hobby. Serious or casual
flood detection, pollution study,            will act cooperatively, organizing         gardeners do not have to be
monitoring environmental conditions          themselves and sharing computations        agricultural experts to
that affect crops and livestock,             across the network, they will provide      maintain their gardens.
irrigation, etc.                             people with usable information rather      Selecting the appropriate
                                             than a confusing wash of numbers.          vegetation species to match
Sensors are nothing new. A car, for          Indeed, wireless sensor networks are       the appropriate type of soil in
instance, uses dozens of them to             one of the first real-world examples of    a specific garden, and finding
monitor engine conditions. But the           "pervasive" computing. In the minds of     the right schedule for
sensors in today's cars are, for the         many, WSN is a technology that could       irrigation, fertilization,
most part, dumb. They lack the               prove as important as the Internet. For    pesticide application and
intelligence to analyse or act on their      just as the Internet enables us to find    weed removal, are not all
findings. Most current sensors are also      digital information wherever it is         straightforward (although all
stuck in place, with any move requiring      stored, sensor networks expand             could be primordial) actions
expensive rewiring. Wireless sensor          people's ability to remotely interact      for commoners. To make
networks are different. They                 with the physical world. Within this       hobby gardening more
communicate wirelessly with each             decade, many predict, distributed          efficient involves optimal
other, forming their own intelligent         sensing will creep into every home,        timing and optimal use of
network. Periodically, sensors update        building, office, factory, street, farm    resources (e.g., minimising
each other about their latest readings.      and garden.                                water use and reducing
They also collectively process the                                                      chemical and fertilizer costs);
information into an overall picture of       Intelligent Gardening                      thus, one might require the
the monitored environment and send                                                      usage of Intelligent Gardening
this analysis to the recipient node.         Gardening represents a large and           technologies.
                                             diverse sector in most nations, taking
Wireless sensors are battery-powered,        the form of either professional or         The existence of such an
small and cheap. They can be accessed        hobby gardening. It has been a part of     intelligent system would help
remotely and put where it would be           urban and rural life for centuries.        people with few technical

                                                                                                page 69 |      issue 37
               | Opinion and Culture

skills in the initial design and   problems of limited water resources            satellite imageries in order to
daily maintenance of their         and desertification, among others, are         determine weather forecast and to
gardens. The purpose of this       of global concern.                             identify land cover/land use, soil
system is not only to help in                                                     properties, rock type, vegetation
making better decisions on         System Architecture                            species, etc..
planting, irrigation,
fertilization and pesticide        In order to make a typical garden an         | Construction of Digital Elevation
application in any garden, but     intelligent, manageable, user-centred          Models (DEMs) with specific
also to have positive benefits     environment, the latest technologies in        algorithms to generate terrain
on the global environment by       Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) and             morphological attributes (slope
leading to more efficient use      Geographic Information Systems (GIS)           gradient, aspect, curvature, etc.).
of water resources and             need to be used.
reducing pollution. In fact, a                                                   | Use of already available GIS data
widespread usage of                Intelligent gardens require the            (thematic maps) in national databases.
Intelligent Gardening will help    existence of a GIS database compiling
reduce pollution of                static, dynamic and real-time              Also, an agriculture database built
groundwater, preserve the          information useful for precision           specifically for Intelligent Gardens is
natural environment and            gardening. This database can be built      required. This database will provide the
provide sustainable                using the following:                       requirements (soil-derived
management of water                                                           characteristics such as pH, organic
resources at a time when             | Application of several treatments on   matter contents, CaCO3 and soil

Figure 1:
of an

   page 70 |      issue 37
                                    Wireless Sensor...                Dr. Hoda Maalouf

moisture capacity) of each vegetation           | Type of vegetation that can be grown           standard database query,
species.                                     in that specific garden.                            check data from sensors
                                                                                                 and reply with a simple
The system architecture for an                  | Possible change of soil type if specific       "yes" or "no" answer.
Intelligent Garden could have two            plants are required.
possible configurations:                                                                       | Automatic mode. The
                                                | Recommended typical vegetation                 intelligent garden
  | The first model is composed of a WSN     cycle.                                              automatically informs the
    and a PDA with a GPS receiver and                                                            user about what must be
    GPRS wireless Internet access. In this     | Water and weather requirements for              done in the garden by
    case, the PDA will be used to combine    any type of vegetation.                             sending signals to the PC
    the sensor measurements with GIS                                                             (or the PDA). The
    spatial/temporal attributes extracted       | Fertilizers and pesticide requirements.        information sent relates to
    remotely from a regional database                                                            irrigation, fertilizer
    (Figure 1).                              Depending on the size of the garden                 application, etc. This system
                                             and the type of vegetation grown, the               will also be responsible for
  | The second model is composed of a        intelligent system will recommend the               sending urgent messages
    WSN, an indoor personal computer         following:                                          when a severe condition
    (PC) with Internet access, an access                                                         arises.
    point device to connect the WSN to          | The most appropriate types of
    the PC and a hand-held GPS unit. In      sensors required (e.g., temperature, light      Through the use of intelligent
    this case, most of the required GIS      intensity, humidity, soil moisture, pests).     gardening, we would primarily
    and agriculture data will be stored                                                      expect more efficient use of
    and processed locally in the PC             | The optimal sensor density and             water resources and
    (Figure 1).                              distribution (e.g., on the soil at the root,    pesticides, and better overall
                                             on the soil at the surface, at plant level).    management of gardens,
Detailed Description                                                                         starting with initial choices of
                                             Once a user sets up the WSN, the                appropriate plants or
To begin with, a gardener must use the       Intelligent Gardening System can                vegetation. We would also
GIS/GPS services of an Intelligent           operate in two possible modes:                  expect gardeners to be more
Gardening system to determine the                                                            confident and to have a
garden location and terrain attributes.         | On-demand mode. In this case, the          stronger bond with their
Moving around the garden perimeter                user generates simple queries that         gardens, given that this
with the GPS receiver will help specify           can be answered by the system. For         system updates them
the garden size and form. The following           example, "Does my vegetable garden         constantly about the state of
queries can be answered right from the            need watering?" The system would           their gardens.
beginning by the system:                          translate the question into a

                                                                                                     page 71 |       issue 37
                     | Opinion and Culture

                                          Something for your grey matter

1                2               3                   4     5       6


                        8                  9

10               11                                        12

                 13                  14              15

16      17                                           18    19

20                                                   21

        22              23           24

25                      26                                               27

                 28                  29         30   31            32

                        33                      34

35                                         36

Across:                                                         Down:
1. Wooden structure for builders 7. Close 8. Dried grape        Noisy breathing 2. Chemist's gold 3. Desperate 4. Hotel
10. Ancient empire 12. Self 13. Canadian city 16.               5. Compass point of cold winds 6. Criminal 8. Chimed 9.
Disagreeable insistence 18. Express one's public choice         Army NCO 11. Indian emperor 14. Article 15. Egg-like
20. Wildebeest 21. Imitate stupidly 22. Aged 24. Visitor        17. In due course 19. __ sesame! 23. Hang fabric 24.
25. Fashionable 26. Mottled colour of cows and horses           Throw 25. Annoys 27. Compressible substance 30.
28. Maternal abbreviation 29. Male deer 32.                     Devoured 31. Prevent free speech 32. Animal at home
Pennsylvania 33. Vase 34. Ribbon recordings 35. Painful
36. Wooden nail

     page 72 |        issue 37
                                    Something for your grey matter          Crossword

Answers to issue 36
Across: 1. Acronym (i.e. initials that can be pronounced as one word) 5. Inner 8.
Or 9. Ur 10. Soya 11. Asinine 14. Alibis 15. Roll 16. Economic (N.B. Economical
means money-saving) 19. Yet 21. Late 22. Lap 24. Tap 25. Tin 26. Street 28. Sect
32. No 33. Tempo 36. IRA 38. Ma 40. Seen 41. Mail 42. Bursar (College treasure;
for this and 24 down we apologise for the misprinted black square) 43. Pall 44.
Cob 45. On

Down: 1. Australian 2. Royal 3. Oral 4. Music 5. Ion 6. Nun 7. Eremitic 11. Abet
12. Isolation 13. Idol 17. Material 18. Central 20. Ear 23. P.S. (Post Scriptum) 24.
Temper 27. Tot 28. SE 30. Combo 34. Esso 35. Mean 37. Rile 39. AUB 41. Mad
43. Po

  | 1- The Normandie was one of the most beautiful ships ever built.
  | 2- found Normandie (Normandy) to be a most beautiful province.
  | 3- The Byzantine emperor supported the Monothelites.2 (Footnote numbers
       come after the punctuation mark.)
  | 4- He opened the french windows and sat on the balcony eating french fries.
       (The word french does not have a national significance here.)
  | 5- All races of man which exist today belong to the species Homo sapiens.            31. Gag 32. Pet.
  | 6- My eldest brother, whom you met yesterday, is inviting you to tea                 Cast 25. Irks 27. Gas 30. Ate
       tomorrow. (Use commas when the relative clause is only informative and            Anon 19. Open 23. Drape 24.
       does not indicate which individual person or thing you are talking about.         Mogul 14. An 15. Oval 17.
       In such clauses one cannot use that as relative pronoun.)                         sergeant or corporal) 11.
  | 7- He asked me if I could speak French. (No interrogation mark for an indirect       commissioned officer, e.g.
       question unless the main verb is interrogative, e.g. Did he ask if...?)           Sergeant (NCO = non-
  | 8- This salad is called tabouleh. (Italics for a new foreign word. Inverted          east) 6. Gangster 8. Rang 9.
       commas should be used with caution, as they can indicate falsity. E.g. The        Frantic 4. Inn 5. NE (north-
       "Red Indian" at the party... i.e. someone in fancy dress as an Indian, not a      Down: 1. Snoring 2. Au 3.
       real Indian.)
  | 9- My mother used to say, "A stitch in time saves nine." (Full stop/period          35. Sore 36. Peg.
       inside the quotation marks for a complete sentence. But: They call this          Ma 29. Stag 33. Pot 34. Tapes
       "tabouleh".)                                                                     24. Caller 25. In 26. Roan 28.
  | 10- Was it Hamlet who asked whether it was/were better to brave the arrows          Vote 20. Gnu 21. Ape 22. Old
         of outrageous fortune? (See n° 7 above.)                                       13. Ontario 16. Nagging 18.
  | 11- He approached the tiger, which was very stupid. (The comma shows that           8. Raisin 10. Roman 12. Ego
         it was the act of approaching that was stupid and not the tiger that was       Across: 1. Scaffolding 7. Near
  | 12- The Macedonian army was commanded by Alexander the Great. (If you                 issue
         were a Macedonian you might write Army with capital A.)                          crossword of this
  | 13- Deus volens, I'll see you tomorrow. (Latin expression, God willing. Better:
         Deo volente)
                                                                                          Answers to
  | 14- I saw the film Lord of the Rings twice. (Italics without quotation marks
         for names of ships, books, plays, etc.)

                                                                                               page 73 |     issue 37

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